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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792307/putative-vaccine-candidates-and-drug-targets-identified-by-reverse-vaccinology-and-subtractive-genomics-approaches-to-control-haemophilus-ducreyi-the-causative-agent-of-chancroid
#1
Alissa de Sarom, Arun Kumar Jaiswal, Sandeep Tiwari, Letícia de Castro Oliveira, Debmalya Barh, Vasco Azevedo, Carlo Jose Oliveira, Siomar de Castro Soares
Chancroid is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Haemophilus ducreyi The control of chancroid is difficult and the only current available treatment is antibiotic therapy; however, antibiotic resistance has been reported in endemic areas. Owing to recent outbreaks of STIs worldwide, it is important to keep searching for new treatment strategies and preventive measures. Here, we applied reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomic approaches for the in silico prediction of potential vaccine and drug targets against 28 strains of H...
May 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788909/whole-genome-analysis-reveals-the-diversity-and-evolutionary-relationships-between-necrotic-enteritis-causing-strains-of-clostridium-perfringens
#2
Jake A Lacey, Theodore R Allnutt, Ben Vezina, Thi Thu Hao Van, Thomas Stent, Xiaoyan Han, Julian I Rood, Ben Wade, Anthony L Keyburn, Torsten Seemann, Honglei Chen, Volker Haring, Priscilla A Johanesen, Dena Lyras, Robert J Moore
BACKGROUND: Clostridium perfringens causes a range of diseases in animals and humans including necrotic enteritis in chickens and food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. Necrotic enteritis is of concern in commercial chicken production due to the cost of the implementation of infection control measures and to productivity losses. This study has focused on the genomic analysis of a range of chicken-derived C. perfringens isolates, from around the world and from different years. The genomes were sequenced and compared with 20 genomes available from public databases, which were from a diverse collection of isolates from chickens, other animals, and humans...
May 22, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788176/cooperative-binding-of-apiap2-transcription-factors-is-crucial-for-the-expression-of-virulence-genes-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#3
Kevin M Lesage, Ludovic Huot, Thomas Mouveaux, Flavie Courjol, Jean-Michel Saliou, Mathieu Gissot
Toxoplasma gondii virulence depends on the expression of factors packed into specific organelles such as rhoptry and microneme. Although virulence factor expression is tightly regulated, the molecular mechanisms controlling their regulation remain poorly understood. ApiAP2 are a family of conserved transcription factors (TFs) that play an important role in regulating gene expression in apicomplexan parasites. TgAP2XI-5 is able to bind to transcriptionally active promoters of genes expressed during the S/M phase of the cell cycle, such as virulence genes (rhoptries and micronemes genes)...
May 21, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788061/regulation-of-the-heat-shock-transcription-factor-hsf1-in-fungi-implications-for-temperature-dependent-virulence-traits
#4
Amanda O Veri, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
The impact of fungal pathogens on human health is devastating. For fungi and other pathogens, a key determinant of virulence is the capacity to thrive at host temperatures, with elevated temperature in the form of fever as a ubiquitous host response to defend against infection. A prominent feature of cells experiencing heat stress is the increased expression of heat shock proteins (Hsps) that play pivotal roles in the refolding of misfolded proteins in order to restore cellular homeostasis. Transcriptional activation of this heat shock response is orchestrated by the essential heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787886/monomicrobial-klebsiella-pneumoniae-necrotizing-fasciitis-an-emerging-life-threatening-entity
#5
REVIEW
G R Rahim, Neha Gupta, Puneet Maheshwari, M P Singh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) although rare, is a potentially fatal infection. Majority of cases being polymicrobial; a recent surge in monomicrobial NF caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP-NF) has been reported. KP-NF recently accounted for an average of 16% amongst all pathogens with highest mortality rate of 60%. This review discusses the important aspects of KP-NF with additional note on implications of multidrug resistant infections. SOURCES: Literature was searched using PubMed...
May 19, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787730/plant-pathogen-warfare-under-changing-climate-conditions
#6
REVIEW
André C Velásquez, Christian Danve M Castroverde, Sheng Yang He
Global environmental changes caused by natural and human activities have accelerated in the past 200 years. The increase in greenhouse gases is predicted to continue to raise global temperature and change water availability in the 21st century. In this Review, we explore the profound effect the environment has on plant diseases - a susceptible host will not be infected by a virulent pathogen if the environmental conditions are not conducive for disease. The change in CO2 concentrations, temperature, and water availability can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on disease development, as each disease may respond differently to these variations...
May 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786671/mechanisms-of-action-and-cell-death-associated-with-clostridium-perfringens-toxins
#7
REVIEW
Mauricio A Navarro, Bruce A McClane, Francisco A Uzal
Clostridium perfringens uses its large arsenal of protein toxins to produce histotoxic, neurologic and intestinal infections in humans and animals. The major toxins involved in diseases are alpha (CPA), beta (CPB), epsilon (ETX), iota (ITX), enterotoxin (CPE), and necrotic B-like (NetB) toxins. CPA is the main virulence factor involved in gas gangrene in humans, whereas its role in animal diseases is limited and controversial. CPB is responsible for necrotizing enteritis and enterotoxemia, mostly in neonatal individuals of many animal species, including humans...
May 22, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785632/virulence-factors-in-salmonella-typhimurium-the-sagacity-of-a-bacterium
#8
REVIEW
Anamaria M P Dos Santos, Rafaela G Ferrari, Carlos A Conte-Junior
Currently, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium (ST) is responsible for most cases of food poisoning in several countries. It is characterized as a non-specific zoonotic bacterium that can infect both humans and animals and although most of the infections caused by this microorganism cause only a self-limiting gastroenteritis, some ST strains have been shown to be invasive, crossing the intestinal wall and reaching the systemic circulation. This unusual pathogenicity ability is closely related to ST virulence factors...
May 21, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#9
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785216/-staphylococcus-aureus-surface-protein-g-is-an-immunodominant-protein-and-a-possible-target-in-an-anti-biofilm-drug-development
#10
Yury Belyi, Ivan Rybolovlev, Nikita Polyakov, Alena Chernikova, Irina Tabakova, Alexandre Gintsburg
Background: Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes severe illnesses in the human population. The capacity of S. aureus strains to form biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces creates serious problems for treatment of hospital infections and has stimulated efforts to develop new means of specific protection or immunotherapy. Material and Methods: We found that rabbit serum raised against crude concentrated S. aureus liquid culture significantly decreased the development of staphylococcal biofilm in vitro ...
2018: Open Microbiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785068/molecular-dynamics-simulation-mds-analysis-of-vibrio-cholerae-toxt-virulence-factor-complexed-with-docked-potential-inhibitors
#11
Ibrahim Torktaz, Ali Najafi, Reza Golmohamadi, Sorour Hassani
The ToxT transcription factor mediates the transcription of the two major virulence factors in Vibrio cholerae. It has a DNA binding domain made of α4, α5, α6, α7, α8, α9 and α10 helices that is responsible for the transcription of virulence genes. Therefore, it is of interest to screen ToxT against the ZINC ligand database containing data for a million compounds. The QSAR model identified 40 top hits for ToxT. Two target protein complexes with ligands Lig N1 and Lig N2 with high score were selected for molecular dynamics simulation...
2018: Bioinformation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784887/identification-of-the-thioredoxin-partner-of-vkor-in-mycobacterial-disulfide-bond-formation
#12
Na Ke, Cristina Landeta, Xiaoyun Wang, Dana Boyd, Markus Eser, Jon Beckwith
Disulfide bonds influence stability and activity of many proteins. In Escherichia coli the DsbA and DsbB enzymes promote disulfide bond formation. Other bacteria, including the Actinobacteria, use instead of DsbB the enzyme VKOR (Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase), which is found either fused to or encoded in the same operon as a dsbA -like protein. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other gram-positive Actinobacteria secrete to the cell envelope many proteins with even numbers of cysteines. These organisms have predicted oxidoreductases and VKOR orthologs...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784856/a-cell-surface-aggregation-promoting-factor-from-lactobacillus-gasseri-contributes-towards-inhibition-of-trichomonas-vaginalis-adhesion-to-human-vaginal-ectocervical-cells
#13
Niha Phukan, Anna E S Brooks, Augusto Simoes-Barbosa
Trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection, is commonly symptomatic in women. The causative agent is Trichomonas vaginalis , an extracellular protozoan parasite. The host-protective mechanisms and molecules of vaginal lactobacilli that could counteract with this pathogen are largely unknown. This study examines the inhibition promoted by Lactobacillus gasseri against the adhesion of T. vaginalis to host cells, a critical virulence aspect of this pathogen. We observed that the vaginal L. gasseri ATCC 9857 is highly inhibitory by various contact-dependent mechanisms and surface proteins are largely responsible for this inhibitory phenotype...
May 21, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784845/interaction-of-bacterial-phenazines-with-colistimethate-in-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#14
Valeri V Mossine, Deborah L Chance, James K Waters, Thomas P Mawhinney
Multidrug-resistant bacterial infections are being increasingly treated in clinics with polymyxins, a class of antibiotics associated with adverse effects in the kidney, nervous system, or airways of a significant proportion of human and animal patients. Although many of the resistant pathogens display enhanced virulence, a hazard of cytotoxic interactions between polymyxin antibiotics and bacterial virulence factors (VFs) has not been assessed, to date. We report here on testing paired combinations of four Pseudomonas aeruginosa VF phenazine toxins, pyocyanin (PYO), 1-hydroxyphenazine (1-HP), phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), and two commonly prescribed polymyxin drugs, colistimethate (CMS)/colistin and polymyxin B, in three human airway cell lines, BEAS-2B, HBE-1, and CFT-1...
May 21, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783771/adhesins-in-candida-glabrata
#15
REVIEW
Bea Timmermans, Alejandro De Las Peñas, Irene Castaño, Patrick Van Dijck
The human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is causing more and more problems in hospitals, as this species shows an intrinsic antifungal drug resistance or rapidly becomes resistant when challenged with antifungals. C. glabrata only grows in the yeast form, so it is lacking a yeast-to-hyphae switch, which is one of the main virulence factors of C. albicans . An important virulence factor of C. glabrata is its capacity to strongly adhere to many different substrates. To achieve this, C. glabrata expresses a large number of adhesin-encoding genes and genome comparisons with closely related species, including the non-pathogenic S...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781996/replication-of-the-ordered-nonredundant-library-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-strain-pa14-transposon-insertion-mutants
#16
Eliana Drenkard, Rhianna M Hibbler, D Alina Gutu, Alexander D Eaton, Amy L Silverio, Frederick M Ausubel, Bryan P Hurley, Lael M Yonker
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a phenotypically and genotypically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacterium ubiquitous in human environments. P. aeruginosa is able to form biofilms, develop antibiotic resistance, produce virulence factors, and rapidly evolve in the course of a chronic infection. Thus P. aeruginosa can cause both acute and chronic, difficult to treat infections, resulting in significant morbidity in certain patient populations. P. aeruginosa strain PA14 is a human clinical isolate with a conserved genome structure that infects a variety of mammalian and nonvertebrate hosts making PA14 an attractive strain for studying this pathogen...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779861/hopq-impacts-the-integrin-%C3%AE-5%C3%AE-1-independent-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activation-by-helicobacter-pylori-in-ceacam-expressing-cells
#17
Michael Hartmut Feige, Olga Sokolova, Anna Pickenhahn, Gunter Maubach, Michael Naumann
Helicobacter pylori infection persists in more than half of the world's population and represents a risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Virulent strains of H. pylori carry a cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI), which encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) with the capability to inject the effector protein cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) into eukaryotic cells. Colonisation of the gastric epithelium by H. pylori provokes direct activation of the proinflammatory and survival factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779767/novel-red-fluorescence-protein-based-microplate-assay-for-drug-screening-against-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-by-using-paraffin
#18
Amar Yeware, Dhiman Sarkar
The hypoxia model of dormancy is widely used in drug screening programs to identify novel inhibitors against latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis disease. In earlier reported microplate assays, hypoxia was maintained by either sealing the microplate or shifting in an anaerobic chamber to develop dormant phenotype. In these assays, inhibitors were added during inoculation, which mainly represents the active stage inhibitors instead of the dormant ones. Herein, the culture was covered with paraffin to develop hypoxia condition and consequently providing the advantage of adding compounds at any stage during incubation of 96-well plate...
May 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778633/comparative-analysis-of-proteinase-phospholipase-hydrophobicity-and-biofilm-forming-ability-in-candida-species-isolated-from-clinical-specimens
#19
S Dabiri, M Shams-Ghahfarokhi, M Razzaghi-Abyaneh
Candida species are the commensal organisms of human and animal mucosa that cause a wide range of debilitating diseases in immunocompromised patients and other susceptible individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of clinical isolates of various Candida species to produce proteinase and phospholipase, hydrophobicity and biofilm forming ability that assumed to have a vital role in Candida pathogenicity. Eighty-four Candida strains belonged to Candida albicans (44.1%), C. glabrata (5.9%), C...
May 16, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778469/communications-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-non-aureus-staphylococcus-species-from-bovine-intramammary-infections-and-teat-apex-colonization
#20
Yasser S Mahmmod, Ilka Christine Klaas, Line Svennesen, Karl Pedersen, Hanne Ingmer
The role of non-aureus staphylococci (NAS) in the risk of acquisition of intramammary infections with Staphylococcus aureus is vague and still under debate. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate the distribution patterns of NAS species from milk and teat skin in dairy herds with automatic milking systems, and (2) examine if the isolated NAS influences the expression of S. aureus virulence factors controlled by the accessory gene regulator (agr) quorum sensing system. In 8 herds, 14 to 20 cows with elevated somatic cell count were randomly selected for teat skin swabbing and aseptic quarter foremilk samples from right hind and left front quarters...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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