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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643833/modelling-critical-casimir-force-induced-self-assembly-experiments-on-patchy-colloidal-dumbbells
#1
Arthur C Newton, T Anh Nguyen, Sandra J Veen, Daniela J Kraft, Peter Schall, Peter G Bolhuis
Colloidal particles suspended in a binary liquid mixture can interact via solvent mediated interactions, known as critical Casimir forces. For anisotropic colloids this interaction becomes directional, which leads to rich phase behavior. While experimental imaging and particle tracking techniques allow determination of isotropic effective potentials via Boltzmann inversion, the modeling of effective interaction in anisotropic systems is non-trivial precisely because of this directionality. Here we extract effective interaction potentials for non-spherical dumbbell particles from observed radial and angular distributions, by employing reference interaction site model (RISM) theory and direct Monte Carlo simulations...
June 23, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642488/biomimetic-molecular-signaling-using-dna-walkers-on-microparticles
#2
Tulsi Ram Damase, Adam Spencer, Bamidele Samuel, Peter B Allen
We report the release of catalytic DNA walkers from hydrogel microparticles and the detection of those walkers by substrate-coated microparticles. This might be considered a synthetic biology analog of molecular signal release and reception. One type of particles was coated with components of a DNA one-step strand displacement (OSD) reaction to release the walker. A second type of particle was coated with substrate (or "track") for the molecular walker. We distinguish these particle types using fluorescence barcoding: we synthesized and distinguished multiple particle types with multicolor fluorescence microscopy and automated image analysis software...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640636/cross-reactive-synbody-affinity-ligands-for-capturing-diverse-noroviruses
#3
Nidhi Gupta, John C Lainson, Paul E Belcher, Luhui Shen, Hugh S Mason, Stephen Albert Johnston, Chris W Diehnelt
Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis in the developed world. Noroviruses are a diverse group of nonenveloped RNA viruses that are continuously evolving. This leads to the rise of immunologically distinct strains of the same genotype on a frequent basis. This diversity presents a unique challenge for detection and tracking of new strains, with the continuous need for new norovirus affinity ligands. Our group developed a family of bivalent synbody affinity ligands using a virus-like particle (VLP) from the 2006 GII...
June 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640394/in-scan-and-scan-rescan-assessment-of-lv-in-and-outflow-volumes-by-4d-flow-mri-versus-2d-planimetry
#4
Vivian P Kamphuis, Roel L F van der Palen, Patrick J H de Koning, Mohammed S M Elbaz, Rob J van der Geest, Albert de Roos, Arno A W Roest, Jos J M Westenberg
PURPOSE: To evaluate the in-scan and scan-rescan consistency of left ventricular (LV) in- and outflow assessment from 1) 2D planimetry; 2) 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with retrospective valve tracking, and 3) 4D flow MRI with particle tracing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers (age 27 ± 3 years) underwent multislice cine short-axis planimetry and whole-heart 4D flow MRI on a 3T MRI scanner twice with repositioning between the scans...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635670/single-lead-fetal-ecg-extraction-based-on-a-parallel-marginalized-particle-filter
#5
Zhidong Zhao, Huiling Tong, Yanjun Deng, Wen Xu, Yefei Zhang, Haihui Ye
This paper presents a novel method for extracting the fetal ECG (FECG) from a single-lead abdominal signal. A dynamical model for a modified abdominal signal is proposed, in which both the maternal ECG (MECG) and the FECG are modeled, and then a parallel marginalized particle filter (par-MPF) is used for tracking the abdominal signal. Finally, the FECG and MECG are simultaneously separated. Several experiments are conducted using both simulated and clinical signals. The results indicate that the method proposed in this paper effectively extracts the FECG and outperforms other Bayesian filtering algorithms...
June 21, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631757/resolving-mixed-mechanisms-of-protein-subdiffusion-at-the-t-cell-plasma-membrane
#6
Yonatan Golan, Eilon Sherman
The plasma membrane is a complex medium where transmembrane proteins diffuse and interact to facilitate cell function. Membrane protein mobility is affected by multiple mechanisms, including crowding, trapping, medium elasticity and structure, thus limiting our ability to distinguish them in intact cells. Here we characterize the mobility and organization of a short transmembrane protein at the plasma membrane of live T cells, using single particle tracking and photoactivated-localization microscopy. Protein mobility is highly heterogeneous, subdiffusive and ergodic-like...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631141/cell-labeling-with-magneto-endosymbionts-and-the-dissection-of-the-subcellular-location-fate-and-host-cell-interactions
#7
Kayla R Lee, Abdul Wakeel, Papia Chakraborty, Chandler S Foote, Lauren Kajiura, Joyce C Barrozo, Andrea C Chan, Alexey V Bazarov, Ryan Spitler, Peter M Kutny, Jim M Denegre, Rob A Taft, Joachim Seemann, Bradley W Rice, Christopher H Contag, Brian K Rutt, Caleb B Bell
PURPOSE: The purposes of this study are to characterize magneto-endosymbiont (ME) labeling of mammalian cells and to discern the subcellular fate of these living contrast agents. MEs are novel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents that are being used for cell tracking studies. Understanding the fate of MEs in host cells is valuable for designing in vivo cell tracking experiments. PROCEDURES: The ME's surface epitopes, contrast-producing paramagnetic magnetosomal iron, and genome were studied using immunocytochemistry (ICC), Fe and MRI contrast measurements, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629143/nutrients-and-other-environmental-factors-influence-virus-abundances-across-oxic-and-hypoxic-marine-environments
#8
Jan F Finke, Brian P V Hunt, Christian Winter, Eddy C Carmack, Curtis A Suttle
Virus particles are highly abundant in seawater and, on average, outnumber microbial cells approximately 10-fold at the surface and 16-fold in deeper waters; yet, this relationship varies across environments. Here, we examine the influence of a suite of environmental variables, including nutrient concentrations, salinity and temperature, on the relationship between the abundances of viruses and prokaryotes over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales, including along a track from the Northwest Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific via the Arctic Ocean, and in the coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada...
June 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624726/holographic-characterization-of-contaminants-in-water-differentiation-of-suspended-particles-in-heterogeneous-dispersions
#9
Laura A Philips, David B Ruffner, Fook Chiong Cheong, Jaroslaw M Blusewicz, Priya Kasimbeg, Basma Waisi, Jeffrey R McCutcheon, David G Grier
Determining the size distribution and composition of particles suspended in water can be challenging in heterogeneous multicomponent samples. Light scattering techniques can measure the distribution of particle sizes, but provide no basis for distinguishing different types of particles. Direct imaging techniques can categorize particles by shape, but offer few insights into their composition. Holographic characterization meets this need by directly measuring the size, refractive index, and three-dimensional position of individual particles in a suspension...
June 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622682/audio-tracking-in-noisy-environments-by-acoustic-map-and-spectral-signature
#10
Marco Crocco, Samuele Martelli, Andrea Trucco, Andrea Zunino, Vittorio Murino
A novel method is proposed for generic target tracking by audio measurements from a microphone array. To cope with noisy environments characterized by persistent and high energy interfering sources, a classification map (CM) based on spectral signatures is calculated by means of a machine learning algorithm. Next, the CM is combined with the acoustic map, describing the spatial distribution of sound energy, in order to obtain a cleaned joint map in which contributions from the disturbing sources are removed...
June 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621795/machine-learning-for-autonomous-crystal-structure-identification
#11
Wesley F Reinhart, Andrew W Long, Michael P Howard, Andrew L Ferguson, Athanassios Z Panagiotopoulos
We present a machine learning technique to discover and distinguish relevant ordered structures from molecular simulation snapshots or particle tracking data. Unlike other popular methods for structural identification, our technique requires no a priori description of the target structures. Instead, we use nonlinear manifold learning to infer structural relationships between particles according to the topology of their local environment. This graph-based approach yields unbiased structural information which allows us to quantify the crystalline character of particles near defects, grain boundaries, and interfaces...
June 16, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619527/expression-of-full-length-her2-protein-in-sf9-insect-cells-and-its-presentation-on-the-surface-of-budded-virus-like-particles
#12
Lisa Nika, Jakob Wallner, Dieter Palmberger, Krisztina Koczka, Karola Vorauer-Uhl, Reingard Grabherr
Biomarkers of cancer are often glycosylated membrane receptor proteins present on the cellular surface. In order to develop new antibodies for cancer diagnostics or treatment, it is a main pre-requisite that these target proteins are available in a native conformation. However, membrane receptor proteins are notoriously difficult to produce due to their hydrophobic nature and complex architecture. Here, we used the baculovirus-insect cell expression system to produce budded virus-like particles (VLPs) as the scaffold for the presentation of complex membrane proteins...
June 12, 2017: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616962/size-dependent-translocation-of-nanoemulsions-via-oral-delivery
#13
Fei Xia, Wufa Fan, Sifan Jiang, Yuhua Ma, Yi Lu, Jianping Qi, Ejaj Ahmad, Xiaochun Dong, Weili Zhao, Wei Wu
The in vivo translocation of nanoemulsions was tracked by imaging tools with emphasis on the size effect. To guarantee accurate identification of nanoemulsions in vivo, water-quenching environment-responsive near-infrared fluorescent probes were used to label nanoemulsions. Imaging evidence confirms prominent digestion in gastrointestinal tract and oral absorption of integral nanoemulsions that survive digestion by enteric epithelia in a size-dependent way. In general, reducing particle size leads to slowed in vitro lipolysis and in vivo digestion, prolonged lifetime in small intestine, increased enteric epithelial uptake, and enhanced transportation to various organs...
June 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616948/sub-diffraction-limit-localization-imaging-of-a-plasmonic-nanoparticle-pair-with-wavelength-resolved-dark-field-microscopy
#14
Lin Wei, Yanhong Ma, Xupeng Zhu, Jianghong Xu, Yaxin Wang, Huigao Duan, Lehui Xiao
In this work, with wavelength-resolved dark-field microscopy, the center-of-mass localization information from nanoparticle pairs (i.e., spherical (45 nm in diameter) and rod (45 × 70 nm) shaped gold nanoparticle pairs with different gap distances and orientations) was explored and compared with the results determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. When the gap distance was less than 20 nm, the scattering spectrum of the nanoparticle pair was seriously modulated by the plasmonic coupling effect...
June 15, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615207/allosteric-hiv-1-integrase-inhibitors-lead-to-premature-degradation-of-the-viral-rna-genome-and-integrase-in-target-cells
#15
Michaela K Madison, Dana Q Lawson, Jennifer Elliott, Ayşe Naz Ozantürk, Pratibha C Koneru, Dana Townsend, Manel Errando, Mamuka Kvaratskhelia, Sebla B Kutluay
Recent evidence indicates that inhibition of HIV-1 integrase (IN) binding to the viral RNA genome by allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) or through mutations within IN yields aberrant particles, in which the viral ribonucleoprotein complexes (vRNPs) are eccentrically localized outside the capsid lattice. These particles are non-infectious and blocked at an early reverse transcription stage in target cells. However, the basis of this reverse transcription defect is unknown. Here we show that the viral RNA genome and IN from ALLINI-treated virions are prematurely degraded in target cells, whereas reverse transcriptase remains active and stably associated with the capsid lattice...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615197/microtubule-regulation-and-function-during-virus-infection
#16
Mojgan H Naghavi, Derek Walsh
Microtubules (MTs) form a rapidly adaptable network of filaments that radiate throughout the cell. These dynamic arrays facilitate a wide range of cellular processes including the capture, transport and spatial organization of cargos and organelles, as well as changes in cell shape, polarity and motility. Nucleating from MT organizing centers including, but by no means limited to the centrosome, MTs undergo rapid transitions through phases of growth, pause and catastrophe, continuously exploring and adapting to the intracellular environment...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614318/robust-real-time-3d-single-particle-tracking-using-a-dynamically-moving-laser-spot
#17
Shangguo Hou, Xiaoqi Lang, Kevin Welsher
Real-time three-dimensional (3D) single-particle tracking uses optical feedback to lock on to freely diffusing nanoscale fluorescent particles, permitting precise 3D localization and continuous spectroscopic interrogation. Here we describe a new method of real-time 3D single-particle tracking wherein a diffraction-limited laser spot is dynamically swept through the detection volume in three dimensions using a two-dimensional (2D) electro-optic deflector and a tunable acoustic gradient lens. This optimized method, called 3D dynamic photon localization tracking (3D-DyPLoT), enables high-speed real-time tracking of single silica-coated non-blinking quantum dots (∼30  nm diameter) with diffusive speeds exceeding 10  μm<sup>2</sup>/s at count rates as low as 10 kHz, as well as YFP-labeled virus-like particles...
June 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613334/contrasting-the-dynamics-of-elastic-and-non-elastic-deformations-across-an-experimental-colloidal-martensitic-transition
#18
Saswati Ganguly, Priti S Mohanty, Peter Schurtenberger, Surajit Sengupta, Anand Yethiraj
We present a framework to segregate the roles of elastic and non-elastic deformations in the examination of real-space experiments of solid-solid Martensitic transitions. The Martensitic transformation of a body-centred-tetragonal (BCT) to a body-centred-orthorhombic (BCO) crystal structure has been studied in a model system of micron-scale ionic microgel colloids (P. S. Mohanty, P. Bagheri, S. Nöjd, A. Yethiraj and P. Schurtenberger, Phys. Rev. X, 2015, 5, 011030). Non-affine fluctuations, i.e., displacement fluctuations that do not arise from purely elastic (affine) deformations, are detected in particle configurations acquired from the experiment...
June 14, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608687/upconverting-nanoparticles-as-optical-sensors-of-nano-to-micro-newton-forces
#19
Alice Lay, Derek S Wang, Michael D Wisser, Randy D Mehlenbacher, Yu Lin, Miriam B Goodman, Wendy L Mao, Jennifer A Dionne
Mechanical forces affect a myriad of processes, from bone growth to material fracture to touch-responsive robotics. While nano- to micro-Newton forces are prevalent at the microscopic scale, few methods have the nanoscopic size and signal stability to measure them in vivo or in situ. Here, we develop an optical force-sensing platform based on sub-25 nm NaYF4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped with Yb(3+), Er(3+), and Mn(2+). The lanthanides Yb(3+) and Er(3+) enable both photoluminescence and upconversion, while the energetically coupled d-metal Mn(2+) adds force tunability through its crystal field sensitivity...
June 13, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601907/high-glucose-increases-the-formation-and-pro-oxidative-activity-of-endothelial-microparticles
#20
Dylan Burger, Maddison Turner, Fengxia Xiao, Mercedes N Munkonda, Shareef Akbari, Kevin D Burns
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Individuals with diabetes exhibit increases in circulating endothelial microparticles (eMPs, also referred to as endothelial microvesicles), which are associated with endothelial dysfunction and a heightened risk of cardiovascular complications. We have shown that eMPs are markers and mediators of vascular injury although their role in diabetes is unclear. We hypothesised that the composition and biological activity of eMPs are altered in response to high glucose exposure...
June 10, 2017: Diabetologia
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