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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922023/systematic-site-directed-mutagenesis-of-the-helicobacter-pylori-cagl-protein-of-the-cag-type-iv-secretion-system-identifies-novel-functional-domains
#1
Tobias Bönig, Patrick Olbermann, Simon H Bats, Wolfgang Fischer, Christine Josenhans
The Cag Type IV secretion system, which contributes to inflammation and cancerogenesis during chronic infection, is one of the major virulence factors of the bacterial gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. We have generated and characterized a series of non-marked site-directed chromosomal mutants in H. pylori to define domains of unknown function of the essential tip protein CagL of the Cag secretion system. Characterizing the CagL mutants, we determined that their function to activate cells and transport the effector CagA was reduced to different extents...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921270/halogenated-indoles-eradicate-bacterial-persister-cells-and-biofilms
#2
Jin-Hyung Lee, Yong-Guy Kim, Giyeon Gwon, Thomas K Wood, Jintae Lee
The emergence of antibiotic resistance has necessitated new therapeutic approaches to combat recalcitrant bacterial infections. Persister cells, often found in biofilms, are metabolically dormant, and thus, are highly tolerant to all traditional antibiotics and represent a major drug resistance mechanism. In the present study, 36 diverse indole derivatives were investigated with the aim of identifying novel compounds that inhibit persisters and biofilm formation by Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus...
December 2016: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920769/transcriptional-profiling-of-type-ii-toxin-antitoxin-genes-of-helicobacter-pylori-under-different-environmental-conditions-identification-of-hp0967-hp0968-system
#3
María G Cárdenas-Mondragón, Miguel A Ares, Leonardo G Panunzi, Sabino Pacheco, Margarita Camorlinga-Ponce, Jorge A Girón, Javier Torres, Miguel A De la Cruz
Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is responsible for causing peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. The expression of virulence factors allows the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, which results in a chronic, sometimes uncontrolled inflammatory response. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have emerged as important virulence factors in many pathogenic bacteria. Three type II TA systems have previously been identified in the genome of H. pylori 26695: HP0315-HP0316, HP0892-HP0893, and HP0894-HP0895...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920388/human-drivers-of-ecological-and-evolutionary-dynamics-in-emerging-and-disappearing-infectious-disease-systems
#4
REVIEW
Mary A Rogalski, Camden D Gowler, Clara L Shaw, Ruth A Hufbauer, Meghan A Duffy
Humans have contributed to the increased frequency and severity of emerging infectious diseases, which pose a significant threat to wild and domestic species, as well as human health. This review examines major pathways by which humans influence parasitism by altering (co)evolutionary interactions between hosts and parasites on ecological timescales. There is still much to learn about these interactions, but a few well-studied cases show that humans influence disease emergence every step of the way. Human actions significantly increase dispersal of host, parasite and vector species, enabling greater frequency of infection in naive host populations and host switches...
January 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918582/investigating-conservation-of-the-cell-cycle-regulated-transcriptional-program-in-the-fungal-pathogen-cryptococcus-neoformans
#5
Christina M Kelliher, Adam R Leman, Crystal S Sierra, Steven B Haase
The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans causes fungal meningitis in immune-compromised patients. Cell proliferation in the budding yeast form is required for C. neoformans to infect human hosts, and virulence factors such as capsule formation and melanin production are affected by cell-cycle perturbation. Thus, understanding cell-cycle regulation is critical for a full understanding of virulence factors for disease. Our group and others have demonstrated that a large fraction of genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is expressed periodically during the cell cycle, and that proper regulation of this transcriptional program is important for proper cell division...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917880/actin-activates-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-exoy-nucleotidyl-cyclase-toxin-and-exoy-like-effector-domains-from-martx-toxins
#6
Alexander Belyy, Dorothée Raoux-Barbot, Cosmin Saveanu, Abdelkader Namane, Vasily Ogryzko, Lina Worpenberg, Violaine David, Veronique Henriot, Souad Fellous, Christien Merrifield, Elodie Assayag, Daniel Ladant, Louis Renault, Undine Mechold
The nucleotidyl cyclase toxin ExoY is one of the virulence factors injected by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa type III secretion system into host cells. Inside cells, it is activated by an unknown eukaryotic cofactor to synthesize various cyclic nucleotide monophosphates. ExoY-like adenylate cyclases are also found in Multifunctional-Autoprocessing Repeats-in-ToXin (MARTX) toxins produced by various Gram-negative pathogens. Here we demonstrate that filamentous actin (F-actin) is the hitherto unknown cofactor of ExoY...
December 5, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917374/identification-and-characterization-of-staphylococcus-aureus-strains-with-an-incomplete-hemolytic-phenotype
#7
Haifang Zhang, Yi Zheng, Huasheng Gao, Ping Xu, Min Wang, Aiqing Li, Minhui Miao, Xiaofang Xie, Yimai Deng, Huiqin Zhou, Hong Du
Staphylococcus aureus is a common pathogen causing both hospital and community-acquired infections. Hemolysin is one of the important virulence factors for S. aureus and causes the typical β-hemolytic phenotype which is called complete hemolytic phenotype as well. Recently, S. aureus with an incomplete hemolytic phenotype (SIHP) was isolated from clinical samples. To study the microbiologic characteristics of SIHP, the special hemolytic phenotype of SIHP was verified on the sheep blood agar plates supplied by different manufacturers...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917181/nitric-oxide-responsive-heavy-metal-associated-gene-athmad1-contributes-to-development-and-disease-resistance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Q Muhammad Imran, Noreen Falak, Adil Hussain, Bong-Gyu Mun, Arti Sharma, Sang-Uk Lee, Kyung-Min Kim, Byung-Wook Yun
Exposure of plants to different biotic and abiotic stress condition instigates significant change in the cellular redox status; resulting in the elevation of reactive nitrogen species that play signaling role in mediating defense responses. Heavy metal associated (HMA) domain containing genes are required for spatio-temporal transportation of metal ions that bind with various enzymes and co-factors within the cell. To uncover the underlying mechanisms mediated by AtHMA genes, we identified 14 Arabidopsis HMA genes that were differentially expressed in response to nitrosative stress through RNA-seq analysis...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917164/longitudinal-study-of-two-irish-dairy-herds-low-numbers-of-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-and-o26-super-shedders-identified
#9
Brenda P Murphy, Evonne McCabe, Mary Murphy, James F Buckley, Dan Crowley, Séamus Fanning, Geraldine Duffy
A 12-month longitudinal study was undertaken on two dairy herds to ascertain the Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 and O26 shedding status of the animals and its impact (if any) on raw milk. Cattle are a recognized reservoir for these organisms with associated public health and environmental implications. Animals shedding E. coli O157 at >10,000 CFU/g of feces have been deemed super-shedders. There is a gap in the knowledge regarding super-shedding of other STEC serogroups. A cohort of 40 lactating cows from herds previously identified as positive for STEC in a national surveillance project were sampled every second month between August, 2013 and July, 2014...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917158/a-zebrafish-model-for-chlamydia-infection-with-the-obligate-intracellular-pathogen-waddlia-chondrophila
#10
Alexander G J Fehr, Maja Ruetten, Helena M B Seth-Smith, Lisbeth Nufer, Andrea Voegtlin, Angelika Lehner, Gilbert Greub, Philip S Crosier, Stephan C F Neuhauss, Lloyd Vaughan
Obligate intracellular chlamydial bacteria of the Planctomycetes-Verrucomicrobia-Chlamydiae (PVC) superphylum are important pathogens of terrestrial and marine vertebrates, yet many features of their pathogenesis and host specificity are still unknown. This is particularly true for families such as the Waddliacea which, in addition to epithelia, cellular targets for nearly all Chlamydia, can infect and replicate in macrophages, an important arm of the innate immune system or in their free-living amoebal counterparts...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916888/a-topographical-atlas-of-shiga-toxin-2e-receptor-distribution-in-the-tissues-of-weaned-piglets
#11
Daniel Steil, Robert Bonse, Iris Meisen, Gottfried Pohlentz, German Vallejo, Helge Karch, Johannes Müthing
Shiga toxin (Stx) 2e of Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is the primary virulence factor in the development of pig edema disease shortly after weaning. Stx2e binds to the globo-series glycosphingolipids (GSLs) globotriaosylceramide (Gb3Cer, Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer) and globotetraosylceramide (Gb4Cer, GalNAcβ1-3Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glcβ1-1Cer), the latter acting as the preferential Stx2e receptor. We determined Stx receptor profiles of 25 different tissues of a male and a female weaned piglet using immunochemical solid phase binding assays combined with mass spectrometry...
November 30, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916855/comparative-proteome-analysis-of-porcine-jejunum-tissues-in-response-to-a-virulent-strain-of-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-and-its-attenuated-strain
#12
Zhonghua Li, Fangzhou Chen, Shiyi Ye, Xiaozhen Guo, Atta Muhanmmad Memon, Meizhou Wu, Qigai He
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), a predominant cause of acute enteric infection, leads to severe dehydrating diarrhea and mortality in piglets all over the world. A virulent PEDV YN13 strain, isolated in our laboratory, was attenuated to yield an attenuated PEDV strain YN144. To better understand the pathogenesis mechanism and the virus-host interaction during infection with both PEDV YN13 and YN144 strains, a comparative proteomic analysis was carried out to investigate the proteomic changes produced in the primary target organ, using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) labeling, followed by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
November 29, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916806/antifungal-activity-of-oleuropein-against-candida-albicans-the-in-vitro-study
#13
Nataša Zorić, Nevenka Kopjar, Ivan Bobnjarić, Igor Horvat, Siniša Tomić, Ivan Kosalec
In the present study we investigated activity of oleuropein, a complex phenol present in large quantities in olive tree products, against opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Oleuropein was found to have in vitro antifungal activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 12.5 mg·mL(-1). Morphological changes in the nuclei after staining with fluorescent DNA-binding dyes revealed that apoptosis was a primary mode of cell death in the analyzed samples treated with subinhibitory concentrations of oleuropein...
November 28, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916419/comparative-transcriptomics-analyses-of-the-different-growth-states-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#14
Shuai Li, Haitao Li, Tianjie Qi, Xixin Yan, Boli Wang, Jitao Guan, Yu Li
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii is an important bacterial pathogen commonly associated with hospital acquired infections. A. baumannii can remain viable and hence virulent in the environment for a long period of time due primarily to its ability to form biofilms. A total of 459 cases of MDR A. baumannii our hospital collected from March 2014 to March 2015 were examined in this study, and a representative isolate selected for high-throughput mRNA sequencing and comparison of gene expression profiles under the biofilm and exponential growth conditions...
December 1, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915337/quercetin-assists-fluconazole-to-inhibit-biofilm-formations-of-fluconazole-resistant-candida-albicans-in-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-antifungal-managements-of-vulvovaginal-candidiasis
#15
Mei Gao, Hui Wang, LiJuan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a common gynecological disease. Candida albicans is believed to be mainly implicated in VVC occurrence, the biofilm of which is one of the virulence factors responsible for resistance to traditional antifungal agents especially to fluconazole (FCZ). Quercetin (QCT) is a dietary flavonoid and has been demonstrated to be antifungal against C. albicans biofilm. METHODS: 17 C. albicans isolates including 15 clinical ones isolated from VVC patients were employed to investigate the effects of QCT and/or FCZ on the inhibition of C...
November 30, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914959/virulence-traits-and-different-nle-profiles-in-cattle-and-human-verotoxin-producing-escherichia-coli-o157-h7-strains-from-argentina
#16
Juliana González, Andrea Mariel Sanso, Jimena Soledad Cadona, Ana Victoria Bustamante
Verotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) O157:H7 is the dominant serotype isolated from patients with HUS and, Argentina has the highest rate of HUS in the world. Molecular typing had allowed to identify subpopulations related to the origin and virulence of O157:H7 strains. Our aim was to perform a genetic characterization of 43 O157:H7 strains isolated in Argentine mostly from cattle and humans in order to establish the potential public health risk. For it, we used a combination of molecular subtyping methods in order to identify clade 8_rhsA (C3468G), LSPA-6 and virulence profiles and, a cytotoxicity assay on Vero cell...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914957/multiple-locus-variable-number-tandem-repeat-analysis-mlva-of-shigella-sonnei-isolates-of-2012-outbreak-i-r-iran
#17
Bita Bakhshi, Bahareh Bayat, Abdolaziz Rastegar Lari
Shigella sonnei is a major cause of diarrhea especially in children. Molecular study can help to determine the outbreak of this bacterium. Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeat Analysis (MLVA) will largely influence the public health field by introducing newer, faster, safer, and effective procedure for typing of microorganisms. A total of fifty shigella isolates were collected between November 2012 to October 2013 in Tehran, Iran. The strains were identified base on biochemical and molecular tests. Subsequently, all shigella species were confirmed by species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
November 30, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914813/normal-human-gingival-fibroblasts-undergo-cytostasis-and-apoptosis-after-long-term-exposure-to-butyric-acid
#18
Michihiro Shirasugi, Keisuke Nishioka, Toshiro Yamamoto, Takaaki Nakaya, Narisato Kanamura
The causes of periodontal disease are complex. Butyric acid, a metabolite of periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis, acts as a histone deacetylase inhibitor that has a direct effect on mRNA expression. Butyric acid produced by Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract induces differentiation of regulatory T cells, thereby suppressing inflammation in the gut. Mice lacking Clostridium butyricum in the intestinal tract suffer from colitis. By contrast, butyric acid in the oral cavity worsens periodontal disease...
November 30, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914808/influenza-a-virus-ns1-protein-induced-a20-contributes-to-viral-replication-by-suppressing-interferon-induced-antiviral-response
#19
Wenjing Feng, Xiaoning Sun, Ning Shi, Maolin Zhang, Zhenhong Guan, Ming Duan
The innate immune response provides the first line of defense against viruses and other pathogens by responding to specific microbial molecules. A20 is a cytoplasmic ubiquitin-editing protein that negatively regulates the retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-mediated activation of interferon regulatory factors (IRF) 3. Here, we found that influenza A virus (IAV) non-structural protein (NS) 1 dramatically induced the protein level of A20 in A549 cells whose expression levels were positively associated with the viral virulence...
December 1, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914159/-molecular-mechanisms-for-adhesion-and-colonization-of-human-gastric-mucosa-by-helicobacter-pylori-and-its-clinical-implications
#20
REVIEW
Elisabete Coelho, Ana Magalhães, Mário Dinis-Ribeiro, Celso A Reis
INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori infection is very prevalent worldwide and is associated with the progression of the gastric carcinogenesis cascade, being one of the main risk factors for the development of gastric carcinoma. Several factors are determinant for the infection and for the development of gastric disease, including environmental factors, host genetic factors and virulence factors of the bacteria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this review, we present an overview of the current knowledge on the determinants of the infection and on the recently described molecular mechanisms of Helicobacter pylori adhesion to the gastric mucosa, as well as its possible future therapeutic application...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
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