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oral rehydration

Alfredo Guarino, Andrea Lo Vecchio, Jorge Amil Dias, James A Berkley, Chris Boey, Dario Bruzzese, Mitchell B Cohen, Sylvia Cruchet, Ilaria Liguoro, Eduardo Salazar-Lindo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Philip M Sherman, Toshiaki Shimizu
OBJECTIVES: Despite a substantial consistency in recommendations for the management of children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), a high variability in clinical practice and a high rate of inappropriate medical interventions persist in both developing and developed countries.Aim of this study was to develop a set of clinical recommendations for the management of non-severely malnourished children with AGE to be applied worldwide. METHODS: The Federation of International Societies of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (FISPGHAN) Working Group (WG) selected care protocols on the management of acute diarrhea in infants and children aged between 1 month and 18 years...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Kathryn G Curran, Emma Wells, Samuel J Crowe, Rupa Narra, Jared Oremo, Waqo Boru, Jane Githuku, Mark Obonyo, Kevin M De Cock, Joel M Montgomery, Lyndah Makayotto, Daniel Langat, Sara A Lowther, Ciara O'Reilly, Zeinab Gura, Jackson Kioko
BACKGROUND: From December 2014 to September 2016, a cholera outbreak in Kenya, the largest since 2010, caused 16,840 reported cases and 256 deaths. The outbreak affected 30 of Kenya's 47 counties and occurred shortly after the decentralization of many healthcare services to the county level. This mixed-methods study, conducted June-July 2015, assessed cholera preparedness in Homa Bay, Nairobi, and Mombasa counties and explored clinic- and community-based health care workers' (HCW) experiences during outbreak response...
June 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
Wenhua Zhang, Runmei Zou, Yi Xu, Cheng Wang
To compare the curative effect and the changes of serum electrolytes between oral rehydration salts (ORS) I and ORS III treatment in neurally mediated syncope children.
 Methods: The children with the symptom of unexplained syncope and pre-syncope were collected in Second Xiangya Hospital from May 2014 to May 2017. After head-up tilt test (HUTT), their serum electrolytes levels were examined. Children who were positive in the HUTT received ORS (ORS I or ORS III) and health education. Subjects were randomly divided into an ORS I group (n=27) and an ORS III group (n=49)...
May 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Marina Russo, Vincenzo Coppola, Eleonora Giannetti, Roberta Buonavolontà, Antonio Piscitelli, Annamaria Staiano
BACKGROUND: AG is the most common cause of pediatric consultations among children between 2 and 5 years of age and it still leads to high mortality and morbidity. Its management is based on rehydration therapy, but this treatment is not effective in reducing duration of diarrhea. For this reason, other safer and less expensive interventions, which could be added to oral rehydration therapy, are of great interest. METHODS: A pilot, randomized, case-controlled trial was conducted in 60 children affected by AG (< 7 days) with mild-moderate dehydration, according to WHO recommendations, from1 year to 17 years old...
June 4, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Johannes Lind, Lina Schollin Ask, Sol Juarez, Anders Hjern
AIM: We investigated socioeconomic and geographic determinants of hospital care for viral gastroenteritis in young children. METHOD: This is a register based study in a national birth cohort of 752,078 children 0-5 years of age in Sweden during 2006-2012. Hazard ratios (HR) of time to first admission and first episode of outpatient emergency department (ED) care with a diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis were estimated with Cox regression. RESULTS: The adjusted HRs for hospital admission with a diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis were increased when the mother was below 25 years at the birth of the child, 1...
June 4, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Pankaj Bahuguna, Shankar Prinja
Background: Poor prescription practices result in increased side effects, adverse drug reactions, and high cost of treatment. The present study was undertaken to describe the drug-prescribing patterns in two North Indian states through prescription auditing. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in 80 public health facilities across 12 districts in two states of Haryana and Punjab (6 in each) covering all levels of care. The information from prescription slips was abstracted on a structured pro forma for all patients who visited the pharmacy of the health facility...
April 2018: Perspectives in Clinical Research
Kenneth A Michelson, Todd W Lyons, Joel D Hudgins, Jason A Levy, Michael C Monuteaux, Jonathan A Finkelstein, Richard G Bachur
OBJECTIVES: Differences in emergency care for children exist between general and pediatric emergency departments (EDs). Some pediatric quality measures are available but are not routinely employed nationwide. We sought to create a short list of applied measures that would provide a starting point for EDs to measure pediatric emergency care quality, and to compare care between general and pediatric EDs for these measures. METHODS: Previously reported lists comprising 465 pediatric emergency care quality measures were reconciled...
June 2, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
N Lekshmi, Iype Joseph, T Ramamurthy, Sabu Thomas
Cholera, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae, has ravaged humanity from time immemorial. Although the disease can be treated using antibiotics along with administration of oral rehydration salts and controlled by good sanitation, cholera is known to have produced mayhems in ancient times when little was known about the pathogen. By the 21st century, ample information about the pathogen, its epidemiology, genetics, treatment and control strategies was revealed. However, there is still fear of cholera outbreaks in developing countries, especially in the wake of natural calamities...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Shinji Oshima, Yoshitaka Aoki, Yohei Kawasaki, Junichiro Yokoyama
OBJECTIVE: Preoperative oral rehydration solutions (ORS) are frequently used in clinical practice in Japan, although their effect remains to be explained. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes associated with ORS usage. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Surgical departments at each hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 546 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification I or II (non-pregnant adults only) reported in six articles...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Akihisa Okumura, Shinobu Ida, Masaaki Mori, Toshiaki Shimizu
BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to clarify the attitudes of pediatricians toward children's consumption of ionic beverages. METHODS: A questionnaire survey of pediatric practitioners' attitudes toward the consumption of ionic beverages was administered to 537 doctors under 60 years of age who were members of the Japanese Pediatric Society. RESULTS: We received 215 valid responses from 182 board-certified pediatric specialists and 31 non-specialists...
May 25, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Silas Kieser, Shafiqul A Sarker, Olga Sakwinska, Francis Foata, Shamima Sultana, Zeenat Khan, Shoheb Islam, Nadine Porta, Séverine Combremont, Bertrand Betrisey, Coralie Fournier, Aline Charpagne, Patrick Descombes, Annick Mercenier, Bernard Berger, Harald Brüssow
We report streptococcal dysbiosis in acute diarrhea irrespective of etiology. Compared to 20 healthy local controls, 71 Bangladeshi children hospitalized with acute diarrhea (AD) of viral, mixed viral/bacterial, bacterial and unknown etiology showed a significantly decreased bacterial diversity with loss of pathways characteristic for the healthy distal colon microbiome (mannan degradation, methylerythritol phosphate and thiamin biosynthesis), an increased proportion of fecal streptococci belonging to the Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius species complexes, and an increased level of E...
May 22, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Elisabet Martí Coma-Cros, Arnau Biosca, Elena Lantero, Maria Letizia Manca, Carla Caddeo, Lucía Gutiérrez, Miriam Ramírez, Livia Neves Borgheti-Cardoso, Maria Manconi, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets
Curcumin is an antimalarial compound easy to obtain and inexpensive, having shown little toxicity across a diverse population. However, the clinical use of this interesting polyphenol has been hampered by its poor oral absorption, extremely low aqueous solubility and rapid metabolism. In this study, we have used the anionic copolymer Eudragit&reg; S100 to assemble liposomes incorporating curcumin and containing either hyaluronan (Eudragit-hyaluronan liposomes) or the water-soluble dextrin Nutriose&reg; FM06 (Eudragit-nutriosomes)...
May 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Belinda I Gómez, Matthew K McIntyre, Jennifer M Gurney, Kevin K Chung, Leopoldo C Cancio, Michael A Dubick, David M Burmeister
Intravenous (IV) resuscitation of burn patients has greatly improved outcomes and become a cornerstone of modern burn care. However, the heavy fluids and vascular access required may not be feasible in austere environments, mass casualty, or delayed transport scenarios. Enteral resuscitation has been proposed for these situations; we sought to examine the effectiveness of this strategy on improving burn-induced kidney injury. Anesthetized Yorkshire swine sustaining 40% TBSA full-thickness contact burns were randomized to three groups (n = 6/group): fluid deprivation, ad libitum water access, or 70 mL/kg/d Oral Rehydration Salt solution (ORS)...
2018: PloS One
Shahnawaz Ahmed, Poonum Korpe, Tahmeed Ahmed, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti, Abu Syed Golam Faruque
Antimicrobial overuse contributes to antimicrobial resistance. Empiric use of antimicrobials for diarrheal illness is warranted only in a minority of cases, because of its self-limiting nature and multifactorial etiology. This study aims to describe the factors contributing to antimicrobial overuse for diarrheal disease among children less than 5 years of age in rural Bangladesh. A total of 3,570 under-five children presenting with diarrhea in a tertiary level hospital were enrolled in the study. The rate of antimicrobial use at home was 1,395 (39%), compared with 2,084 (89%) during a hospital visit...
April 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Jay N Shah, Shantabir Maharjan, Rajan Gurung
OBJECTIVE: To generate evidence of feasibility to allow clear liquid 2 hours before elective surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Department of Surgery, Patan Hospital, Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Nepal, from October to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: One hundred consecutive adult elective major surgery patients of American Society of Anesthesiologist criteria 1 or 2 were enrolled...
May 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Rui Liu, Shu-Ming Wang, Zong-Yu Li, Wen Yu, Hui-Ping Zhang, Fang-Qiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: A novel pyruvate-based oral rehydration salt (Pyr-ORS) was demonstrated of superiority over bicarbonate- or citrate-based one to preserve organ function and correct lactic acidosis in rehydration of lethal shock in animals. This study further compared these effects between low-osmolar Pyr-ORS and equimolar citrate-based counterpart. METHODS: Eighty rats, using a fatal burn shock model, were randomized into four groups (two subgroups per group: n = 10): the sham group (group SR), Pyr-ORS group (group PR), WHO-ORS III group (group CR), and no rehydration group...
June 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Shakila Zaman, Khalida Aamir, Lars Å Hanson, Stefan Lange
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal illnesses in young children cause morbidity and preventable deaths in developing countries. We evaluated two high doses of Salovum® [Antisecretory Factor] to treat diarrhea in young children and followed up for recurrence 6 weeks post treatment. METHODS: Forty children, 6-24 months old, admitted with acute diarrhea, to the Outpatient Department of Children's Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan were selected. The patients were randomly allocated to either Group A given 2 sachets, or to Group B, given 4 sachets...
June 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Genevieve Santillanes, Emily Rose
The article discusses the evaluation of dehydration in children and reviews the literature on physical findings of dehydration. Pediatric dehydration is a common problem in emergency departments and wide practice variation in treatment exists. Dehydration can be treated with oral, nasogastric, subcutaneous, or intravenous fluids. Although oral rehydration is underutilized in the United States, most children with dehydration can be successfully rehydrated via the oral route. Selection of oral rehydration solution and techniques for successful oral rehydration are presented...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Juliana Perdiz Senna, Thaís Nogueira Barradas, Stephani Cardoso, Talita Carvalho Castiglione, Michael J Serpe, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda E Silva, Claudia Regina Elias Mansur
Amphotericin B (AmB) is the first-choice drug to treat several fungal infections. However, due to its low solubility it can only be administrated intravenously. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) have the ability to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs in an aqueous matrix, making them interesting for use in alternative drug delivery systems for AmB. Their combination with stimuli-sensitive polymers such as alginate can be used as a strategy to protect acid sensitive molecules from gastric acid. The proposal of this work was to develop a dual-strategy hydrogel/NLC delivery system for amphotericin B...
June 1, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Tamlyn Anne Rautenberg, Ute Zerwes, Way Seah Lee
Objective: To perform cost utility (CU) and budget impact (BI) analyses augmented by scenario analyses of critical model structure components to evaluate racecadotril as adjuvant to oral rehydration solution (ORS) for children under 5 years with acute diarrhea in Malaysia. Methods: A CU model was adapted to evaluate racecadotril plus ORS vs ORS alone for acute diarrhea in children younger than 5 years from a Malaysian public payer's perspective. A bespoke BI analysis was undertaken in addition to detailed scenario analyses with respect to critical model structure components...
2018: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
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