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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143136/investigation-of-arginine-a-specific-cysteine-proteinase-gene-expression-profiling-in-clinical-porphyromonas-gingivalis-isolates-against-photokilling-action-of-the-photo-activated-disinfection
#1
Maryam Pourhajibagher, Roghayeh Ghorbanzadeh, Abbas Bahador
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a significant root canal pathogen capable of causing endodontic infections, which during their treatment may receive sub-lethal doses of photo-activated disinfection (sPAD). As sPAD can influence microbial virulence, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of sPAD on gene expression level of arginine A-specific cysteine proteinase (rgpA), as one of the underlying virulence factors involved in the development of endodontic infection via P. gingivalis strains. To find out the sPAD against 16 clinical isolates of PAD-resistant P...
November 15, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142545/rapid-screening-of-pyogenic-staphylococcus-aureus-for-confirmation-of-genus-and-species-methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-factors-by-using-two-novel-multiplex-pcr
#2
Abdul Haque, Asma Haque, Muhammad Saeed, Aysha Azhar, Samreen Rasool, Sidra Shan, Beenish Ehsan, Zohaib Nisar
Objectives: Emergence of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major medical problem of current era. These bacteria are resistant to most drugs and rapid diagnosis can provide a clear guideline to clinicians. They possess specific virulence factors and relevant information can be very useful. We designed this study to develop multiplex PCRs to provide rapid information. Methods: We studied 60 Staphylococcus aureus isolates and detected methicillin resistance by cefoxitin sensitivity and targeting of mecA gene...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140285/chitosan-cyclodextrin-tpp-nanoparticles-loaded-with-quercetin-as-novel-bacterial-quorum-sensing-inhibitors
#3
Hao Thanh Nguyen, Francisco M Goycoolea
The widespread emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has highlighted the urgent need of alternative therapeutic approaches for human and animal health. Targeting virulence factors that are controlled by bacterial quorum sensing (QS), seems a promising approach. The aims of this study were to generate novel nanoparticles (NPs) composed of chitosan (CS), sulfo-butyl-ether-β-cyclodextrin (Captisol(®)) and/or pentasodium tripolyphosphate using ionotropic gelation technique, and to evaluate their potential capacity to arrest QS in bacteria...
November 15, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139623/extracellular-proteinases-of-candida-species-pathogenic-yeasts
#4
Maria Rapala-Kozik, Oliwia Bochenska, Dorota Zajac, Justyna Karkowska-Kuleta, Mariusz Gogol, Marcin Zawrotniak, Andrzej Kozik
The increased incidence of severe disseminated infections caused by opportunistic yeast-like fungi Candida spp. highlights the urgent need for research into the major virulence factors of these pathogens - extracellular aspartic proteinases of the candidapepsin and yapsin families. Classically, these enzymes were considered to be generally destructive factors that damage host tissues and provide nutrients for pathogen propagation. However, in recent decades, novel and more specific functions have been suggested for extracellular candidal proteinases...
November 15, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139177/a-structural-overview-of-mycobacterial-adhesins-key-biomarkers-for-diagnostics-and-therapeutics
#5
REVIEW
Flavia Squeglia, Alessia Ruggiero, Alfonso De Simone, Rita Berisio
Adherence, colonization, and survival of mycobacteria in host cells require surface adhesins, which are attractive pharmacotherapeutic targets. A large arsenal of pilus and non-pilus adhesins have been identified in mycobacteria. These adhesins are capable of interacting with host cells, including macrophages and epithelial cells and are essential to microbial pathogenesis. In the last decade, several structures of mycobacterial adhesins responsible for adhesion to either macrophages or extra cellular matrix proteins have been elucidated...
November 15, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135911/the-apoptogenic-toxin-aip56-is-secreted-by-the-type-ii-secretion-system-of-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-piscicida
#6
Ana do Vale, Cassilda Pereira, Carlos R Osorio, Nuno M S Dos Santos
AIP56 (apoptosis-inducing protein of 56 kDa) is a key virulence factor of Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp), the causative agent of a septicaemia affecting warm water marine fish species. Phdp-associated pathology is triggered by AIP56, a short trip AB toxin with a metalloprotease A domain that cleaves the p65 subunit of NF-κB, an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor that regulates the expression of inflammatory and anti-apoptotic genes and plays a central role in host responses to infection...
November 14, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134547/detection-of-virulence-related-genes-in-lactococcus-garvieae-and-their-expression-in-response-to-different-conditions
#7
Giovanni Eraclio, Giovanni Ricci, Mattia Quattrini, Paolo Moroni, Maria Grazia Fortina
Lactococcus garvieae has emerged as an important zoonotic pathogen. However, information regarding mechanisms and factors related to its pathogenicity is lacking. In the present study, we investigated the distribution and functionality of genes related to virulence factors in L. garvieae strains isolated from different niches (diseased fish, humans, meat and dairy products, vegetables), using both post-genomic and genotypic analysis. Putative genes encoding hemolysin, fibronectin-binding protein, and penicillin acylase were detected in all analyzed genomes/strains...
November 13, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134265/deletion-of-the-%C3%AE-propeller-protein-gene-rv1057-reduces-esat-6-secretion-and-intracellular-growth-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#8
Jiafang Fu, Gongli Zong, Peipei Zhang, Yuanxin Gu, Guangxiang Cao
Rv1057 is the only β-propeller protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but its biological function is still unclear. In this study, we generated a deletion mutant of Rv1057 (D1057) in the virulent M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv and examined the characteristics of the mutant in vitro and in macrophages. We found that deletion of Rv1057 reduces secretion of the major virulence factor ESAT-6 and ESAT-6 stops in the cell envelope fraction during secretion, although ESAT-6 levels were similar in lysates of the mutant and control strains...
November 13, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133401/multiple-legionella-pneumophila-effector-virulence-phenotypes-revealed-through-high-throughput-analysis-of-targeted-mutant-libraries
#9
Stephanie R Shames, Luying Liu, James C Havey, Whitman B Schofield, Andrew L Goodman, Craig R Roy
Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. A single strain of L. pneumophila encodes a repertoire of over 300 different effector proteins that are delivered into host cells by the Dot/Icm type IV secretion system during infection. The large number of L. pneumophila effectors has been a limiting factor in assessing the importance of individual effectors for virulence. Here, a transposon insertion sequencing technology called INSeq was used to analyze replication of a pool of effector mutants in parallel both in a mouse model of infection and in cultured host cells...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133345/small-rna-teg49-is-derived-from-a-sara-transcript-and-regulates-virulence-genes-independent-of-sara-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Adhar C Manna, Samin Kim, Liviu Cengher, Anna Corvaglia, Stefano Leo, Patrice Francois, Ambrose L Cheung
Expression of virulence factors in S. aureus is regulated by a wide range of transcriptional regulators including proteins and small RNAs (sRNAs) at the level of transcription and/or translation. The sarA locus consists of three overlapping transcripts generated from three distinct promoters, all encoding the sarA ORF. The 5' UTRs of these transcripts contain three separate regions at ∼711, 409, and 146-nt upstream of the sarA translation start, the functions of which remain unknown. Recent RNA-Seq analysis and subsequent characterization indicated that two sRNA, teg49 and teg48, are processed and likely produced from the sarA P3 and sarA P1 transcripts of the sarA locus, respectively...
November 13, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133276/de-novo-assembly-and-annotation-of-the-whole-genomic-analysis-of-vibrio-campbellii-rt-1-strain-from-infected-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#11
R Thirugnanasambandam, D Inbakandan, L Stanley Abraham, C Kumar, S M Sundaram, B Subashni, R Vasantharaja, A Arul Anantha Kumar, R Kirubagaran, S Ajmal Khan, T Balasubramanian
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to sequence the whole genome of Vibrio campbellii RT-1 strain. METHODS: V. campbellii strain was isolated from an infected shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei collected from aquaculture ponds, India (12.1899° N, 79.9249° E). The whole genome sequencing (WGS) was performed using the Illumina Hiseq 2500 platform and assembled de novo using SPAdes and Velvet optimiser. Furthermore, the gene prediction and annotation were performed by a rapid prokaryotic genome tool-Prokka...
November 10, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133159/highly-conserved-exposed-immunogenic-peptides-of-omp34-against-acinetobacter-baumannii-an-innovative-approach
#12
Abolfazl Jahangiri, Iraj Rasooli, Parviz Owlia, Abbas Ali Imani Fooladi, Jafar Salimian
Omp34, also known as Omp34kDa or Omp33-36 is a virulence factor associated with A. baumannii metabolic fitness or its adherence and invasion to human epithelial cells. This protein is also introduced as a specific antigen which could induce strong antibody responses. In the present in silico study, recent vaccine design strategies such as 'antigen minimization' and 'high epitope density' were invoked to design a soluble immunogen with higher antigenicity. As an advantage, the tools employed in the current study are easily available...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132934/the-evolution-of-pathogen-virulence-effects-of-transitions-between-host-types
#13
Paul David Williams, Stephanie Jill Kamel
Much of evolutionary epidemiology theory is derived from a perspective in which all hosts, and all parasites, are epidemiologically equivalent. This stands in contrast to the well-documented existence of the numerous processes generating heterogeneity among hosts and parasites that can profoundly influence evolutionary/epidemiological dynamics. Age-related immunological changes, inequities in nutritional status, and interactions between parasites via coinfection are just a few of the many factors that generate heterogeneity among hosts in the ways they express susceptibility to, and respond to infection by, a focal pathogen...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131872/genetic-diversity-of-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-in-invasive-pneumococcal-isolates-from-korean-children-1991-2016
#14
Ki Wook Yun, Eun Hwa Choi, Hoan Jong Lee
Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is an important virulence factor of pneumococci and has been investigated as a primary component of a capsular serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine. Thus, we sought to determine the genetic diversity of PspA to explore its potential as a vaccine candidate. Among the 190 invasive pneumococcal isolates collected from Korean children between 1991 and 2016, two (1.1%) isolates were found to have no pspA by multiple polymerase chain reactions. The full length pspA genes from 185 pneumococcal isolates were sequenced...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130186/identification-of-staphylococcal-quorum-sensing-inhibitors-by-quantification-of-%C3%A3%C2%B5-hemolysin-with-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#15
Cassandra L Quave, Alexander R Horswill
Quorum sensing plays a major role in regulation of virulence factor production by staphylococci. Chemical inhibitors that block this process and prevent the production of exotoxins and exoenzymes could have medical utility for infection prophylaxis and therapy. Here, we describe a high performance liquid chromatography method amenable to medium throughput screening for staphylococcal quorum sensing inhibitors by quantification of õ-hemolysin, a direct protein output of this system.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130178/methods-to-study-quorum-sensing-dependent-virulence-and-movement-of-phytopathogens-in-planta
#16
Shulamit Manulis-Sasson, Laura Chalupowicz
Cell-to-cell communication mediated by the diffusible signal factor (DSF) is a common form of gene regulation and plays an important role in virulence of many plant pathogenic bacteria including Xanthomonas spp. Here we describe several approaches to study the involvement of DSF-dependent QS system of the plant pathogenic bacteria Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii (Xhp) as an example of the Xanthomonas spp. The methods described include detection and measurement of DSF, movement in planta, colonization, and aggregate formation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130177/animal-models-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-quorum-sensing-studies
#17
Damien Maura, Arunava Bandyopadhaya, Laurence G Rahme
Quorum sensing (QS) systems play global regulatory roles in bacterial virulence. They synchronize the expression of multiple virulence factors and they control and modulate bacterial antibiotic tolerance systems and host defense mechanisms. Therefore, it is important to obtain knowledge about QS modes of action and to test putative therapeutics that may interrupt QS actions in the context of infections. This chapter describes methods to study bacterial pathogenesis in murine acute and persistent/relapsing infection models, using the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa as an example...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130160/use-of-whole-cell-bioassays-for-screening-quorum-signaling-quorum-interference-and-biofilm-dispersion
#18
Starla G Thornhill, Robert J C McLean
In most bacteria, a global level of regulation, termed quorum sensing (QS), exists involving intercellular communication via the production and response to cell density-dependent signal molecules. QS has been associated with a number of important features in bacteria including virulence regulation and biofilm formation. Consequently, there is considerable interest in understanding, detecting, and inhibiting QS. N-acylated homoserine lactones (AHLs) are used as extracellular QS signals by a variety of Gram-negative bacteria...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130018/virulence-and-antimicrobial-resistance-in-campylobacter-spp-from-a-peruvian-pediatric-cohort
#19
Angela Lluque, Maribel Riveros, Ana Prada, Theresa J Ochoa, Joaquim Ruiz
The presence of virulence factors (VFs) and mechanisms of quinolones and macrolide resistance was analyzed in Campylobacter spp. from a pediatric cohort study in Lima. In 149 isolates (39 Campylobacter jejuni and 24 Campylobacter coli from diarrheic cases; 57 C. jejuni and 29 C. coli from controls), the presence of the cdtABC and cadF genes and iam marker was established. Nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, and azithromycin susceptibilities were established in 115 isolates and tetracycline-susceptibility was established in 100 isolates...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128968/involvement-of-cyclodipeptides-in-the-competition-of-bacterial-communities-in-the-oligotrophic-churince-aquatic-system-of-cuatro-ci%C3%A3-negas-basin-dominated-by-gammaproteobacteria
#20
Enrique Martínez-Carranza, Gabriel Y Ponce-Soto, Alma L Díaz-Pérez, Erasmo Cadenas, Valeria Souza, Jesús Campos-García
The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) within the Chihuahuan Desert in México is an extremely oligotrophic oasis with negligible phosphorous levels, described as a hot spot of biodiversity, not only in stromatolites and microbial mats, but also in living forms in general. The microorganisms possess the capability to produce a wide variety of virulence factors, antibiotics, and quorum-sensing (QS) crosstalk signals such as non-ribosomal cyclodipeptides (CDPs) which enables them to colonize diverse ecological niches...
November 11, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
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