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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718703/nanoliposome-improves-inhibitory-effects-of-naringenin-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#1
Cong Chen, Xu Jie, Yangjie Ou, Yini Cao, Lu Xu, Yunxia Wang, Rong Qi
AIM: To prepare naringenin nanoliposome (NRG-Nanolipo) and investigate its inhibitory effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS & METHODS: NRG-Nanolipo was prepared by thin-film rehydration method. Its characterizations and effects on NAFLD in mice induced by methionine choline deficient diet were investigated. RESULTS: NRG-Nanolipo had high-drug loading percentage and showed a sustained release profile. The nanoliposome formulation significantly increased oral absorption of naringenin (NRG)...
July 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687951/approach-to-upset-stomach
#2
Rishi Bolia
An "Upset stomach" is a common problem encountered by physicians involved in the care of children. It includes, diarrhea, vomiting or abdominal pain. Though often mild and self-limiting, at times there are uncommon life-threatening conditions that require urgent care. It is important for primary physicians to recognize "alarm signs" and make a referral to the specialist at the right time. At the same time it is important to recognize what is normal and re-assure the caregivers. A detailed history and a proper systemic examination are important at presentation, looking for any "red flags"...
July 8, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678057/hyaluronidase-assisted-resuscitation-in-kenya-for-severely-dehydrated-children
#3
Hijab Zubairi, Brett D Nelson, Priyanka Tulshian, Karla Fredricks, Zaid Altawil, Sarah Mireles, Fred Odongo, Thomas F Burke
BACKGROUND: Dehydration, mainly due to diarrheal illnesses, is a leading cause of childhood mortality worldwide. Intravenous (IV) therapy is the standard of care for patients who were unable to tolerate oral rehydration; however, placing IVs in fragile, dehydrated veins can be challenging. Studies in resource-rich settings comparing hyaluronidase-assisted subcutaneous rehydration with standard IV rehydration in children have demonstrated several benefits of subcutaneous rehydration, including time and success of line placement, ease of use, satisfaction, and cost-effectiveness...
July 4, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675983/fluid-supplementation-in-management-of-neonatal-hyperbilirubinemia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Prachi Goyal, Akshay Mehta, Jasbinder Kaur, Suksham Jain, Vishal Guglani, Deepak Chawla
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of oral or intravenous fluid supplementation in accelerating the decline of serum bilirubin with intensive phototherapy among healthy term and late preterm neonates with hyperbilirubinemia. STUDY DESIGN: This open-label randomized controlled trial randomized neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia (serum total bilirubin ≥18 mg/dL or within 2 mg/dL of threshold for exchange transfusion) to receive 50 mL/kg of intravenous fluid over 8 h (IVF group, n=51), 50 mL of oral rehydration solution over 8 hours (oral rehydration solution (ORS) group, n=50) or only standard therapy (control group, n=49)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662613/a-pilot-study-comparing-2-oral-rehydration-solutions-in-patients-with-short-bowel-syndrome-receiving-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-prospective-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#5
Ryan T Hurt, Nishanth Vallumsetla, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth Varayil, Sara L Bonnes, Sanjeev Nanda, Joseph Nadeau, Manpreet S Mundi
BACKGROUND: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a common indication for home parenteral nutrition (HPN). Oral rehydration solutions (ORSs) have the ability to supplement or reduce HPN dependence. However, ORSs have suffered from poor taste profiles, making long-term consumption and compliance unlikely. The goal of the current study was to assess the taste and compliance of 2 ORSs among patients with SBS requiring HPN. METHODS: All participants with SBS receiving HPN with anticipated duration >3 months were offered enrollment: 31 participants met inclusion criteria; 3 declined enrollment; and 28 were randomized to receive a modified World Health Organization ORS (group A) or a commercially available ORS (DripDrop; group B)...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637708/hypohydration-impairs-endurance-performance-a-blinded-study
#6
Lewis J James, Jodie Moss, Joshua Henry, Charikleia Papadopoulou, Stephen A Mears
The general scientific consensus is that starting exercise with hypohydration >2% body mass impairs endurance performance/capacity, but most previous studies might be confounded by a lack of subject blinding. This study examined the effect of hypohydration in a single blind manner using combined oral and intragastric rehydration to manipulate hydration status. After familiarization, seven active males (mean ± SD: age 25 ± 2 years, height 1.79 ± 0.07, body mass 78.6 ± 6.2, VO2peak 48 ± 7 mL·kg·min(-1)) completed two randomized trials at 34°C...
June 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619620/development-of-a-solid-dosage-platform-for-the-oral-delivery-of-bilayer-vesicles
#7
Jitinder S Wilkhu, Sarah E Mcneil, David E Anderson, Marc Kirchmeier, Yvonne Perrie
Within this work, we develop vesicles incorporating sub-unit antigens as solid dosage forms suitable for the oral delivery of vaccines. Using a combination of trehalose, dextran and mannitol, freeze-dried oral disintegrating tablets were formed which upon rehydration release bilayer vesicles incorporating antigen. Initial studies focused on the optimisation of the freeze-dry cycle and subsequently excipient content was optimised by testing tablet hardness, disintegration time and moisture content. The use of 10% mannitol and 10% dextran produced durable tablets which offered strong resistance to mechanical damage yet appropriate disintegration times and dispersed to release niosomes-entrapping antigen...
June 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603456/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-the-diarrhea-alleviation-through-zinc-and-oral-rehydration-therapy-dazt-program-in-rural-gujarat-india-an-application-of-the-net-benefit-regression-framework
#8
Samuel D Shillcutt, Amnesty E LeFevre, Christa L Fischer-Walker, Sunita Taneja, Robert E Black, Sarmila Mazumder
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the cost-effectiveness of the DAZT program for scaling up treatment of acute child diarrhea in Gujarat India using a net-benefit regression framework. METHODS: Costs were calculated from societal and caregivers' perspectives and effectiveness was assessed in terms of coverage of zinc and both zinc and Oral Rehydration Salt. Regression models were tested in simple linear regression, with a specified set of covariates, and with a specified set of covariates and interaction terms using linear regression with endogenous treatment effects was used as the reference case...
2017: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551933/-recommendations-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-pediatric-acute-gastroenteritis-in-israel-update-2017
#9
Firas Rinawi, Shai Ashkenazi, Michael Wilschanski, Eli Somekh, Raanan Shamir
AIMS: The aim of these guidelines is to update and extend evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in Israel, based on new data and the recently published European update. METHODS: The recommendations, which are based on a systematic review of the literature, were graded by the level of evidence. The guidelines were endorsed by the Israeli societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Infectious Diseases and the Israeli Association of Pediatrics...
March 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545093/ending-preventable-maternal-and-child-deaths-in-western-nigeria-do-women-utilize-the-life-lines
#10
Titilayo Olaitan, Ifeoma P Okafor, Adebayo T Onajole, Olayinka A Abosede
INTRODUCTION: Nigeria which constitutes just one percent of the world population, accounts for 13% of the world maternal and under-five mortality. Utilization of health care services has been an important determinant of maternal and child outcomes. The vast majority of maternal and child deaths could be prevented if women utilize the available life lines. The study objective was to determine utilization of maternal and child health care services among women of child bearing age in Western Nigeria...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526222/hemocytometric-measures-predict-the-efficacy-of-oral-rehydration-for-children-with-postural-tachycardia-syndrome
#11
Wenxin Lu, Hui Yan, Shu Wu, Wenrui Xu, Hongfang Jin, Junbao Du
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether hemocytometric measures could be qualified predictors for the effect of oral rehydration salts (ORS) in children with postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-five children with POTS and 29 healthy children were enrolled. General information, hemodynamic status, and baseline hemocytometric variables were collected. Children with POTS received ORS therapy and were followed up for 3 months. The independent risk factors of developing POTS were explored...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506404/-dural-sinus-thrombosis-following-epidural-analgesia-for-delivery-a-clinical-case
#12
Marco Aurelio Dornelles, Luis M Pereira
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Neurological complications of spinal anesthesia are rare conditions. Headache caused by low pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid is one of the most frequent, which occurs after post-dural puncture. A comprehensive history and physical exam must be carried out before making the diagnosis of Post-Dural Puncture Headache (PDPH) and additional tests are necessary to exclude the possibility of developing serious neurological complications such as Dural Sinus Thrombosis (DST)...
May 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488023/glucose-enhances-rotavirus-enterotoxin-induced-intestinal-chloride-secretion
#13
Liangjie Yin, Rejeesh Menon, Reshu Gupta, Lauren Vaught, Paul Okunieff, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
Rotavirus causes severe diarrhea in small children and is typically treated using glucose-containing oral rehydration solutions; however, glucose may have a detrimental impact on these patients, because it increases chloride secretion and presumably water loss. The rotavirus enterotoxin nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4) directly inhibits glucose-mediated sodium absorption. We examined the effects of NSP4 and glucose on sodium and chloride transport in mouse small intestines and Caco-2 cells. Mouse small intestines and Caco-2 cells were incubated with NSP4114-135 in the presence/absence of glucose...
May 10, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452274/an-innovative-approach-to-hydration-for-a-patient-with-dementia
#14
Adam Beales
Nursing older people in acute settings involves the provision of complex care, including the maintenance of good hydration. Dehydration is a serious condition that may contribute to the development of pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, acute kidney injury and venous thromboembolism. If oral hydration methods are not successful, the alternatives are intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous fluid hydration therapy. These are invasive methods and may not be tolerated by all patients. This article uses a case study to explore an innovative approach to oral hydration...
April 28, 2017: Nursing Older People
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448477/evaluation-of-gelatin-tannate-against-symptoms-of-acute-diarrhea-in-pediatric-patients
#15
Eren Çağan, Saime Ceylan, Şenay Mengi, Havva Hasret Çağan
BACKGROUND Acute diarrhea is the second most common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in children aged ≤3 years. Some drugs (e.g., the mucoprotector gelatin tannate) plus a reduced osmolality oral rehydration solution (ORS) may effectively reduce symptom duration and severity. The current trial was therefore designed to assess the efficacy and safety of gelatin tannate in pediatric patients with acute diarrhea. MATERIAL AND METHODS This was a randomized, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, single-center study comparing gelatin tannate plus ORS (103 patients) with ORS plus placebo (100 patients) in children aged 3 months to 12 years with infectious or noninfectious acute diarrhea...
April 27, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444008/from-guidelines-to-local-realities-evaluation-of-oral-rehydration-therapy-and-zinc-supplementation-in-guatemala
#16
Rachel Hall-Clifford, Roxanne Amerson
Objective: Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in low- and middle-income countries throughout the Americas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines on incorporating zinc supplementation (ZS) with traditional oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in order to shorten the duration of diarrheal episodes and to reduce poor health outcomes. Guatemala adopted these guidelines in 2011, but they have not yet been fully implemented at the community level...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439845/a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-small-bowel-obstruction
#17
REVIEW
Srinivas R Rami Reddy, Mitchell S Cappell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to systematically review small bowel obstruction (SBO), focusing on recent changes in diagnosis/therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: SBO incidence is about 350,000/annum in the USA. Etiologies include adhesions (65%), hernias (10%), neoplasms (5%), Crohn's disease (5%), and other (15%). Bowel dilatation occurs proximal to obstruction primarily from swallowed air and secondarily from intraluminal fluid accumulation. Dilatation increases mural tension, decreases mucosal perfusion, causes bacterial proliferation, and decreases mural tensile strength that increases bowel perforation risks...
June 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416428/-nasogastric-rehydration-for-treating-children-with-gastroenteritis
#18
B Rébeillé-Borgella, C Barbier, R Moussaoui, A Faisant, A-P Michard-Lenoir, A Rubio
INTRODUCTION: When oral rehydration is not feasible, enteral rehydration via the nasogastric route has been the ESPGHAN recommended method of rehydration since 2008, rather than intravenous rehydration (IVR), for children with acute gastroenteritis. However, these recommendations are rarely followed in France. Since 2011, in case of failure of oral rehydration, enteral rehydration has been used as a first-line therapy in the Children's Emergency Department at the Grenoble-Alpes University Hospital...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397130/antidiarrheal-drug-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller
INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrhea often runs a self-limited course and little by way of treatment is needed except for oral rehydration therapy. Chronic diarrhea poses a longer-term problem. If not treatable with specific therapy aimed at the underlying pathophysiology, chronic diarrhea often needs long-term symptomatic therapy. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to examine the options for symptomatic, nonspecific treatment of diarrhea. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequently used therapies are opiate antidiarrheal drugs...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390725/comparison-of-a-commercially-available-oral-nutritional-supplement-and-intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-dehydration-in-dairy-calves
#20
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
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