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oral rehydration

Andrew S Azman, Lucy A Parker, John Rumunu, Fisseha Tadesse, Francesco Grandesso, Lul L Deng, Richard Laku Lino, Bior K Bior, Michael Lasuba, Anne-Laure Page, Lameck Ontweka, Augusto E Llosa, Sandra Cohuet, Lorenzo Pezzoli, Dossou Vincent Sodjinou, Abdinasir Abubakar, Amanda K Debes, Allan M Mpairwe, Joseph F Wamala, Christine Jamet, Justin Lessler, David A Sack, Marie-Laure Quilici, Iza Ciglenecki, Francisco J Luquero
BACKGROUND: Oral cholera vaccines represent a new effective tool to fight cholera and are licensed as two-dose regimens with 2-4 weeks between doses. Evidence from previous studies suggests that a single dose of oral cholera vaccine might provide substantial direct protection against cholera. During a cholera outbreak in May, 2015, in Juba, South Sudan, the Ministry of Health, Médecins Sans Frontières, and partners engaged in the first field deployment of a single dose of oral cholera vaccine to enhance the outbreak response...
November 2016: Lancet Global Health
S A Sarker, B Berger, Y Deng, S Kieser, F Foata, D Moine, P Descombes, S Sultana, S Huq, P K Bardhan, V Vuillet, F Praplan, H Brüssow
A T4-like coliphage cocktail was given with different oral doses to healthy Bangladeshi children in a placebo-controlled randomized phase I safety trial. Fecal phage detection was oral dose dependent suggesting passive gut transit of coliphages through the gut. No adverse effects of phage application were seen clinically and by clinical chemistry. Similar results were obtained for a commercial phage preparation (Coliproteus from Microgen/Russia). By 16S rRNA gene sequencing only a low degree of fecal microbiota conservation was seen in healthy children from Bangladesh who were sampled over a time interval of 7 days suggesting a substantial temporal fluctuation of the fecal microbiota composition...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
J V Pai Dhungat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Sunil Pazhayanur Venkateswaran, Leviana Ercylina Nathan, Vimi Sunil Mutalik, Noor Hasni Shamsuddin
CONTEXT: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) consists of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) arising in the upper aerodigestive tract and accounts for 5% of cancers worldwide. In Malaysia, cancers of the nasopharynx, larynx, tongue and oral cavity are among the top twenty most common cancers in men. Argyrophilic nuclear organizer regions (AgNORs) are increased from normal mucosa to premalignant lesions to malignant lesions and have been associated with tumor grade and prognosis of patients...
September 2016: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology: JOMFP
Peder Digre, Evan Simpson, Shannon Cali, Belinda Lartey, Melissa Moodley, Ndack Diop
BACKGROUND: More than 500 000 young children die from dehydration caused by severe diarrhea each year, globally. Although routine use of oral rehydration solution (ORS) could prevent almost all of these deaths, ORS utilization remains low in many low-income countries. Previous research has suggested that misperceptions among caregivers may be an obstacle to wider use of ORS. METHODS: To better understand the extent of ORS utilization and the reasons for use or non-use in low-resource settings, the project team conducted a semi-structured, quantitative survey of 400 caregivers in Burkina Faso in 2014...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
Thomas G Simnadis, Linda C Tapsell, Eleanor J Beck
CONTEXT: Sorghum, an ancient grain originating in Africa, may have health-protective properties that could encourage its consumption among those who do not traditionally consume it. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the health effects associated with the consumption of sorghum among humans. DATA SOURCES: Academic databases were searched for relevant studies published between 1985 and November 2015. STUDY SELECTION: Nineteen studies -13 interventional and 6 observational - were identified for inclusion...
September 30, 2016: Nutrition Reviews
Andrea Turner, Gwen Rees, David C Barrett, Kristen K Reyher
Critically Appraised Topics (CATs) are a standardised, succinct summary of research evidence organised around a clinical question, and a form of evidence synthesis used in the practice of evidence-based medicine (EBM) and evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM). Access to CATs enables clinicians to incorporate evidence from the scientific literature into clinical practice and they have been used to teach EBVM at the University of Bristol's School of Veterinary Sciences since 2011. Veterinary Record is including CATs from Bristol university in its Clinical Decision Making section...
September 17, 2016: Veterinary Record
Hiroki Yoshida, Tsukasa Kimata, Masato Suzuki, Toshiki Uchida, Osamu Yamamuro
BACKGROUND: During administration of thecisplatin (CDDP)containing regimen, hospitalization is necessary to ensure adequate hydration. However, short hydration is widely used when administering CDDP in outpatient chemotherapy centers. METHOD: To assess the safety of the administration of CDDP during short hydration, we retrospectively evaluated adverse events and complications in the outpatients who received CDDP during short hydration between April 2012 and December 2014 in our hospital...
September 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Wen-Rui Xu, Hong-Fang Jin, Jun-Bao Du
OBJECTIVE: Postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is one of the major causes of orthostatic intolerance in children. We systematically reviewed the pathogenesis and the progress of individualized treatment for POTS in children. DATA SOURCES: The data analyzed in this review are mainly from articles included in PubMed and EMBASE. STUDY SELECTION: The original articles and critical reviews about POTS were selected for this review. RESULTS: Studies have shown that POTS might be related to several factors including hypovolemia, high catecholamine status, abnormal local vascular tension, and decreased skeletal muscle pump activity...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Graham C Thompson, Ellen L Morrison, David Chaulk, Holly Wobma, Simon Kwong, David W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Ondansetron is often used in the emergency department (ED) to promote oral rehydration in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE), yet medication solutions administered orally may be poorly tolerated in this population. OBJECTIVES: We compared the tolerability of ondansetron oral dissolve tab (ODT) to oral solution (OS) in children presenting to the ED with AGE. METHODS: Using alternate-day controlled clinical trial design, children aged 3 months to 10 years received either ondansetron ODT or OS...
September 10, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Sayaka Ishigaki, Takahiro Ogura, Ayana Kanaya, Yu Miyake, Kenichi Masui, Tomiei Kazama
BACKGROUND: The influence of preoperative rehydration on the action of rocuronium has not yet been investigated. OBJECTIVE: The objective is to evaluate the hypothesis that preoperative rehydration lowers arterial rocuronium plasma concentrations and changes its associated neuromuscular blocking effects during induction of anaesthesia. DESIGN: Randomised, single-blinded study. SETTING: A secondary hospital from October 2013 to July 2014...
September 2, 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
Mira K Desai, Jigar R Panchal, Samdih Shah, Geetha Iyer
OBJECTIVES: To find out the impact of teaching clinical pharmacology and rational therapeutics (CPT) to medical undergraduates (UGs) and interns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional, prospective study was conducted on three UGs batches and interns using two pretested validated structured questionnaires, modified from the work of Tobaiqy et al. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis...
July 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
Mojtaba Kianmehr, Ashraf Saber, Jalil Moshari, Reza Ahmadi, Mahdi Basiri-Moghadam
BACKGROUND: The world health organization guidelines for treatment of diarrhea in children emphasize on continued feeding together with prescription of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and supplementary zinc therapy. However, conflicting viewpoints exist regarding the optimal diet and dietary ingredients for children with diarrhea. Moreover, few studies have investigated the effect of rice soup along with ORS in the treatment of this disease. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore effects of simultaneous taking of glucose oral rehydration solution (G-ORS) and rice soup in the treatment of acute diarrhea in 8 to 24-month-old children...
June 2016: Nursing and Midwifery Studies
Utaroh Motosugi, Tomoaki Ichikawa, Katsuhiro Sano, Hiroshi Onishi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine the effects of dehydration and oral rehydration on the incidence of acute adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media administered during abdominal and pelvic CT in outpatients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: For our prospective randomized study performed at a single institution, adult outpatients undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal CT were randomly divided into a rehydration group (n = 2244 patients [1379 men and 865 women]; mean age, 65...
November 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Dennis Juma Matanda, Helga Bjørnøy Urke, Maurice B Mittelmark
OBJECTIVE(S): Using nationally representative surveys conducted in Kenya, this study examined optimal health promoting childcare practices in 2003, 2008-9 and 2014. This was undertaken in the context of continuous child health promotion activities conducted by government and non-government organizations throughout Kenya. It was the aim of such activities to increase the prevalence of health promoting childcare practices; to what extent have there been changes in optimal childcare practices in Kenya during the 11-year period under study? METHODS: Cross-sectional data were obtained from the Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 2003, 2008-9 and 2014...
2016: PloS One
Arthorn Riewpaiboon, Sunheang Shin, Thi Phuong Mai Le, Dinh Thiem Vu, Thi Hien Anh Nguyen, Neal Alexander, Duc Anh Dang
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the most common etiology of diarrhea-associated hospitalizations and clinic visits in Vietnamese children < 5 years old. To estimate the economic burden of rotavirus-associated formal healthcare encounters, an economic study was conducted. METHODS: A cost-of-illness study was performed from a societal perspective. Data were collected from children below the age of five years who presented to a clinic or hospital with symptoms of acute gastroenteritis (AGE)...
2016: BMC Public Health
Farzaneh Foroughinia, Pedram Zarei
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of community pharmacists toward administration of over-the-counter (OTC) antidiarrheal drugs in our city pharmacies, Shiraz, Iran. METHODS: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 90 pharmacies among 128 pharmacies in our city were randomly chosen. The study was designed into two phases: A standard questionnaire to determine the level of knowledge and attitude of pharmacists and a simulated client method to evaluate practice among them...
July 2016: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
Charles S Wiysonge, Leila H Abdullahi, Valantine N Ndze, Gregory D Hussey
BACKGROUND: Governments use different approaches to ensure that private for-profit healthcare services meet certain quality standards. Such government guidance, referred to as public stewardship, encompasses government policies, regulatory mechanisms, and implementation strategies for ensuring accountability in the delivery of services. However, the effectiveness of these strategies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not been the subject of a systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of public sector regulation, training, or co-ordination of the private for-profit health sector in low- and middle-income countries...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Karl Blanchet, James J Lewis, Francisco Pozo-Martin, Arsene Satouro, Serge Somda, Patrick Ilboudo, Sophie Sarrassat, Simon Cousens
BACKGROUND: Burkina Faso introduced the Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) strategy in 2003. However, an evaluation conducted in 2013 found that only 28 % of children were assessed for three danger signs as recommended by IMCI, and only 15 % of children were correctly classified. About 30 % of children were correctly prescribed with an antibiotic for suspected pneumonia or oral rehydration salts (ORS) for diarrhoea, and 40 % were correctly referred. Recent advances in information and communication technologies (ICT) and use of electronic clinical protocols hold the potential to transform healthcare delivery in low-income countries...
2016: Implementation Science: IS
M Scaillon, Y Vandenplas
Acute gastroenteritis remains one of the most frequent disorders in infants and children. The cornerstone of the treatment is oral rehydration, although the latter does not reduce the duration of the diarrhea, which is about four days. As a consequence, this quite benign condition of acute gastroenteritis in our countries still does have an important socio-economic impact. Therefore, recent European guidelines and recommendations consider the use of different medications and agents that reduce the duration of diarrhea...
March 2016: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
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