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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431410/oral-rehydration-solutions-for-the-treatment-of-acute-watery-diarrhea
#1
Jennifer G Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415224/factors-associated-with-severe-dehydrating-diarrhoea-in-the-rural-western-cape-south-africa
#2
Frans P van der Westhuizen, Amy L Slogrove, H Marlize Kunneke, Mariana Kruger
Background: Acute diarrhoea (AD) remains a leading cause of childhood death. We evaluated whether delayed healthcare seeking was associated with severe dehydration in rural South Africa. Methods: In a prospective cohort study of children with AD admitted to a secondary-level hospital, data were collected through structured caregiver interviews and hospital record review. The primary outcome was severe dehydration/death, and the primary determinant was delay >12 h between AD symptom onset and healthcare facility presentation...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407307/acute-liver-failure-due-to-amanita-phalloides-poisoning-therapeutic-approach-and-outcome
#3
E Kieslichova, S Frankova, M Protus, D Merta, E Uchytilova, J Fronek, J Sperl
INTRODUCTION: Amanita phalloides poisoning is a potentially fatal cause of acute liver failure. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of initial patients' characteristics and different treatment modalities on the outcome of patients with liver failure caused by Amanita poisoning. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 23 patients admitted to our center between July 2007 and August 2016. RESULTS: Mean time interval between Amanita phalloides ingestion and the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms was 12...
January 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406177/could-patient-controlled-thirst-driven-fluid-administration-lead-to-more-rapid-rehydration-than-clinician-directed-fluid-management-an-early-feasibility-study
#4
F Hughes, S C Ng, M Mythen, H Montgomery
BACKGROUND: Fluid management is a major factor determining perioperative outcome, yet in reality, fluid administration practice is variable. Thirst however, is a highly sensitive and reliable indicator of fluid deficits. We explored the use of thirst sensation to trigger i.v. fluid boluses to guide individualized fluid management. METHODS: We performed a randomised double crossover trial on 16 healthy male volunteers, of mean age 31 yr and BMI 24.4 kg m-2. Twice, after administrations of oral furosemide (40 mg) and 12 h of oral fluid restriction, participants received a 4-h i...
February 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391385/the-nice-gut-trial-protocol-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial-of-oral-nitazoxanide-for-the-empiric-treatment-of-acute-gastroenteritis-among-australian-aboriginal-children
#5
Claire S Waddington, Charlie McLeod, Peter Morris, Asha Bowen, Mark Naunton, Jonathan Carapetis, Keith Grimwood, Roy Robins-Browne, Carl D Kirkwood, Robert Baird, David Green, Ross Andrews, Deborah Fearon, Joshua Francis, Julie A Marsh, Thomas Snelling
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years globally, killing 525 000 annually. Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (hereafter Aboriginal) children suffer a high burden of disease. Randomised trials in other populations suggest nitazoxanide accelerates recovery for children with Giardia, amoebiasis, Cryptosporidium, Rotavirus and Norovirus gastroenteritis, as well as in cases where no enteropathogens are found. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This double blind, 1:1 randomised, placebo controlled trial is investigating the impact of oral nitazoxanide on acute gastroenteritis in hospitalised Australian Aboriginal children aged 3 months to <5 years...
February 1, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391004/interventions-to-reduce-post-acute-consequences-of-diarrheal-disease-in-children-a-systematic-review
#6
Patricia B Pavlinac, Rebecca L Brander, Hannah E Atlas, Grace C John-Stewart, Donna M Denno, Judd L Walson
BACKGROUND: Although acute diarrhea often leads to acute dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, children with diarrhea also suffer long term morbidity, including recurrent or prolonged diarrhea, loss of weight, and linear growth faltering. They are also at increased risk of post-acute mortality. The objective of this systematic review was to identify interventions that address these longer term consequences of diarrhea. METHODS: We searched Medline for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries, published between 1980 and 2016 that included children under 15 years of age with diarrhea and follow-up of at least 7 days...
February 1, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388753/acute-gastroenteritis-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients-digest
#7
KeriAnne Brady, Kathryn H Pade
Although most cases of acute gastroenteritis require minimal medical intervention, severe dehydration and hypoglycemia may develop in cases of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. The mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderately dehydrated patients with acute gastroenteritis should be oral rehydration solution. Antiemetics allow for improved tolerance of oral rehydration solution, and, when used appropriately, can decrease the need for intravenous fluids and hospitalization. This issue reviews the common etiologies of acute gastroenteritis, discusses more-severe conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management of acute gastroenteritis in patients with mild-to-moderate dehydration, severe dehydration, and hypoglycemia...
February 1, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377181/efficacy-of-glucose-or-amino-acid-based-commercial-beverages-in-meeting-oral-rehydration-therapy-goals-after-acute-hypertonic-and-isotonic-dehydration
#8
Samuel N Cheuvront, Robert W Kenefick, Nisha Charkoudian, Katherine M Mitchell, Adam J Luippold, Karleigh E Bradbury, Sadasivan Vidyasagar
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of different commercial beverage compositions for meeting oral rehydration therapy (ORT) goals in the treatment of acute dehydration in healthy humans has not been systematically tested. The objective of the study was to compare fluid retention, plasma volume (PV), and interstitial fluid (ISF) volume restoration when using 1 popular glucose-based and 1 novel amino acid-based (AA) commercial ORT beverage following experimental hypertonic or isotonic dehydration...
January 28, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369591/acute-gastroenteritis-evidence-based-management-of-pediatric-patients
#9
KeriAnne Brady
Although most cases of acute gastroenteritis require minimal medical intervention, severe dehydration and hypoglycemia may develop in cases of prolonged vomiting and diarrhea. The mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderately dehydrated patients with acute gastroenteritis should be oral rehydration solution. Antiemetics allow for improved tolerance of oral rehydration solution, and, when used appropriately, can decrease the need for intravenous fluids and hospitalization. This issue reviews the common etiologies of acute gastroenteritis, discusses more-severe conditions that should be considered in the differential diagnosis, and provides evidence-based recommendations for management of acute gastroenteritis in patients with mild-to-moderate dehydration, severe dehydration, and hypoglycemia...
February 2018: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303974/immune-mediated-mechanisms-of-action-of-probiotics-and-synbiotics-in-treating-pediatric-intestinal-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Julio Plaza-Díaz, Francisco Javier Ruiz-Ojeda, Mercedes Gil-Campos, Angel Gil
The pediatric population is continually at risk of developing infectious and inflammatory diseases. The treatment for infections, particularly gastrointestinal conditions, focuses on oral or intravenous rehydration, nutritional support and, in certain case, antibiotics. Over the past decade, the probiotics and synbiotics administration for the prevention and treatment of different acute and chronic infectious diseases has dramatically increased. Probiotic microorganisms are primarily used as treatments because they can stimulate changes in the intestinal microbial ecosystem and improve the immunological status of the host...
January 5, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300785/management-of-minor-ailments-in-a-community-pharmacy-setting-findings-from-simulated-visits-and-qualitative-study-in-gondar-town-ethiopia
#11
Asnakew Achaw Ayele, Abebe Basazn Mekuria, Henok Getachew Tegegn, Begashaw Melaku Gebresillassie, Alemayehu Birhane Mekonnen, Daniel Asfaw Erku
Community pharmacy professionals are being widely accepted as sources of treatment and advice for managing minor ailments, largely owing to their location at the heart of the community. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to document the involvement of community pharmacy professionals in the management of minor ailments and perceived barriers that limit their provision of such services. Simulated patient (SP) visits combined with a qualitative study using in-depth interviews was conducted among community pharmacy professionals in Gondar town, Northwest Ethiopia...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259371/probiotics-for-gastrointestinal-disorders-proposed-recommendations-for-children-of-the-asia-pacific-region
#12
REVIEW
Donald Cameron, Quak Seng Hock, Musal Kadim, Neelam Mohan, Eell Ryoo, Bhupinder Sandhu, Yuichiro Yamashiro, Chen Jie, Hans Hoekstra, Alfredo Guarino
Recommendations for probiotics are available in several regions. This paper proposes recommendations for probiotics in pediatric gastrointestinal diseases in the Asia-Pacific region. Epidemiology and clinical patterns of intestinal diseases in Asia-Pacific countries were discussed. Evidence-based recommendations and randomized controlled trials in the region were revised. Cultural aspects, health management issues and economic factors were also considered. Final recommendations were approved by applying the Likert scale and rated using the GRADE system...
December 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245331/when-omeprazole-met-with-asymptomatic-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-a-postoperative-colon-cancer-patient-a-case-report
#13
Boyu Li, Huachong Ma, Zhenjun Wang, Lihong Liu
RATIONALE: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a symptomatic infection due to the spore-forming bacterium, C. difficile. Asymptomatic C. difficile colonization is the stage in absence of symptoms, with a prevalence of 1.4% to 21% on hospital admission. Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) was implicated as a novel potential contributor to CDI. PPIs injection could make asymptomatic C. difficile colonization progress to C. difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD). PATIENT CONCERNS: A postoperative colon cancer patient, who had been taking omeprazole for 4 years after operation, got asymptomatic C...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241620/trends-in-and-projections-of-indicators-of-universal-health-coverage-in-bangladesh-1995-2030-a-bayesian-analysis-of-population-based-household-data
#14
Md Shafiur Rahman, Md Mizanur Rahman, Stuart Gilmour, Khin Thet Swe, Sarah Krull Abe, Kenji Shibuya
BACKGROUND: Many countries are implementing health system reforms to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) by 2030. To understand the progress towards UHC in Bangladesh, we estimated trends in indicators of the health service and of financial risk protection. We also estimated the probability of Bangladesh's achieving of UHC targets of 80% essential health-service coverage and 100% financial risk protection by 2030. METHODS: We estimated the coverage of UHC indicators-13 prevention indicators and four treatment indicators-from 19 nationally representative population-based household surveys done in Bangladesh from Jan 1, 1991, to Dec 31, 2014...
January 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228888/assessing-levels-and-trends-of-child-health-inequality-in-88-developing-countries-from-2000-to-2014
#15
Zhihui Li, Mingqiang Li, S V Subramanian, Chunling Lu
BACKGROUND: Reducing child mortality was one of the Millennium Development Goals. In the current Sustainable Development Goals era, achieving equity is prioritized as a major aim. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a comprehensive and updated picture of inequalities in child health intervention coverage and child health outcomes by wealth status, as well as their trends between 2000 and 2014. METHODS: Using data from Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, we adopted three measures of inequality, including one absolute inequality indicator and two relative inequality indicators, to estimate the level and trends of inequalities in three child health outcome variables and 17 intervention coverages in 88 developing countries...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210920/safety-of-appetite-manipulation-in-children-with-feeding-disorders-admitted-to-an-inpatient-feeding-program
#16
Alyssa S Pollow, Catherine A Karls, Mary Witzlib, Richard J Noel, Praveen S Goday, Alan H Silverman
OBJECTIVES: Appetite manipulation can be effective in weaning children off gastrostomy tube (G-tube) feeding dependence but can cause dehydration, hypoglycemia and ketone body production, which is anorexigenic. Since the safety of this approach has not been described, our aim was to describe adverse events observed when weaning children from G-tube dependence using our appetite manipulation protocol. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data of patients who completed our inpatient tube-weaning protocol...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194756/a-higher-level-of-ketonaemia-does-not-predict-oral-rehydration-failure-in-vomiting-paediatric-patients-and-routine-measurement-is-unnecessary
#17
Lucía Torres, Marina Sánchez, Blanca Cid, Eva Vicente, Roberto Velasco
AIM: This study determined if blood levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate were associated with the rate of failure in oral rehydration in paediatric patients with vomiting. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study that was carried out from December 1, 2015 to November 30, 2016 in the Rio Hortega University Hospital, Valladolid, Spain. The study cohort were patients up to 14 years old who attended the emergency department with three or more vomiting episodes in the last four hours and glycaemia higher than 45 mg/dL...
December 1, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188130/first-wave-of-the-2016-17-cholera-outbreak-in-hodeidah-city-yemen-acf-experience-and-lessons-learned
#18
Mathias Altmann, Miguel Suarez-Bustamante, Celine Soulier, Celine Lesavre, Caroline Antoine
Introduction: Although cases were reported only in 2010 and 2011, cholera is probably endemic in Yemen. In the context of a civil war, a cholera outbreak was declared in different parts of the country October 6th, 2016. This paper describes the ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city from October 28th, 2016 to February 28th, 2017 in order to add knowledge to this large outbreak. Methods: The ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city included a case management component and prevention measures in the community...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168980/inability-to-reduce-morbidity-of-diarrhea-by-ors-can-we-design-a-better-therapy
#19
Jane E Harrell, Sam X Cheng
Diarrheal disease is a worldwide problem that still causes significant morbidity and mortality among children. Currently, oral rehydration solution (ORS) is the standard of care for acute diarrhea in pediatric patients. While effective in reducing mortality, ORS does not alleviate diarrheal symptoms, thus reducing caregiver compliance and therapeutic efficacy. This manuscript will briefly review the current problem of pediatric diarrhea and the shortcomings of current therapies; however, the focus of this review is to examine the intestinal calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155665/cholera-mortality-during-urban-epidemic-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-august-16-2015-january-16-2016-1
#20
Lindsey S McCrickard, Amani Elibariki Massay, Rupa Narra, Janneth Mghamba, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba, Loveness John Urio, Neema Rusibayamila, Grace Magembe, Muhammud Bakari, James J Gibson, Rachel Barwick Eidex, Robert E Quick
In 2015, a cholera epidemic occurred in Tanzania; most cases and deaths occurred in Dar es Salaam early in the outbreak. We evaluated cholera mortality through passive surveillance, burial permits, and interviews conducted with decedents' caretakers. Active case finding identified 101 suspected cholera deaths. Routine surveillance had captured only 48 (48%) of all cholera deaths, and burial permit assessments captured the remainder. We interviewed caregivers of 56 decedents to assess cholera management behaviors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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