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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214945/characterization-of-tunneling-nanotubes-in-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-an-intercellular-exchange-of-components-between-neighboring-cells
#1
Viviana Sanchez, Nerina Villalba, Luciano Fiore, Carlos Luzzani, Santiago Miriuka, Alberto Boveris, Ricardo J Gelpi, Alicia Brusco, Juan José Poderoso
Intercellular communication is one of the most important events in cell population behavior. In the last decade, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) have been recognized as a new form of long distance intercellular connection. TNT function is to allow molecular and subcellular structure exchange between neighboring cells via the transfer of molecules and organelles such as calcium ions, prions, viral and bacterial pathogens, small lysosomes and mitochondria. New findings support the concept that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can affect cell microenvironment by the release of soluble factors or the transfer of cellular components to neighboring cells, in a way which significantly contributes to cell regulation and tissue repair, although the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood...
February 18, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207240/interfaces-in-heterogeneous-catalysts-advancing-mechanistic-understanding-through-atomic-scale-measurements
#2
Wenpei Gao, Zachary D Hood, Miaofang Chi
Developing novel catalysts with high efficiency and selectivity is critical for enabling future clean energy conversion technologies. Interfaces in catalyst systems have long been considered the most critical factor in controlling catalytic reaction mechanisms. Interfaces include not only the catalyst surface but also interfaces within catalyst particles and those formed by constructing heterogeneous catalysts. The atomic and electronic structures of catalytic surfaces govern the kinetics of binding and release of reactant molecules from surface atoms...
February 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205404/macrocyclic-triamine-derived-glucose-analogues-for-99m-tc-co-3-labeling-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-as-potential-tumor-imaging-agents
#3
Teli Liu, Qianqian Gan, Junbo Zhang
[(99m) Tc(CO)3 (H2 O)3 ](+) has attracted great attention among (99m) Tc-labeling techniques, due to its ease of preparation, readily substituted water molecules of the precursor fac-[(99m) Tc(CO)3 (H2 O)3 ](+) by a variety of functional groups, small size and inertness. Bifunctional chelator based on a macrocyclic polyamine framework shows easy complexation with [(99m) Tc(CO)3 (H2 O)3 ](+) to produce stable complex. In this study, two novel 1, 5, 9-triazacyclododecane derivatives containing a glucose group (6 and 7) were successfully synthesized by reacting different glucose-azides with alkyne-[12]aneN3 via the so-called click chemistry and radiolabeled with [(99m) Tc(CO)3 (H2 O)3 ](+) to form (99m) Tc(CO)3 -6 (C-1-substituted complex) and (99m) Tc(CO)3 -7 (C-2-substituted complex) in high yields...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203228/encapsulation-of-antifungals-in-micelles-protects-candida-albicans-during-gall-bladder-infection
#4
Shih-Hung Hsieh, Sascha Brunke, Matthias Brock
Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that colonizes human mucosal surfaces with the potential to cause life-threatening invasive candidiasis. Studies on systemic candidiasis in a murine infection model using in vivo real-time bioluminescence imaging revealed persistence of C. albicans in the gall bladder under antifungal therapy. Preliminary analyses showed that bile conferred resistance against a wide variety of antifungals enabling survival in this cryptic host niche. Here, bile and its components were studied for their ability to reduce antifungal efficacy in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism of protection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197311/synthesis-and-evaluation-of-thiazoloquinolinones-with-linkers-to-enable-targeting-of-cd38
#5
Stephen S Scully, Zachary J Minden, Ratul Mukerji, Elizaveta Andrianova, James Kaberna, Scott Lentini, Carlos Tassa, Zhaolin Wang, Susan Low, Kevin A McDonnell
Several monoclonal antibodies and inhibitors targeting CD38, an ectoenzyme overexpressed on malignant plasma cells, have previously been discovered. Herein, we expand structure-activity relationships of reported small-molecule thiazoloquinolinones and show that several 4-cyclohexylamino analogues have potent binding affinity for CD38 using surface plasmon resonance. Moreover, active amine analogues could be acylated and functionalized with alkyne and fluorescein groups. Fluorescein analogue 21 bound selectively to CD38 overexpressing cells, demonstrating the potential utility of thiazoloquinolinones as small-molecule conjugates for the delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197308/novel-small-molecule-probes-for-metastatic-melanoma
#6
Anyanee Kamkaew, Nanyan Fu, Weibo Cai, Kevin Burgess
Actively targeting probe 1b, an unsymmetrical bivalent dipeptide mimic, selectively bound melanoma over healthy skin tissue in histological samples from patients and Sinclair swine. Modifications to 1b gave agents 2-4 that contain a near-IR aza-BODIPY fluor. Contrary to our expectations, symmetrical probe 3 gave the highest melanoma-to-healthy skin selectivity in histochemistry and experiments with live cells; this was surprising because 2, not 3, is unsymmetrical like the original lead 1. Optical imaging of 3 in a mouse melanoma model failed to show tumor accumulation in vivo, but the probe did selectively accumulate in the tumor (some in lung and less in the liver) as proven by analysis of the organs post mortem...
February 9, 2017: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194960/a-new-method-for-non-invasive-analysis-of-proteins-and-small-molecules-from-ancient-objects
#7
Marcello Manfredi, Elettra Barberis, Fabio Gosetti, Eleonora Conte, Giorgio Gatti, Clara Mattu, Elisa Robotti, Gleb Zilberstein, Igor Koman, Svetlana Zilberstein, Emilio Marengo, Pier Giorgio Righetti
Proteins and small molecules from ancient objects and cultural heritage can provide key information and contribute to study the context of objects and artists. However, all present- day protocols and strategies for the analysis of ancient samples are often invasive and require micro sampling. Here, we present a new method for the non-invasive analysis of proteins and small molecules: the technique uses a special ethyl-vinyl acetate film functionalized with strong cation/anion exchange and C8 resins, for interacting with both proteins and small molecules present on the surface of the objects, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis...
February 8, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193055/lysosome-targeting-fluorogenic-probe-for-cathepsin-b-imaging-in-living-cells
#8
Yuqi Wang, Jinbo Li, Liandong Feng, Jingfang Yu, Yan Zhang, Deju Ye, Hong-Yuan Chen
Cathepsin B (CTB) is a lysosomal protease which has been recognized as a promising biomarker for many malignant tumors, and accurate detection of its activity is important in early diagnosis of cancers and predicting metastasis. Herein, we reported a lysosome-targeting fluorogenic small-molecule probe for fluorescence imaging of lysosomal CTB in living cancer cells by incorporating a CTB-recognitive peptide substrate Cbz-Lys-Lys-p-aminobenzyl alcohol (Cbz-Lys-Lys-PABA) and a lysosome locating group morpholine...
December 20, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192660/in-vivo-imaging-of-the-stability-and-sustained-cargo-release-of-an-injectable-amphipathic-peptide-based-hydrogel
#9
Edith Oyen, Charlotte Martin, Vicky Caveliers, Annemieke Madder, Bruno Van Mele, Richard Hoogenboom, Sophie Hernot, Steven Ballet
Hydrogels are promising materials for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and controlled drug release. In the past two decades, the peptide hydrogel subclass has attracted an increasing level of interest from the scientific community because of its numerous advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and, most importantly, injectability. Here, we report on a hydrogel consisting of the amphipathic hexapeptide H-FEFQFK-NH2, which has previously shown promising in vivo properties in terms of releasing morphine...
February 20, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183606/one-step-synthesis-self-assembly-and-bioimaging-applications-of-adenosine-triphosphate-containing-amphiphilies-with-aggregation-induced-emission-feature
#10
Zi Long, Meiying Liu, Liucheng Mao, Guangjian Zeng, Qiang Huang, Hongye Huang, Fengjie Deng, Yiqun Wan, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Amphiphilic molecules with aggregation-induced emission (AIE) characteristics have attracted intensive interest for biological imaging applications for their self-assembly into nanostructures and obvious enhanced fluorescence intensity in aqueous solution. Although many AIE-active fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) have been fabricated recently, the direct linkage of hydrophilic small molecules and hydrophobic AIE dyes has rarely been reported. In this work, we reported a one-pot strategy for preparation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) containing molecules that conjugated the amino group of ATP and aldehyde-terminated AIE dye (PhCHO) based on mercaptoacetic acid locking imine (MALI) reaction...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181535/nanoscale-diffusion-in-the-synaptic-cleft-and-beyond-measured-with-time-resolved-fluorescence-anisotropy-imaging
#11
Kaiyu Zheng, Thomas P Jensen, Leonid P Savtchenko, James A Levitt, Klaus Suhling, Dmitri A Rusakov
Neural activity relies on molecular diffusion within nanoscopic spaces outside and inside nerve cells, such as synaptic clefts or dendritic spines. Measuring diffusion on this small scale in situ has not hitherto been possible, yet this knowledge is critical for understanding the dynamics of molecular events and electric currents that shape physiological signals throughout the brain. Here we advance time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy imaging combined with two-photon excitation microscopy to map nanoscale diffusivity in ex vivo brain slices...
February 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181373/characterisation-of-photoaffinity-based-chemical-probes-using-fluorescence-imaging-and-native-state-mass-spectrometry
#12
Kanae Teruya, Gregory Rankin, Panagiotis Chrysanthopoulos, Kathryn Tonissen, Sally-Ann Poulsen
Chemical probes are small molecule reagents used by researchers for labeling and detection of biomolecules. We present the design, synthesis and characterisation of a panel of eleven structurally diverse photoaffinity labeling (PAL) probes as research tools for labeling the model enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) in challenging environments, including protein mixtures and cell lysates. We target ubiquitous CA II as well as the two cancer associated CAs (CA IX and CA XII), which are high priority as potential biomarkers of aggressive and/or multidrug resistant cancer...
February 8, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180189/far-red-and-near-infrared-seminaphthofluorophores-for-targeted-pancreatic-cancer-imaging
#13
Lei Wang, Connor W Barth, Martha Sibrian-Vazquez, Jorge O Escobedo, Mark Lowry, John Muschler, Haiyan Li, Summer L Gibbs, Robert M Strongin
Molecular probes that selectively highlight pancreatic cancer (PC) tissue have the potential to improve pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) margin assessment through the selective highlighting of individual PC cells. Herein, we report a simple and unique family of systematically modified red and near-infrared fluorescent probes that exhibit a field-effect-derived redshift. Two of thirteen probes distributed to the normal mouse pancreas following systemic administration. One selectively accumulated in genetically modified mouse models of PDAC...
January 31, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165359/in-search-of-small-molecule-inhibitors-targeting-the-flexible-ck2-subunit-interface
#14
Benoît Bestgen, Zakia Belaid-Choucair, Thierry Lomberget, Marc Le Borgne, Odile Filhol, Claude Cochet
Protein kinase CK2 is a tetrameric holoenzyme composed of two catalytic (α and/or α') subunits and two regulatory (β) subunits. Crystallographic data paired with fluorescence imaging techniques have suggested that the formation of the CK2 holoenzyme complex within cells is a dynamic process. Although the monomeric CK2α subunit is endowed with a constitutive catalytic activity, many of the plethora of CK2 substrates are exclusively phosphorylated by the CK2 holoenzyme. This means that the spatial and high affinity interaction between CK2α and CK2β subunits is critically important and that its disruption may provide a powerful and selective way to block the phosphorylation of substrates requiring the presence of CK2β...
February 3, 2017: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164384/design-of-organic-macrocycle-modified-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-for-drug-delivery
#15
Ali Trabolsi, Tina Skorjanc, Farah Benyettou, John-Carl Olsen
Paul Ehrlich's vision of a "magic bullet" cure for disease inspires the modern design of nanocarriers whose purpose is to deliver drug cargo to specific sites in the body while circumventing endogenous immunological clearance mechanisms. Iron-oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have emerged as particularly promising nanocarriers because of their biodegradability, ability to be guided magnetically to sites of pathology, mediation of hyperthermic therapy and imaging capabilities. In this review, we focus on the design and drug-delivery aspects of IONPs coated with organic macrocycles (crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calix[n]arenes, cucurbit[n]urils, or pillar[n]arenes) which, by means of reversible complexation, allow for the convenient loading and release of drug molecules...
February 5, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158186/a-high-throughput-phenotypic-screen-identifies-clofazimine-as-a-potential-treatment-for-cryptosporidiosis
#16
Melissa S Love, Federico C Beasley, Rajiv S Jumani, Timothy M Wright, Arnab K Chatterjee, Christopher D Huston, Peter G Schultz, Case W McNamara
Cryptosporidiosis has emerged as a leading cause of non-viral diarrhea in children under five years of age in the developing world, yet the current standard of care to treat Cryptosporidium infections, nitazoxanide, demonstrates limited and immune-dependent efficacy. Given the lack of treatments with universal efficacy, drug discovery efforts against cryptosporidiosis are necessary to find therapeutics more efficacious than the standard of care. To date, cryptosporidiosis drug discovery efforts have been limited to a few targeted mechanisms in the parasite and whole cell phenotypic screens against small, focused collections of compounds...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157707/near-infrared-fluorescent-imaging-of-choline-kinase-alpha-expression-and-inhibition-in-breast-tumors
#17
Sean P Arlauckas, Manoj Kumar, Anatoliy V Popov, Harish Poptani, Edward J Delikatny
Choline kinase alpha (ChoKα) overexpression is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype. ChoKα inhibitors induce apoptosis in tumors, however validation of their specificity is difficult in vivo. We report the use of optical imaging to assess ChoKα status in cells and in vivo using JAS239, a carbocyanine-based ChoKα inhibitor with inherent near infrared fluorescence. JAS239 attenuated choline phosphorylation and viability in a panel of human breast cancer cell lines. Antibody blockade prevented cellular retention of JAS239 indicating direct interaction with ChoKα independent of the choline transporters and catabolic choline pathways...
February 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157191/mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-kidney-tissue-sections-of-rat-subjected-to-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#18
Huihui Liu, Wan Li, Qing He, Jinjuan Xue, Jiyun Wang, Caiqiao Xiong, Xiaoping Pu, Zongxiu Nie
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) poses a serious threat to the quality of human life and health with an increasing incidence worldwide. Renal fibrosis is closely related to CKD and regarded as the final common pathophysiological pathway in most cases of end-stage renal diseases. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying renal fibrosis and developing novel therapeutic strategies are of great importance. Herein, matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI MSI) based on 1, 5-diaminonaphthalene hydrochloride was applied to the rat model of unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) to investigate metabolic changes during renal fibrosis...
February 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143895/raman-spectroscopic-imaging-of-human-macrophages-incubated-with-triglyceride-enriched-oxldl-visualizes-translocation-of-lipids-between-endocytic-vesicles-and-lipid-droplets
#19
Clara Stiebing, Lisa Schmoelz, Maria Wallert, Christian Matthaeus, Stefan Lorkowski, Juergen Popp
Raman spectroscopic imaging was used to investigate the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) by human macrophages. To better understand the receptor-mediated pathway and the intracellular fate of modified lipoproteins is of foremost interest with regard to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. To obtain information on the storage process of lipids caused by oxLDL uptake, Raman spectroscopic imaging was used because of its unique chemical specificity, especially for lipids. For the present study, a protocol was established to incorporate deuterated tripalmitate into oxLDL...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140587/probing-the-absorption-and-emission-transition-dipole-moment-of-dna-stabilized-silver-nanoclusters
#20
Emma N Hooley, Miguel R Carro-Temboury, Tom Vosch
Using single molecule polarization measurements, we investigate the excitation and emission polarization characteristics of DNA stabilized silver nanoclusters (C24-AgNCs). Although small changes in the polarization generally accompany changes to the emission spectrum, the emission and excitation transition dipoles tend to be steady over time and aligned in a similar direction, when immobilized in PVA. The emission transition dipole patterns, observed for C24-AgNCs in defocused wide field imaging, match that of a single emitter...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
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