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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228888/assessing-levels-and-trends-of-child-health-inequality-in-88-developing-countries-from-2000-to-2014
#1
Zhihui Li, Mingqiang Li, S V Subramanian, Chunling Lu
BACKGROUND: Reducing child mortality was one of the Millennium Development Goals. In the current Sustainable Development Goals era, achieving equity is prioritized as a major aim. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to provide a comprehensive and updated picture of inequalities in child health intervention coverage and child health outcomes by wealth status, as well as their trends between 2000 and 2014. METHODS: Using data from Demographic Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, we adopted three measures of inequality, including one absolute inequality indicator and two relative inequality indicators, to estimate the level and trends of inequalities in three child health outcome variables and 17 intervention coverages in 88 developing countries...
2017: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210920/safety-of-appetite-manipulation-in-children-with-feeding-disorders-admitted-to-an-inpatient-feeding-program
#2
Alyssa S Pollow, Catherine A Karls, Mary Witzlib, Richard J Noel, Praveen S Goday, Alan H Silverman
OBJECTIVES: Appetite manipulation can be effective in weaning children off gastrostomy tube (G-tube) feeding dependence but can cause dehydration, hypoglycemia and ketone body production, which is anorexigenic. Since the safety of this approach has not been described, our aim was to describe adverse events observed when weaning children from G-tube dependence using our appetite manipulation protocol. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of prospectively collected data of patients who completed our inpatient tube-weaning protocol...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194756/a-higher-level-of-ketonaemia-does-not-predict-oral-rehydration-failure-in-vomiting-paediatric-patients-and-routine-measurement-is-unnecessary
#3
Lucía Torres, Marina Sánchez, Blanca Cid, Eva Vicente, Roberto Velasco
AIM: This study determined if blood levels of beta-hydroxybutyrate were associated with the rate of failure in oral rehydration in paediatric patients with vomiting. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study that was carried out from 1 December 2015 to 30 November 2016 in the Rio Hortega University Hospital, Valladolid, Spain. The study cohort were patients up to 14 years old who attended the emergency department with three or more vomiting episodes in the last four hours and glycaemia higher than 45mg/dl...
December 1, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188130/first-wave-of-the-2016-17-cholera-outbreak-in-hodeidah-city-yemen-acf-experience-and-lessons-learned
#4
Mathias Altmann, Miguel Suarez-Bustamante, Celine Soulier, Celine Lesavre, Caroline Antoine
Introduction: Although cases were reported only in 2010 and 2011, cholera is probably endemic in Yemen. In the context of a civil war, a cholera outbreak was declared in different parts of the country October 6th, 2016. This paper describes the ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city from October 28th, 2016 to February 28th, 2017 in order to add knowledge to this large outbreak. Methods: The ACF outbreak response in Hodeidah city included a case management component and prevention measures in the community...
October 13, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168980/inability-to-reduce-morbidity-of-diarrhea-by-ors-can-we-design-a-better-therapy
#5
Jane E Harrell, Sam X Cheng
Diarrheal disease is a worldwide problem that still causes significant morbidity and mortality among children. Currently, oral rehydration solution (ORS) is the standard of care for acute diarrhea in pediatric patients. While effective in reducing mortality, ORS does not alleviate diarrheal symptoms, thus reducing caregiver compliance and therapeutic efficacy. This manuscript will briefly review the current problem of pediatric diarrhea and the shortcomings of current therapies; however, the focus of this review is to examine the intestinal calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR)...
November 23, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155665/cholera-mortality-during-urban-epidemic-dar-es-salaam-tanzania-august-16-2015-january-16-2016-1
#6
Lindsey S McCrickard, Amani Elibariki Massay, Rupa Narra, Janneth Mghamba, Ahmed Abade Mohamed, Rogath Saika Kishimba, Loveness John Urio, Neema Rusibayamila, Grace Magembe, Muhammud Bakari, James J Gibson, Rachel Barwick Eidex, Robert E Quick
In 2015, a cholera epidemic occurred in Tanzania; most cases and deaths occurred in Dar es Salaam early in the outbreak. We evaluated cholera mortality through passive surveillance, burial permits, and interviews conducted with decedents' caretakers. Active case finding identified 101 suspected cholera deaths. Routine surveillance had captured only 48 (48%) of all cholera deaths, and burial permit assessments captured the remainder. We interviewed caregivers of 56 decedents to assess cholera management behaviors...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095384/hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar-state-during-induction-chemotherapy-for-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#7
Randall Yimbong Chan, Ankit V K Shah, Keith E Lewis, Jeffrey L Johnson, Paola Sequeira, Cynthia H Ho
We present the case of a 16-year-old boy who presented with fatigue, polyuria, and polydipsia while on chemotherapy for his relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Blood gas examination confirmed the diagnosis of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. The etiology for his hyperglycemia was most likely a result of oral glucocorticoid therapy combined with asparaginase therapy-both are a cornerstone of induction chemotherapy for ALL. The patient was aggressively rehydrated with saline, and medications were administered to correct his hyperkalemia...
October 31, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090271/oral-rehydration-of-malnourished-children-with-diarrhoea-and-dehydration-a-systematic-review
#8
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
Background: Diarrhoea complicates over half of admissions to hospital with severe acute malnutrition (SAM). World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the management of dehydration recommend the use of oral rehydration with ReSoMal (an oral rehydration solution (ORS) for SAM), which has lower sodium (45mmols/l) and higher potassium (40mmols/l) content than old WHO ORS. The composition of ReSoMal was designed specifically to address theoretical risks of sodium overload and potential under-treatment of severe hypokalaemia with rehydration using standard ORS...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077725/ondansetron-treatment-reduces-rotavirus-symptoms-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#9
Marie Hagbom, Daniel Novak, Malin Ekström, Younis Khalid, Maria Andersson, Magnus Lindh, Johan Nordgren, Lennart Svensson
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus and norovirus cause acute gastroenteritis with severe diarrhoea and vomiting, symptoms that may lead to severe dehydration and death. The objective of this randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled study was to investigate whether ondansetron, a serotonin receptor antagonist could attenuate rotavirus- and norovirus-induced vomiting and diarrhoea, which would facilitate oral rehydration and possibly accelerate recovery and reduce need for hospitalization. METHODS: Children with acute gastroenteritis, aged 6 months to 16 years where enrolled (n = 104) and randomized to one single oral dose (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057220/iatrogenic-dysnatremias-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-high-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#10
Silviu Grisaru, Jianling Xie, Susan Samuel, Stephen B Freedman
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) causing dehydration with or without dysnatremias is a common childhood health challenge. While it is accepted that oral rehydration therapy is preferred, clinical factors or parent and healthcare provider preferences may lead to intravenous rehydration (IVR). Isotonic solutions are increasingly recommended in most scenarios requiring IVR. Nevertheless, children with AGE, having ongoing losses of water and electrolytes, represent a unique population...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045952/-progress-in-diagnosis-and-management-of-syncope-in-children
#11
W R Xu, Y Liao, H F Jin, Q Y Zhang, C S Tang, J B DU
Syncope is a common emergency of children and adolescents, which has serious influence on the quality of life. Neurally-mediated syncope, including postural tachycardia syndrome, vasovagal syncope, orthostatic hypotension and orthostatic hypertension, is the main cause of syncope in children and adolescents. The main manifestations of neurally-mediated syncope are diverse, such as dizziness, headache, chest tightness, chest pain, pale complexion, fatigue, pre-syncope and syncope. Although the clinical manifestations are similar, each subtype of syncope has its hemodynamic feature and optimal treatment option...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041941/disentangling-the-effects-of-a-multiple-behaviour-change-intervention-for-diarrhoea-control-in-zambia-a-theory-based-process-evaluation
#12
Katie Greenland, Jenala Chipungu, Joyce Chilekwa, Roma Chilengi, Val Curtis
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death in Zambia. As elsewhere, the disease burden could be greatly reduced through caregiver uptake of existing prevention and treatment strategies. We recently reported the results of the Komboni Housewives intervention which tested a novel strategy employing motives including affiliation and disgust to improve caregiver practice of four diarrhoea control behaviours: exclusive breastfeeding; handwashing with soap; and correct preparation and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc...
October 17, 2017: Globalization and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033540/assay-development-and-high-throughput-screening-for-small-molecule-inhibitors-of-a-vibrio-cholerae-stress-response-pathway
#13
Laura Stanbery, Jyl S Matson
Antibiotics are important adjuncts to oral rehydration therapy in cholera disease management. However, due to the rapid emergence of resistance to the antibiotics used to treat cholera, therapeutic options are becoming limited. Therefore, there is a critical need to develop additional therapeutics to aid in the treatment of cholera. Previous studies showed that the extracytoplasmic stress response (σ(E)) pathway of Vibrio cholerae is required for full virulence of the organism. The pathway is also required for bacterial growth in the presence of ethanol...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026779/oral-rehydration-solution-in-infantile-diarrhea-make-sure-it-is-given-properly
#14
Rohit Anand, Anirban Mandal, Amitabh Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026398/where-there-is-no-doctor-can-volunteer-community-health-workers-in-rural-uganda-provide-integrated-community-case-management
#15
Jennifer L Brenner, Celestine Barigye, Samuel Maling, Jerome Kabakyenga, Alberto Nettel-Aguirre, Denise Buchner, Teddy Kyomuhangi, Carolyn Pim, Kathryn Wotton, Natukwatsa Amon, Nalini Singhal
INTRODUCTION: Integrated community case management (iCCM) involves assessment and treatment of common childhood illnesses by community health workers (CHWs). Evaluation of a new Ugandan iCCM program is needed. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess if iCCM by lay volunteer CHWs is feasible and if iCCM would increase proportions of children treated for fever, pneumonia, and diarrhoea in rural Uganda. METHODS: This pre/post study used a quasi-experimental design and non-intervention comparison community...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018599/qualitative-study-of-healthcare-providers-current-practice-patterns-and-barriers-to-successful-rehydration-for-pediatric-diarrheal-illnesses-in-kenya
#16
Darlene R House, Philip Cheptinga, Daniel E Rusyniak, Rachel C Vreeman
BACKGROUND: For children worldwide, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death. These deaths are preventable by fluid resuscitation. Nasogastric tubes (NGs) have been shown to be equivalent to intravenous fluids for rehydration and recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for use in severe dehydration. Despite this, NGs are rarely used for rehydration in Kenya. Our objective was to evaluate clinicians' adherence to rehydration guidelines and to identify barriers to the use of NGs for resuscitating dehydrated children...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991918/rapid-enteric-testing-to-permit-targeted-antimicrobial-therapy-with-and-without-lactobacillus-reuteri-probiotics-for-paediatric-acute-diarrhoeal-disease-in-botswana-a-pilot-randomized-factorial-controlled-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jeffrey M Pernica, Andrew P Steenhoff, Margaret Mokomane, Banno Moorad, Kwana Lechiile, Marek Smieja, Loeto Mazhani, Ji Cheng, Matthew S Kelly, Mark Loeb, Ketil Stordal, David M Goldfarb
INTRODUCTION: Diarrhoeal disease is the second-leading cause of death in young children. Current guidelines recommend treating children with acute non-bloody diarrhea with oral rehydration solutions and zinc, but not antimicrobials. However, in many resource-limited settings, infections with treatable enteric bacterial and protozoan pathogens are common. Probiotics have shown promise as an adjunct treatment for diarrhoea but have not been studied in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, factorial, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of children aged 2-60 months hospitalized in Botswana for acute non-bloody diarrhoea...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963679/clinical-practice-nausea-and-vomiting-in-acute-gastroenteritis-physiopathology-and-management
#18
REVIEW
Beatrice C Canziani, Peter Uestuener, Emilio F Fossali, Sebastiano A G Lava, Mario G Bianchetti, Carlo Agostoni, Gregorio P Milani
Currently recommended management of acute gastroenteritis is supportive. Although the affected children habitually have vomiting, recommendations do not focus on the correction of this symptom. In this condition, elevated ketone bodies and stimuli initiated by gut mucosa damage produced by the enteral pathogen likely underlay nausea and vomiting. As compared to 0.9% saline, intravenous administration of a dextrose-containing bolus of 0.9% saline is associated with a greater reduction of circulating ketones and a shorter duration of nausea and vomiting...
September 30, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959436/expanding-the-population-coverage-of-evidence-based-interventions-with-community-health-workers-to-save-the-lives-of-mothers-and-children-an-analysis-of-potential-global-impact-using-the-lives-saved-tool-list
#19
Victoria B Chou, Ingrid K Friberg, Mervyn Christian, Neff Walker, Henry B Perry
BACKGROUND: Evidence has been accumulating that community health workers (CHWs) providing evidence-based interventions as part of community-based primary health care (CBPHC) can lead to reductions in maternal, neonatal and child mortality. However, investments to strengthen and scale-up CHW programs still remain modest. METHODS: We used the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) to estimate the number of maternal, neonatal and child deaths and stillbirths that could be prevented if 73 countries effectively scaled up the population coverage of 30 evidence-based interventions that CHWs can deliver in these high-burden countries...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957470/treatment-of-severe-cholera-a-review-of-strategies-to-reduce-stool-output-and-volumes-of-rehydration-fluid
#20
Thomas Butler
Background: Severe cholera is a life-threatening illness of hypovolemic shock and metabolic acidosis due to rapid and profuse diarrheal fluid loss. Emergency life-saving therapy is i.v. saline, optionally supplemented with potassium and alkali to correct the fluid deficit, potassium losses and acidosis. After this initial rehydration, for the next 2 days ongoing stool losses are replaced with oral rehydration solution (ORS), which contains sodium chloride, potassium and alkali together with glucose or rice powder as a source of glucose to serve as a carrier for sodium...
May 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
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