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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328973/feeding-inhibition-in-corbicula-fluminea-o-f-muller-1774-as-an-effect-criterion-to-pollutant-exposure-perspectives-for-ecotoxicity-screening-and-refinement-of-chemical-control
#1
Bruno Branco Castro, Carlos Silva, Inês Patrunilho Efe Macário, Bruno Oliveira, Fernando Gonçalves, Joana Luísa Pereira
Bivalves are commonly used in biomonitoring programs to track pollutants. Several features, including its filter-feeding abilities, cumulatively argue in favour of the use of the Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea) as a biosentinel and an ecotoxicological model. Filtration in bivalves is very sensitive to external stimuli and its control is dictated by regulation of the opening/closure of the valves, which may be used as an avoidance defence against contaminants. Here, we investigate the filter-feeding behaviour of the Asian clam as an endpoint for assessing exposure to pollutants, driven by two complementary goals: (i) to generate relevant and sensitive toxicological information based on the ability of C...
January 4, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327460/nanocrystal-polymer-particles-extended-delivery-carriers-for-osteoarthritis-treatment
#2
Pierre Maudens, Christian Alexander Seemayer, Cédric Thauvin, Cem Gabay, Olivier Jordan, Eric Allémann
An efficient treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) can benefit from the local release of a high therapeutic dose over an extended period of time. Such a treatment will minimize systemic side effects and avoid the inconvenience of frequent injections. To this aim, nanocrystal-polymer particles (NPPs) are developed by combining the advantages of nanotechnology and microparticles. Nanocrystals are produced by wet milling kartogenin (KGN), which is known to promote chondrogenesis and to foster chondroprotection. A fluorescent biodegradable polymer is synthesized for intravital particle tracking...
January 12, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320738/trapping-of-syntaxin1a-in-presynaptic-nanoclusters-by-a-clinically-relevant-general-anesthetic
#3
Adekunle T Bademosi, James Steeves, Shanker Karunanithi, Oressia H Zalucki, Rachel S Gormal, Shu Liu, Elsa Lauwers, Patrik Verstreken, Victor Anggono, Frederic A Meunier, Bruno van Swinderen
Propofol is the most commonly used general anesthetic in humans. Our understanding of its mechanism of action has focused on its capacity to potentiate inhibitory systems in the brain. However, it is unknown whether other neural mechanisms are involved in general anesthesia. Here, we demonstrate that the synaptic release machinery is also a target. Using single-particle tracking photoactivation localization microscopy, we show that clinically relevant concentrations of propofol and etomidate restrict syntaxin1A mobility on the plasma membrane, whereas non-anesthetic analogs produce the opposite effect and increase syntaxin1A mobility...
January 9, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317715/hybtrack-a-hybrid-single-particle-tracking-software-using-manual-and-automatic-detection-of-dim-signals
#4
Byung Hun Lee, Hye Yoon Park
Single particle tracking is a compelling technique for investigating the dynamics of nanoparticles and biological molecules in a broad range of research fields. In particular, recent advances in fluorescence microscopy have made single molecule tracking a prevalent method for studying biomolecules with a high spatial and temporal precision. Particle tracking algorithms have matured over the past three decades into more easily accessible platforms. However, there is an inherent difficulty in tracing particles that have a low signal-to-noise ratio and/or heterogeneous subpopulations...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316459/a-discrete-particle-model-reproducing-collective-dynamics-of-a-bee-swarm
#5
Sara Bernardi, Annachiara Colombi, Marco Scianna
In this article, we present a microscopic discrete mathematical model describing collective dynamics of a bee swarm. More specifically, each bee is set to move according to individual strategies and social interactions, the former involving the desire to reach a target destination, the latter accounting for repulsive/attractive stimuli and for alignment processes. The insects tend in fact to remain sufficiently close to the rest of the population, while avoiding collisions, and they are able to track and synchronize their movement to the flight of a given set of neighbors within their visual field...
January 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315860/nanoparticle-cell-interaction-a-cell-mechanics-perspective
#6
REVIEW
Dedy Septiadi, Federica Crippa, Thomas Lee Moore, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Alke Petri-Fink
Progress in the field of nanoparticles has enabled the rapid development of multiple products and technologies; however, some nanoparticles can pose both a threat to the environment and human health. To enable their safe implementation, a comprehensive knowledge of nanoparticles and their biological interactions is needed. In vitro and in vivo toxicity tests have been considered the gold standard to evaluate nanoparticle safety, but it is becoming necessary to understand the impact of nanosystems on cell mechanics...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315267/experimental-evaluation-of-uwb-indoor-positioning-for-sport-postures
#7
Matteo Ridolfi, Stef Vandermeeren, Jense Defraye, Heidi Steendam, Joeri Gerlo, Dirk De Clercq, Jeroen Hoebeke, Eli De Poorter
Radio frequency (RF)-based indoor positioning systems (IPSs) use wireless technologies (including Wi-Fi, Zigbee, Bluetooth, and ultra-wide band (UWB)) to estimate the location of persons in areas where no Global Positioning System (GPS) reception is available, for example in indoor stadiums or sports halls. Of the above-mentioned forms of radio frequency (RF) technology, UWB is considered one of the most accurate approaches because it can provide positioning estimates with centimeter-level accuracy. However, it is not yet known whether UWB can also offer such accurate position estimates during strenuous dynamic activities in which moves are characterized by fast changes in direction and velocity...
January 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313356/sub-cellular-nanorheology-reveals-lysosomal-viscosity-as-a-reporter-for-lysosomal-storage-diseases
#8
John Devany, Kasturi Chakraborty, Yamuna Krishnan
We describe a new method to measure viscosity within sub-cellular organelles of a living cell using nanorheology. We demonstrate proof of concept by measuring viscosity in lysosomes in multiple cell types and disease models. The lysosome is an organelle, which is responsible for the breakdown of complex biomolecules. When different lysosomal proteins are defective, they are unable to breakdown specific biological substrates, that get stored within the lysosome, causing about 70 fatal diseases called lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs)...
January 9, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312614/3d-structured-illumination-microscopy-reveals-clustered-dna-double-strand-break-formation-in-widespread-%C3%AE-h2ax-foci-after-high-let-heavy-ion-particle-radiation
#9
Yoshihiko Hagiwara, Atsuko Niimi, Mayu Isono, Motohiro Yamauchi, Takaaki Yasuhara, Siripan Limsirichaikul, Takahiro Oike, Hiro Sato, Kathryn D Held, Takashi Nakano, Atsushi Shibata
DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionising radiation are considered the major cause of genotoxic mutations and cell death. While DSBs are dispersed throughout chromatin after X-rays or γ-irradiation, multiple types of DNA damage including DSBs, single-strand breaks and base damage can be generated within 1-2 helical DNA turns, defined as a complex DNA lesion, after high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particle irradiation. In addition to the formation of complex DNA lesions, recent evidence suggests that multiple DSBs can be closely generated along the tracks of high LET particle irradiation...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306169/water-exclosure-treatment-system-wets-an-innovative-device-for-minimizing-beach-closures
#10
John R Reimer, Chin H Wu, Kirsti K Sorsa
A Water Exclosure Treatment System (WETS) is developed and installed to minimize the occurrence of beach closures due to algae and Escherchia coli (E. coli) in an inland lake. WETS consists of an "exclosure" sub-system with a five-sided polypropylene, barrier that excludes offshore lake contaminated water from the swimming area. Inside the exclosure, water is pumped to a portable filtration-ultraviolet treatment sub-system with three components. First, heavy debris like aquatic plants are removed through a strainer...
January 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305613/optimized-time-resolved-echo-piv-ptv-measurements-elucidate-blood-flow-in-patients-with-left-ventricular-thrombus
#11
Kaushik Sampath, Thura T Harfi, Ricard/T George, Joseph Katz
Contrast ultrasound is a widely used clinical tool to obtain real-time qualitative blood flow assessments in the heart, liver, etc. Echocardiographic particle image velocimetry (echo-PIV) is a technique for obtaining quantitative velocity maps from contrast ultrasound images. However, unlike optical PIV, routine echo images are prone to non-uniform spatiotemporal variations in tracer distribution, making analysis difficult for standard PIV algorithms. This study introduces optimized procedures that integrate image enhancement, PIV and particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) to obtain reliable time-resolved 2D velocity distributions...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305112/design-and-intestinal-mucus-penetration-mechanism-of-core-shell-nanocomplex
#12
Xin Zhang, Hongbo Cheng, Wei Dong, Meixia Zhang, Qiaoyu Liu, Xiuhua Wang, Jian Guan, Wu Haiyang, Shirui Mao
The objective of this study was to design intestinal mucus-penetrating core-shell nanocomplex by functionally mimicking the surface of virus, which can be used as the carrier for peroral delivery of macromolecules, and further understand the influence of nanocomplex surface properties on the mucosal permeation capacity. Taking insulin as a model drug, the core was formed by the self-assembly among positively charged chitosan, insulin and negatively charged sodium tripolyphosphate, different types of alginates were used as the shell forming material...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300729/novel-magnetic-multicore-nanoparticles-designed-for-mpi-and-other-biomedical-applications-from-synthesis-to-first-in-vivo-studies
#13
Harald Kratz, Matthias Taupitz, Angela Ariza de Schellenberger, Olaf Kosch, Dietmar Eberbeck, Susanne Wagner, Lutz Trahms, Bernd Hamm, Jörg Schnorr
Synthesis of novel magnetic multicore particles (MCP) in the nano range, involves alkaline precipitation of iron(II) chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen. This step yields green rust, which is oxidized to obtain magnetic nanoparticles, which probably consist of a magnetite/maghemite mixed-phase. Final growth and annealing at 90°C in the presence of a large excess of carboxymethyl dextran gives MCP very promising magnetic properties for magnetic particle imaging (MPI), an emerging medical imaging modality, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300163/robust-model-based-analysis-of-single-particle-tracking-experiments-with-spot-on
#14
Anders S Hansen, Maxime Woringer, Jonathan B Grimm, Luke D Lavis, Robert Tjian, Xavier Darzacq
Single-particle tracking (SPT) has become an important method to bridge biochemistry and cell biology since it allows direct observation of protein binding and diffusion dynamics in live cells. However, accurately inferring information from SPT studies is challenging due to biases in both data analysis and experimental design. To address analysis bias, we introduce 'Spot-On', an intuitive web-interface. Spot-On implements a kinetic modeling framework that accounts for known biases, including molecules moving out-of-focus, and robustly infers diffusion constants and subpopulations from pooled single-molecule trajectories...
January 4, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290284/oral-cancer-derived-exosomal-nap1-enhances-cytotoxicity-of-natural-killer-cells-via-the-irf-3-pathway
#15
Yingnan Wang, Xing Qin, Xueqin Zhu, Wanjun Chen, Jianjun Zhang, Wantao Chen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of oral cancer-derived exosomes (OCEXs) on natural killer (NK) cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OCEXs were isolated from the cell culture supernatant of oral cancer (OC) cells using ultrafiltration and affinity chromatography and were identified using electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) and immunoblotting. The effects of OCEXs on NK cells were analyzed using laser scanning confocal microscopy and several functional assays of NK cells...
January 2018: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289030/structural-microrheological-and-kinetic-properties-of-a-ternary-silica-pluronic-f127-starch-thermosensitive-system
#16
Yana Petkova-Olsson, Claude Oelschlaeger, Henrik Ullsten, Lars Järnström
HYPOTHESIS: The sol-gel transition in aqueous suspensions consisting of silica particles and thermosensitive polymer is controlled by inter-particle forces and solution properties of the polymer. Addition of a second non-thermosensitive polymer may affect the transition. The purpose of this work was to characterize the kinetics of the sol-gel transition and to understand the effects of a second non-thermosensitive polymer on the microstructure, using a combination of classical rheology and microrheology...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289013/quantitative-model-of-carbon-and-nitrogen-isotope-composition-to-highlight-phosphorus-cycling-and-sources-in-coastal-sediments-toulon-bay-france
#17
Duc Huy Dang, R Douglas Evans, Gael Durrieu, Nicolas Layglon, Amonda El Houssainy, Jean-Ulrich Mullot, Véronique Lenoble, Stéphane Mounier, Cédric Garnier
Nutrient loadings from either point or non-point sources to the environment are related to the growing global population. Subsequent negative impacts of nutrient loading to aquatic environments requires a better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling and better tools to track their sources. This study examines the carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) discharge and cycling in a Mediterranean coastal area from rivers to marine sediments and assesses the anthropogenic contributions. Carbon and N concentrations and isotope compositions in rivers particles, surface sediments, and sediment cores were investigated to build up a quantitative multiple-end-member mixing model for C and N isotopes...
December 21, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288465/numerical-comparison-of-nasal-aerosol-administration-systems-for-efficient-nose-to-brain-drug-delivery
#18
Jingliang Dong, Yidan Shang, Kiao Inthavong, Hak-Kim Chan, Jiyuan Tu
PURPOSE: Nose-to-brain drug administration along the olfactory and trigeminal nerve pathways offers an alternative route for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. The characterization of particle deposition remains difficult to achieve in experiments. Alternative numerical approach is applied to identify suitable aerosol particle size with maximized inhaled doses. METHODS: This study numerically compared the drug delivery efficiency in a realistic human nasal cavity between two aerosol drug administration systems targeting the olfactory region: the aerosol mask system and the breath-powered bi-directional system...
December 29, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286426/afm-and-microrheology-in-the-zebrafish-embryo-yolk-cell
#19
Maria Marsal, Ignasi Jorba, Elena Rebollo, Tomas Luque, Daniel Navajas, Enrique Martín-Blanco
Elucidating the factors that direct the spatio-temporal organization of evolving tissues is one of the primary purposes in the study of development. Various propositions claim to have been important contributions to the understanding of the mechanical properties of cells and tissues in their spatiotemporal organization in different developmental and morphogenetic processes. However, due to the lack of reliable and accessible tools to measure material properties and tensional parameters in vivo, validating these hypotheses has been difficult...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284988/comparing-on-road-real-time-simultaneous-in-cabin-and-outdoor-particulate-and-gaseous-concentrations-for-a-range-of-ventilation-scenarios
#20
Anna Leavey, Nathan Reed, Sameer Patel, Kevin Bradley, Pramod Kulkarni, Pratim Biswas
Advanced automobile technology, developed infrastructure, and changing economic markets have resulted in increasing commute times. Traffic is a major source of harmful pollutants and consequently daily peak exposures tend to occur near roadways or while traveling on them. The objective of this study was to measure simultaneous real-time particulate matter (particle numbers, lung-deposited surface area, PM2.5, particle number size distributions) and CO concentrations outside and in-cabin of an on-road car during regular commutes to and from work...
October 2017: Atmospheric Environment
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