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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045952/-progress-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-syncope-in-children
#1
W R Xu, Y Liao, H F Jin, Q Y Zhang, C S Tang, J B DU
Syncope is a common emergency of children and adolescents, which has serious influence on the quality of life. Neurally-mediated syncope, including postural tachycardia syndrome, vasovagal syncope, orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension, is the main cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The main manifestations of neurally-mediated syncope are diverse, such as dizziness, headache, chest tightness, chest pain, pale complexion, fatigue, pre-syncope and syncope. Although the clinical manifestations are similar, each subtype of syncope has its hemodynamic feature and optimal treatment option...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#2
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033540/assay-development-and-high-throughput-screening-for-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-a-vibrio-cholerae-stress-response-pathway
#3
Laura Stanbery, Jyl S Matson
Antibiotics are important adjuncts to oral rehydration therapy in cholera disease management. However, due to the rapid emergence of resistance to the antibiotics used to treat cholera, therapeutic options are becoming limited. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop additional therapeutics to aid in the treatment of cholera. Previous studies showed that the extracytoplasmic stress response (σ(E)) pathway of Vibrio cholerae is required for full virulence of the organism. The pathway is also required for bacterial growth in the presence of ethanol...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026779/oral-rehydration-solution-in-infantile-diarrhea-make-sure-it-is-given-properly
#4
Rohit Anand, Anirban Mandal, Amitabh Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026398/where-there-is-no-doctor-can-volunteer-community-health-workers-in-rural-uganda-provide-integrated-community-case-management
#5
Jennifer L Brenner, Celestine Barigye, Samuel Maling, Jerome Kabakyenga, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Denise Buchner, Teddy Kyomuhangi, Carolyn Pim, Kathryn Wotton, Natukwatsa Amon, Nalini Singhal
INTRODUCTION: Integrated community case management (iCCM) involves assessment and treatment of common childhood illnesses by community health workers (CHWs). Evaluation of a new Ugandan iCCM program is needed. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess if iCCM by lay volunteer CHWs is feasible and if iCCM would increase proportions of children treated for fever, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in rural Uganda. METHODS: This pre/post study used a quasi-experimental design and non-intervention comparison community...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018599/qualitative-study-of-healthcare-providers-current-practice-patterns-and-barriers-to-successful-rehydration-for-pediatric-diarrheal-illnesses-in-kenya
#6
Darlene R House, Philip Cheptinga, Daniel E Rusyniak, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: For children worldwide, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death. These deaths are preventable by fluid resuscitation. Nasogastric tubes (NGs) have been shown to be equivalent to intravenous fluids for rehydration and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for use in severe dehydration. Despite this, NGs are rarely used for rehydration in Kenya. Our objective was to evaluate clinicians' adherence to rehydration guidelines and to identify barriers to the use of NGs for resuscitating dehydrated children...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991918/rapid-enteric-testing-to-permit-targeted-antimicrobial-therapy-with-and-without-lactobacillus-reuteri-probiotics-for-paediatric-acute-diarrhoeal-disease-in-botswana-a-pilot-randomized-factorial-controlled-trial
#7
Jeffrey M Pernica, Andrew P Steenhoff, Margaret Mokomane, Banno Moorad, Kwana Lechiile, Marek Smieja, Loeto Mazhani, Ji Cheng, Matthew S Kelly, Mark Loeb, Ketil Stordal, David M Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963679/clinical-practice-nausea-and-vomiting-in-acute-gastroenteritis-physiopathology-and-management
#8
REVIEW
Beatrice C Canziani, Peter Uestuener, Emilio F Fossali, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio P Milani
Currently recommended management of acute gastroenteritis is supportive. Although the affected children habitually have vomiting, recommendations do not focus on the correction of this symptom. In this condition, elevated ketone bodies and stimuli initiated by gut mucosa damage produced by the enteral pathogen likely underlay nausea and vomiting. As compared to 0.9% saline, intravenous administration of a dextrose-containing bolus of 0.9% saline is associated with a greater reduction of circulating ketones and a shorter duration of nausea and vomiting...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959436/expanding-the-population-coverage-of-evidence-based-interventions-with-community-health-workers-to-save-the-lives-of-mothers-and-children-an-analysis-of-potential-global-impact-using-the-lives-saved-tool-list
#9
Victoria B Chou, Ingrid K Friberg, Mervyn Christian, Neff Walker, Henry B Perry
BACKGROUND: Evidence has been accumulating that community health workers (CHWs) providing evidence-based interventions as part of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) can lead to reductions in maternal, neonatal and child mortality. However, investments to strengthen and scale-up CHW programs still remain modest. METHODS: We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the number of maternal, neonatal and child deaths and stillbirths that could be prevented if 73 countries effectively scaled up the population coverage of 30 evidence-based interventions that CHWs can deliver in these high-burden countries...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957470/treatment-of-severe-cholera-a-review-of-strategies-to-reduce-stool-output-and-volumes-of-rehydration-fluid
#10
Thomas Butler
Background: Severe cholera is a life-threatening illness of hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis due to rapid and profuse diarrheal fluid loss. Emergency life-saving therapy is i.v. saline, optionally supplemented with potassium and alkali to correct the fluid deficit, potassium losses and acidosis. After this initial rehydration, for the next 2 days ongoing stool losses are replaced with oral rehydration solution (ORS), which contains sodium chloride, potassium and alkali together with glucose or rice powder as a source of glucose to serve as a carrier for sodium...
May 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952662/cholera-the-new-strike-of-an-old-foe
#11
Anna Kuna, Michał Gajewski
Cholera is an acute bacterial gastrointestinal infection caused by ingestion of water or food containing the pathogen Vibrio cholerae. The incubation period can be very short and it takes between several hours and 5 days. During the 19th century, cholera was spreading from India across the world. Its original reservoir was located in the Ganges delta. So far, there have been six epidemics of cholera; the current outbreak is the seventh. It started in Asia, attacked Africa and then the Americas. Cholera causes thousands of illnesses and deaths annually, mostly in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa...
2017: International Maritime Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948025/does-access-to-credit-services-influence-availability-of-essential-child-medicines-and-licensing-status-among-private-medicine-retail-outlets-in-uganda
#12
Lorraine Nabbanja Kabunga, Paschal Mujasi
BACKGROUND: Despite making great progress in reducing under five mortality in the last three decades. Uganda still ranks high among countries with the highest under five mortality rates. More than a third (36%) of these deaths are caused by pneumonia (15%), malaria (12%), or diarrhea (9%). For many mothers and caregivers, private drug shops are a point of care seeking for these illnesses. However, many drug-shops, are unlicensed and do not stock essential commodities due to insufficient capital and operational funds...
2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944301/intravenous-rehydration-of-malnourished-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-and-severe-dehydration-a-systematic-review
#13
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
Background: Rehydration strategies in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) and severe dehydration are extremely cautious. The World Health Organization (WHO) SAM guidelines advise strongly against intravenous fluids unless the child is shocked or severely dehydrated and unable to tolerate oral fluids. Otherwise, guidelines recommend oral or nasogastric rehydration using low sodium oral rehydration solutions. There is limited evidence to support these recommendations. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on 15 (th) June 2017 comparing different strategies of rehydration therapy in children with acute gastroenteritis and severe dehydration, specifically relating to intravenous rehydration, using standard search terms...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932313/serum-zinc-level-and-its-correlation-with-vesikari-system-scoring-in-acute-pediatric-diarrhea
#14
Ayman E Eskander, Lobna S Sherif, Mohammad Nabih, Nevine R El Baroudy, Ghobrial C Marcos, Ehsan A Badawy, Amira S El Refay
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains the most common infectious disease worldwide. Zinc has been studied extensively recently for its potential effect on prevention, control and treatment of acute diarrhoea. AIM: This study was designed to correlate the level of zinc with the severity of pediatric diarrhoea estimated by Vesikari Scoring System. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The present study included 80 children aged two months to 30 months from those suffering from the acute diarrheal episode and admitted to Pediatric Hospital "Abo El Rish" Cairo University...
August 15, 2017: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924101/rehydration-and-catabolic-preventive-effects-depend-on-the-composition-of-oral-electrolyte-solutions-for-diarrheic-calves
#15
Kenji Tsukano, Tadaharu Ajito, Izumi Abe, Shinya Sarashina, Kazuyuki Suzuki
In this study, two commercially available oral electrolyte solutions (OES) with high sodium (CF) or with high glucose and glycine (SL), and two prototype OES were evaluated in terms of rehydration and preventing catabolism. Prototype OES based on CF were prepared by doubling the glucose amount (CFG) or by doubling both glucose and glycine (CFGG). Thirty-two diarrheic calves were randomly assigned four groups with eight calves in each group. Blood volume increased with CF and CFGG compared with that of other OES...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893243/impact-of-pharmacy-worker-training-and-deployment-on-access-to-essential-medicines-for-children-under-five-in-malawi-a-cluster-quasi-experimental-evaluation
#16
Joseph B Babigumira, Solomon J Lubinga, Alisa M Jenny, Erin Larsen-Cooper, Jessica Crawford, Charles Matemba, Andy Stergachis
BACKGROUND: Poor access to essential medicines is common in many low- and middle-income countries, partly due to an insufficient and inadequately trained workforce to manage the medicines supply chain. We conducted a prospective impact evaluation of the training and deployment of pharmacy assistants (PAs) to rural health centers in Malawi. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare access to medicines in two districts where newly trained PAs were deployed to health centers (intervention) and two districts with no trained PAs at health centers (comparison)...
September 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882877/clinical-pathway-produces-sustained-improvement-in-acute-gastroenteritis-care
#17
Lori Rutman, Eileen J Klein, Julie C Brown
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite widespread use of the rotavirus vaccine in the last decade, dehydrating illnesses impact almost 2 billion children worldwide annually. Evidence supports oral rehydration therapy as a first-line treatment of mild to moderate dehydration. Ondansetron has proven to be a safe and effective adjunct in children with vomiting. We implemented a clinical pathway in our pediatric emergency department (ED) in January 2005 to improve care for this common condition...
October 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851766/modelling-the-cost-of-community-interventions-to-reduce-child-mortality-in-south-africa-using-the-lives-saved-tool-list
#18
Lungiswa Ll Nkonki, Lumbwe L Chola, Aviva A Tugendhaft, Karen K Hofman
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the costs and impact on reducing child mortality of scaling up interventions that can be delivered by community health workers at community level from a provider's perspective. SETTING: In this study, we used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST), a module in the spectrum software. Within the spectrum software, LiST interacts with other modules, the AIDS Impact Module, Family Planning Module and Demography Projections Module (Dem Proj), to model the impact of more than 60 interventions that affect cause-specific mortality...
August 28, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835355/efficacy-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-for-the-treatment-of-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Henryk Szymański, Hania Szajewska
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common diseases among children. Oral rehydration therapy is the key treatment. However, despite proven efficacy, it remains underused. This is because oral rehydration solution neither reduces the frequency of bowel movements and fluid loss nor shortens the duration of illness. Hence, there is interest in adjunctive treatments. According to the 2014 guidelines developed by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, the use of the following probiotics may be considered in the management of children with AGE in addition to rehydration therapy: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation) and Saccharomyces boulardii (low quality of evidence; strong recommendation)...
August 23, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806049/electrolytes-oral-electrolyte-solutions
#20
Lisa Harris
Oral electrolyte solutions are used widely for rehydration in diarrheal illness and to maintain hydration during vigorous exercise. In diarrheal illness, an oral rehydration solution (ORS) typically is preferred over intravenous fluids except for patients with severe dehydration. The preferred ORS is one similar to the glucose-containing reduced osmolarity World Health Organization ORS. There also are polymer-based solutions that use rice or wheat as the source of carbohydrates but these are not widely recommended...
August 2017: FP Essentials
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