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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444008/from-guidelines-to-local-realities-evaluation-of-oral-rehydration-therapy-and-zinc-supplementation-in-guatemala
#1
Rachel Hall-Clifford, Roxanne Amerson
Objective: Diarrhea remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for children in low- and middle-income countries throughout the Americas. The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed guidelines on incorporating zinc supplementation (ZS) with traditional oral rehydration therapy (ORT) in order to shorten the duration of diarrheal episodes and to reduce poor health outcomes. Guatemala adopted these guidelines in 2011, but they have not yet been fully implemented at the community level...
April 20, 2017: Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública, Pan American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439845/a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-presentation-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-small-bowel-obstruction
#2
REVIEW
Srinivas R Rami Reddy, Mitchell S Cappell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to systematically review small bowel obstruction (SBO), focusing on recent changes in diagnosis/therapy. RECENT FINDINGS: SBO incidence is about 350,000/annum in the USA. Etiologies include adhesions (65%), hernias (10%), neoplasms (5%), Crohn's disease (5%), and other (15%). Bowel dilatation occurs proximal to obstruction primarily from swallowed air and secondarily from intraluminal fluid accumulation. Dilatation increases mural tension, decreases mucosal perfusion, causes bacterial proliferation, and decreases mural tensile strength that increases bowel perforation risks...
June 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416428/-nasogastric-rehydration-for-treating-children-with-gastroenteritis
#3
B Rébeillé-Borgella, C Barbier, R Moussaoui, A Faisant, A-P Michard-Lenoir, A Rubio
INTRODUCTION: When oral rehydration is not feasible, enteral rehydration via the nasogastric route has been the ESPGHAN recommended method of rehydration since 2008, rather than intravenous rehydration (IVR), for children with acute gastroenteritis. However, these recommendations are rarely followed in France. Since 2011, in case of failure of oral rehydration, enteral rehydration has been used as a first-line therapy in the Children's Emergency Department at the Grenoble-Alpes University Hospital...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397130/antidiarrheal-drug-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Lawrence R Schiller
INTRODUCTION: Acute diarrhea often runs a self-limited course and little by way of treatment is needed except for oral rehydration therapy. Chronic diarrhea poses a longer-term problem. If not treatable with specific therapy aimed at the underlying pathophysiology, chronic diarrhea often needs long-term symptomatic therapy. PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to examine the options for symptomatic, nonspecific treatment of diarrhea. RECENT FINDINGS: The most frequently used therapies are opiate antidiarrheal drugs...
May 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390725/comparison-of-a-commercially-available-oral-nutritional-supplement-and-intravenous-fluid-therapy-for-dehydration-in-dairy-calves
#5
Jared D Taylor, Merel Rodenburg, Timothy A Snider
Calf scours is a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in the dairy industry. Effective treatments are needed to minimize death, maximize welfare, and maintain growth and productivity. The objective of this trial was to compare the efficacy of a commercially available nutritional supplement (Diaque, Boehringer-Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO) and i.v. lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) in rehydrating, preventing acidemia, and correcting electrolyte imbalances in an experimental model for calf scours...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376916/utilization-of-health-facilities-and-predictors-of-health-seeking-behavior-for-under-five-children-with-acute-diarrhea-in-slums-of-addis-ababa-ethiopia-a-community-based-cross-sectional-study
#6
Metadel Adane, Bezatu Mengistie, Worku Mulat, Helmut Kloos, Girmay Medhin
BACKGROUND: Information on health-seeking behavior and utilization of health facilities in slums of Addis Ababa is scarce, impeding the implementation of effective interventions. The purpose of this study is to assess the status of health facilities utilization and predictors for health-seeking behavior of mothers/caregivers of under-five children with acute diarrhea in slums of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A community-based cross-sectional study design was employed in five rounds of surveys in seven kebeles in slums of Addis Ababa among 472 mothers/caregivers of 472 under-five children with acute diarrhea in reference to Andersen's behavioral model...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363627/evaluation-of-a-nurse-initiated-acute-gastroenteritis-pathway-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#7
Rebecca A Carson, Shawna S Mudd, P Jamil Madati
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common illness treated in the emergency department. Delays in initiating rehydration for children with mild or moderate dehydration from AGE can lead to prolonged ED visits and increased resource utilization that do not provide prognostic value or support family-centered care. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to promote early oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for persons with AGE in an attempt to reduce unnecessary resource utilization and length of stay (LOS)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346473/oral-administration-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-alleviates-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-inducing-mucosal-protective-factors
#8
Tomohiro Kawahara, Yutaka Makizaki, Yosuke Oikawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Ayako Maeda, Masaki Shimakawa, Satoshi Komoto, Kyoko Moriguchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Koki Taniguchi
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332578/a-new-class-of-inhibitors-of-the-arac-family-virulence-regulator-vibrio-cholerae-toxt
#9
Anne K Woodbrey, Evans O Onyango, Maria Pellegrini, Gabriela Kovacikova, Ronald K Taylor, Gordon W Gribble, F Jon Kull
Vibrio cholerae is responsible for the diarrheal disease cholera that infects millions of people worldwide. While vaccines protecting against cholera exist, and oral rehydration therapy is an effective treatment method, the disease will remain a global health threat until long-term solutions such as improved sanitation and access to clean water become widely available. Because of this, there is a pressing need for potent therapeutics that can either mitigate cholera symptoms, or act prophylactically to prevent the virulent effects of a cholera infection...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331496/nitazoxanide-in-acute-rotavirus-diarrhea-a-randomized-control-trial-from-a-developing-country
#10
Samarendra Mahapatro, Nijwm Mahilary, Amit Kumar Satapathy, Rashmi Ranjan Das
Background. Acute diarrhea is one of the leading causes of childhood mortality, with rotavirus being an important pathogen. Nitazoxanide, an antiparasitic agent, has been shown to inhibit rotavirus. Objective. This double-blind, randomized trial was designed to study the role of nitazoxanide in acute rotavirus diarrhea. Methods. Of 174 children (12 months to 5 years) with acute diarrhea, 50 rotavirus positive cases were randomized. The intervention group received syrup nitazoxanide twice daily (100 mg in 12-47 months, 200 mg in ≥4 yr) for 3 days along with standard treatment of diarrhea...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320354/slow-progress-in-diarrhea-case-management-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-evidence-from-cross-sectional-national-surveys-1985-2012
#11
Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Yue-Peng Low, Birger Carl Forsberg
BACKGROUND: Diarrhea remains to be a main cause of childhood mortality. Diarrhea case management indicators reflect the effectiveness of child survival interventions. We aimed to assess time trends and country-wise changes in diarrhea case management indicators among under-5 children in low-and-middle-income countries. METHODS: We analyzed aggregate data from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys done from 1986 to 2012 in low-and-middle-income countries...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319546/gastric-fluid-volume-change-after-oral-rehydration-solution-intake-in-morbidly-obese-and-normal-controls-a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-analysis
#12
Toshie Shiraishi, Dai Kurosaki, Mitsuyo Nakamura, Taiji Yazaki, Satomi Kobinata, Yosuke Seki, Kazunori Kasama, Hideki Taniguchi
BACKGROUND: Although preoperative fluid intake 2 hours before anesthesia is generally considered safe, there are concerns about delayed gastric emptying in obese subjects. In this study, the gastric fluid volume (GFV) change in morbidly obese subjects was investigated after ingesting an oral rehydration solution (ORS) and then compared with that in nonobese subjects. METHODS: GFV change over time after the ingestion of 500 mL of ORS containing 2.5% carbohydrate (OS-1) was measured in 10 morbidly obese subjects (body mass index [BMI], >35) scheduled for bariatric surgery and 10 nonobese (BMI, 19-24) using magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302312/cholera
#13
REVIEW
John D Clemens, G Balakrish Nair, Tahmeed Ahmed, Firdausi Qadri, Jan Holmgren
Cholera is an acute, watery diarrhoeal disease caused by Vibrio cholerae of the O1 or O139 serogroups. In the past two centuries, cholera has emerged and spread from the Ganges Delta six times and from Indonesia once to cause global pandemics. Rational approaches to the case management of cholera with oral and intravenous rehydration therapy have reduced the case fatality of cholera from more than 50% to much less than 1%. Despite improvements in water quality, sanitation, and hygiene, as well as in the clinical treatment of cholera, the disease is still estimated to cause about 100 000 deaths every year...
March 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285621/antidiarrheal-activity-of-hexane-extract-of-citrus-limon-peel-in-an-experimental-animal-model
#14
Olasupo Stephen Adeniyi, James Omale, Samuel Chukwuma Omeje, Victoria Ojimaojo Edino
OBJECTIVE: Acute diarrhea is one of the major illnesses that cause death in children, despite clinical interventions and the use of oral rehydration therapy. Thus, there is need to discover other effective, affordable and accessible treatments for this disease. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of hexane extract of Citrus limon peel (HECLP) on castor oil-induced diarrhea in rats. METHODS: Diarrhea was induced in male albino Wistar rats weighing 100-150 g...
March 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282356/management-of-suspected-fluid-balance-issues-in-participants-of-wilderness-endurance-events
#15
Martin D Hoffman, Jeremy Joslin, Ian R Rogers
Dehydration and exercise-associated hyponatremia (EAH) are both relatively common conditions during wilderness endurance events. Whereas dehydration is treated with fluids, EAH is appropriately managed with fluid restriction and a sodium bolus but can worsen with isotonic or hypotonic fluids. Therefore, caution is recommended in the provision of postevent rehydration in environments where EAH is a potential consideration because accurate field assessment of hydration status can be challenging, and measurement of blood sodium concentration is rarely possible in the wilderness...
March 2017: Current Sports Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277412/the-use-of-a-triage-based-protocol-for-oral-rehydration-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#16
Marissa A Hendrickson, Jennifer Zaremba, Andrew R Wey, Philippe R Gaillard, Anupam B Kharbanda
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and avoidance of laboratory tests and intravenous fluids for mild to moderate dehydration in children with gastroenteritis; oral ondansetron has been shown to be an effective adjunct. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if a triage-based, nurse-initiated protocol for early provision of ondansetron and ORT could safely improve the care of pediatric emergency department (ED) patients with symptoms of gastroenteritis...
March 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258656/a-novel-missense-mutation-q495k-of-slc26a3-gene-identified-in-a-chinese-child-with-congenital-chloride-losing-diarrhoea
#17
Hongmei Guo, Bi-Xia Zheng, Yu Jin
A partially-breastfed male baby aged 11 months and 22 days was admitted as he had been passing loose stools since birth and had experienced occasional vomiting and failure to thrive. He passed watery stools 8-10 times per day, but there was no blood or mucous. The parents were healthy and their marriage was nonconsanguineous. The antenatal and birth history included polyhydramnios and premature delivery at 35 weeks of gestation. The baby's birthweight was 2.3kg (P23). He was hospitalised several times for persistent diarrhoea before coming to our hospital, but had no episodes of intestinal pseudo-obstruction...
March 4, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248796/how-to-predict-oral-rehydration-failure-in-children-with-gastroenteritis
#18
Dorien Geurts, Ewout W Steyerberg, Henriëtte Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
OBJECTIVES: Oral rehydration is the standard in most current guidelines for young children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Failure of oral rehydration can complicate the disease course, leading to morbidity due to severe dehydration. We aimed to identify prognostic factors of oral rehydration failure in children with AGE. METHODS: Design A prospective, observational study.Setting Emergency department (ED), Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2010- 2012...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205100/efficacy-of-oral-supplemental-hydration-for-the-prevention-of-contrast-induced-nephropathy-in-rats
#19
Tamaki Matsunami, Kazuo Hino, Rie Dosho, Sho Miyatake, Goro Ebisu, Ryohei Kuwatsuru
PURPOSE: To compare oral rehydration solution (ORS) with saline infusion for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) in a rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (310-360 g) received intravenous indomethacin (10 mg/kg), N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 mg/kg), and iohexol (10 mL/kg) to induce acute contrast-induced renal injury (CIN group); control rats received saline only. For hydration, rats received either continuous infusion (20 mL/kg/h) of saline or three oral doses (20 mL/kg each) of ORS...
February 15, 2017: Japanese Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154759/diarrhea-no-more-does-zinc-help-the-poor-evidence-on-the-effectiveness-of-programmatic-efforts-to-reach-poorest-in-delivering-zinc-and-ors-at-scale-in-up-and-gujarat-india
#20
Amnesty E LeFevre, Diwakar Mohan, Sarmila Mazumder, Laura L Lamberti, Sunita Taneja, Robert E Black, Christa L Fischer-Walker
BACKGROUND: India has the greatest burden of diarrhea in children under 5 years globally. The Diarrhea Alleviation through zinc and oral rehydration salts (ORS) Therapy program (2010-2014) sought to improve access to and utilization of zinc and ORS among children 2-59 months in Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, through public and private sector delivery channels. In this analysis, we present findings on program's effect in reducing child-health inequities. METHODS: Data from cross-sectional baseline and endline surveys were used to assess disparities in key outcomes across six dimensions: socioeconomic strata, gender, caregiver education, ethnicity and geography...
December 2016: Journal of Global Health
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