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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148702/influence-of-particle-geometry-on-gastrointestinal-transit-and-absorption-following-oral-administration
#1
Dong Li, Jie Zhuang, Haisheng He, Sifan Jiang, Amrita Banerjee, Yi Lu, Wei Wu, Samir Mitragotri, Li Gan, Jianping Qi
Geometry has been considered as one of the important parameters in nanoparticle design since it affects cellular uptake, transport across the physiological barriers and in vivo distribution. However, only a few studies have been conducted to elucidate the influence of nanoparticle geometry in their in vivo fate after oral administration. This paper discloses the effect of nanoparticle shape on transport and absorption in gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Nanorods and nanospheres were prepared, and labeled using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) molecules to track the in vivo fate of intact nanoparticles accurately...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145447/from-bead-to-rod-comparison-of-theories-by-measuring-translational-drag-coefficients-of-micron-sized-magnetic-bead-chains-in-stokes-flow
#2
Kaiyuan Yang, Chen Lu, Xiaodan Zhao, Ryo Kawamura
Frictional drag force on an object in Stokes flow follows a linear relationship with the velocity of translation and a translational drag coefficient. This drag coefficient is related to the size, shape, and orientation of the object. For rod-like objects, analytical solutions of the drag coefficients have been proposed based on three rough approximations of the rod geometry, namely the bead model, ellipsoid model, and cylinder model. These theories all agree that translational drag coefficients of rod-like objects are functions of the rod length and aspect ratio, but differ among one another on the correction factor terms in the equations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144410/evaluation-of-different-single-walled-carbon-nanotube-surface-coatings-for-single-particle-tracking-applications-in-biological-environments
#3
Zhenghong Gao, Noémie Danné, Antoine Guillaume Godin, Brahim Lounis, Laurent Cognet
Fluorescence imaging of biological systems down to the single-molecule level has generated many advances in cellular biology. For applications within intact tissue, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are emerging as distinctive single-molecule nanoprobes, due to their near-infrared photoluminescence properties. For this, SWCNT surfaces must be coated using adequate molecular moieties. Yet, the choice of the suspension agent is critical since it influences both the chemical and emission properties of the SWCNTs within their environment...
November 16, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143174/single-cell-imaging-using-radioluminescence-microscopy-reveals-unexpected-binding-target-for-18f-hfb
#4
Louise Kiru, Tae Jin Kim, Bin Shen, Frederick T Chin, Guillem Pratx
PURPOSE: Cell-based therapies are showing great promise for a variety of diseases, but remain hindered by the limited information available regarding the biological fate, migration routes and differentiation patterns of infused cells in trials. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility of using positron emission tomography (PET) to track single cells utilising an approach known as positron emission particle tracking (PEPT). The radiolabel hexadecyl-4-[(18)F]fluorobenzoate ([(18)F]HFB) was identified as a promising candidate for PEPT, due to its efficient and long-lasting labelling capabilities...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140566/mesenchymal-stem-cell-preparation-and-transfection-free-ferumoxytol-labeling-for-mri-cell-tracking
#5
Li Liu, Chien Ho
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells and are the most widely studied cell type for stem cell therapies. In vivo cell tracking of MSCs labeled with an FDA-approved superparamagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) particle by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides essential information, e.g., MSC engraftment, survival, and fate, thus improving cell therapy accuracy. However, current methodology for labeling MSCs with Ferumoxytol (Feraheme(®) ), the only FDA-approved SPIO particle, needs transfection agents...
November 15, 2017: Current Protocols in Stem Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137157/in-situ-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-a-hydrogel-of-carboxymethyl-cellulose-with-phthalated-cashew-gum-as-a-promising-antibacterial-and-healing-agent
#6
Ana Karina Marques Fortes Lustosa, Antônia Carla de Jesus Oliveira, Patrick Veras Quelemes, Alexandra Plácido, Francilene Vieira da Silva, Irisdalva Sousa Oliveira, Miguel Peixoto de Almeida, Adriany das Graças Nascimento Amorim, Cristina Delerue-Matos, Rita de Cássia Meneses de Oliveira, Durcilene Alves da Silva, Peter Eaton, José Roberto de Souza de Almeida Leite
Silver nanoparticles have been shown to possess considerable antibacterial activity, but in vivo applications have been limited due to the inherent, but low, toxicity of silver. On the other hand, silver nanoparticles could provide cutaneous protection against infection, due to their ability to liberate silver ions via a slow release mechanism, and their broad-spectrum antimicrobial action. Thus, in this work, we describe the development of a carboxymethyl cellulose-based hydrogel containing silver nanoparticles...
November 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135258/effect-of-substrate-temperature-on-pattern-formation-of-bi-dispersed-particles-from-volatile-drops
#7
Maryam Parsa, Souad Harmand, Khellil Sefiane, Maxence Bigerelle, Raphaël Deltombe
In this study, pattern formation during evaporation of bi-dispersed drops (containing 1 and 3.2 μm particles) placed on a smooth substrate at different temperatures is investigated. Five distinctive deposition patterns are observed depending on the substrate temperature: a relatively uniform pattern enclosed by a disk-shaped ring, a nearly non-uniform pattern inside a thick outer ring, a "dual-ring" pattern, a "rose-like" pattern, and a set of concentric rings corresponding to "stick-slip" pattern. At drops edge, the particle size effect leads to the formation of three rings: an outermost ring formed by the non-volatile additives smaller than 1 μm, a middle ring built by particles with size of 1 μm, and an innermost ring formed by the mixture of 1 and 3...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133160/the-changes-of-red-blood-cell-viscoelasticity-and-sports-anemia-in-male-24-hr-ultra-marathoners
#8
Che-Hung Liu, Yen-Fang Tseng, Jiun-I Lai, Yin-Quan Chen, Shih-Hao Wang, Wei-Fong Kao, Li-Hua Li, Yu-Hui Chiu, Chorng-Kuang How, Wen-Han Chang
BACKGROUND: In endurance sports, stress, dehydration and release of chemical factors have been associated with red blood cell (RBC) alterations of structure and function, which may contribute to sports anemia, a well-observed phenomenon during long-distance running. Until now, the investigation of the changes of viscoelastic properties of RBC membrane, a decisive factor of RBC deformability to avoid hemolysis, is lacking, especially in an Oriental population. METHODS: nineteen runners were prospectively recruited into our study...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131217/brownian-dynamics-simulations-of-analytical-ultracentrifugation-experiments-exhibiting-hydrodynamic-and-thermodynamic-non-ideality
#9
M J Uttinger, J Walter, T Thajudeen, S E Wawra, W Peukert
Hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-ideality are important phenomena when studying concentrated and interacting systems in analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC). Here we present an extended Brownian Dynamics (BD) based algorithm which incorporates hydrodynamic and thermodynamic non-ideality. It can serve as an independent and versatile approach for the theoretical description of interparticulate interactions in AUC, as it allows tracking the trajectory of individual particles. Concentration dependencies of the sedimentation and diffusion coefficient have been implemented and validated for the extended BD model...
November 13, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129332/aerosol-deposition-predictions-in-computed-tomography-derived-skeletons-from-severe-asthmatics-a-feasibility-study
#10
REVIEW
Shinjiro Miyawaki, Eric A Hoffman, Sally E Wenzel, Ching-Long Lin
BACKGROUND: The authors numerically investigated the correlation between airway skeletons of severe asthmatic human subjects and predicted aerosol deposition to shed light on the effect of environmental factors on asthma risk. We hypothesized that there are asthmatic subjects whose airway skeletal structure can expose the subject to a risk of higher local aerosol deposition compared to subjects with a more common/normal branching pattern. METHODS: From a population of severe asthmatics studied at total lung capacity via computed tomography we randomly selected 8 subjects whose Forced Expiratory Volume in 1s, percent predicted fell below 45% predicted...
November 4, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127741/plpa-a-pilz-like-protein-regulates-directed-motility-of-the-bacterium-myxococcus-xanthus
#11
Connor B Pogue, Tianyi Zhou, Beiyan Nan
The rod-shaped bacterium Myxococcus xanthus moves on surfaces along its long cell axis and reverses its moving direction regularly. Current models propose that the asymmetric localization of a Ras-like GTPase, MglA, to leading cell poles determines the moving direction of cells. However, cells are still motile in the mutants where MglA localizes symmetrically, suggesting the existence of additional regulators that control moving direction. In this study, we identified PlpA, a PilZ-like protein that regulates the direction of motility...
November 11, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126438/therapeutic-effects-of-bone-marrow-derived-mononuclear-cells-from-healthy-or-silicotic-donors-on-recipient-silicosis-mice
#12
Helena D'Anunciação de Oliveira, Elga Bernardo Bandeira de Melo, Johnatas Dutra Silva, Jamil Zola Kitoko, Bianca Gutfilen, Thiago Barboza, Sergio Augusto Lopes de Souza, Christina Maeda Takiya, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Marcelo Marcos Morales
BACKGROUND: Administration of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMCs) modulates lung inflammation and fibrosis in experimental silicosis. However, no studies have evaluated whether silicosis affects the efficacy of autologous BMMCs treatment. We hypothesized that BMMCs obtained from healthy or silicotic mice may improve lung function, but they might affect the inflammatory and fibrotic processes differently in experimental silicosis. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control (C) and silicosis (SIL) groups...
November 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125756/hepatitis-b-virus-capsid-completion-occurs-through-error-correction
#13
Corinne A Lutomski, Nicholas A Lyktey, Zhongchao Zhao, Elizabeth E Pierson, Adam Zlotnick, Martin F Jarrold
Understanding capsid assembly is important because of its role in virus lifecycles and in applications to drug discovery and nanomaterial development. Many virus capsids are icosahedral, and assembly is thought to occur by the sequential addition of capsid protein subunits to a nucleus, with the final step completing the icosahedron. Almost nothing is known about the final (completion) step because the techniques usually used to study capsid assembly lack the resolution. In this work, charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) has been used to track the assembly of the T = 4 hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid in real time...
November 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123156/universal-glass-forming-behavior-of-in-vitro-and-living-cytoplasm
#14
Kenji Nishizawa, Kei Fujiwara, Masahiro Ikenaga, Nobushige Nakajo, Miho Yanagisawa, Daisuke Mizuno
Physiological processes in cells are performed efficiently without getting jammed although cytoplasm is highly crowded with various macromolecules. Elucidating the physical machinery is challenging because the interior of a cell is so complex and driven far from equilibrium by metabolic activities. Here, we studied the mechanics of in vitro and living cytoplasm using the particle-tracking and manipulation technique. The molecular crowding effect on cytoplasmic mechanics was selectively studied by preparing simple in vitro models of cytoplasm from which both the metabolism and cytoskeletons were removed...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122238/environmental-control-of-harmful-dinoflagellates-and-diatoms-in-a-fjordic-system
#15
Ruth F Paterson, Sharon McNeill, Elaine Mitchell, Thomas Adams, Sarah C Swan, Dave Clarke, Peter I Miller, Eileen Bresnan, Keith Davidson
Fjordic coastlines provide an ideal protected environment for both finfish and shellfish aquaculture operations. This study reports the results of a cruise to the Scottish Clyde Sea, and associated fjordic sea lochs, that coincided with blooms of the diarrhetic shellfish toxin producing dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta and the diatom genus Chaetoceros, that can generate finfish mortalities. Unusually, D. acuta reached one order of magnitude higher cell abundance in the water column (2840cellsL(-1)) than the more common Dinophysis acuminata (200cellsL(-1)) and was linked with elevated shellfish toxicity (maximum 601±237μg OA eq/kg shellfish flesh) which caused shellfish harvesting closures in the region...
November 2017: Harmful Algae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118446/imaging-cellulose-synthase-motility-during-primary-cell-wall-synthesis-in-the-grass-brachypodium-distachyon
#16
Derui Liu, Nina Zehfroosh, Brandon L Hancock, Kevin Hines, Wenjuan Fang, Maria Kilfoil, Erik Learned-Miller, Karen A Sanguinet, Lori S Goldner, Tobias I Baskin
The mechanism of cellulose synthesis has been studied by characterizing the motility of cellulose synthase complexes tagged with a fluorescent protein; however, this approach has been used exclusively on the hypocotyl of Arabidopsis thaliana. Here we characterize cellulose synthase motility in the model grass, Brachypodium distachyon. We generated lines in which mEGFP is fused N-terminal to BdCESA3 or BdCESA6 and which grew indistinguishably from the wild type (Bd21-3) and had dense fluorescent puncta at or near the plasma membrane...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118422/river-bed-armouring-as-a-granular-segregation-phenomenon
#17
Behrooz Ferdowsi, Carlos P Ortiz, Morgane Houssais, Douglas J Jerolmack
River bed-load transport is a kind of dense granular flow, and such flows are known to segregate grains. While gravel-river beds typically have an "armoured" layer of coarse grains on the surface, which acts to protect finer particles underneath from erosion, the contribution of granular physics to river-bed armouring has not yet been investigated. Here we examine these connections in a laboratory river with bimodal sediment size, by tracking the motion of particles from the surface to deep inside the bed, and find that armour develops by two distinct mechanisms...
November 8, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118359/visualization-and-quantification-of-injury-to-the-ciliated-epithelium-using-quantitative-flow-imaging-and-speckle-variance-optical-coherence-tomography
#18
Ute A Gamm, Brendan K Huang, Emily K Mis, Mustafa K Khokha, Michael A Choma
Mucociliary flow is an important defense mechanism in the lung to remove inhaled pathogens and pollutants. Disruption of ciliary flow can lead to respiratory infections. Multiple factors, from drugs to disease can cause an alteration in ciliary flow. However, less attention has been given to injury of the ciliated epithelium. In this study, we show how optical coherence tomography (OCT) can be used to investigate injury to the ciliated epithelium in a multi-contrast setting. We used particle tracking velocimetry (PTV-OCT) to investigate the cilia-driven flow field and 3D speckle variance imaging to investigate size and extent of injury caused to the skin of Xenopus embryos...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118122/unique-directional-motility-of-influenza-c-virus-controlled-by-its-filamentous-morphology-and-short-range-motions
#19
Tatsuya Sakai, Hiroaki Takagi, Yasushi Muraki, Mineki Saito
Influenza virus motility is based on cooperation between two viral spike proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), and is a major determinant of virus infectivity. To translocate a virus particle on the cell surface, HA molecules exchange viral receptors and NA molecules accelerate the receptor exchange of HA. This type of virus motility was recently identified in influenza A virus (IAV). To determine if other influenza virus types have a similar receptor-exchange mechanism-driven motility, we investigated influenza C virus (ICV) motility on a receptor-fixed glass surface...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117530/cytoplasmic-flow-and-mixing-due-to-deformation-of-motile-cells
#20
Elena F Koslover, Caleb K Chan, Julie A Theriot
The cytoplasm of a living cell is a dynamic environment through which intracellular components must move and mix. In motile, rapidly deforming cells such as human neutrophils, bulk cytoplasmic flow couples cell deformation to the transport and dispersion of cytoplasmic particles. Using particle-tracking measurements in live neutrophil-like cells, we demonstrate that fluid flow associated with the cell deformation contributes to the motion of small acidic organelles, dominating over diffusion on timescales above a few seconds...
November 7, 2017: Biophysical Journal
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