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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091933/flagellar-regulation-and-virulence-in-the-entomopathogenic-bacteria-xenorhabdus-nematophila-and-photorhabdus-luminescens
#1
Alain Givaudan, Anne Lanois
There is a complex interplay between the regulation of flagellar motility and the expression of virulence factors in many bacterial pathogens. Here, we review the literature on the direct and indirect roles of flagellar motility in mediating the tripartite interaction between entomopathogenic bacteria (Photorhabdus and Xenorhabdus), their nematode hosts, and their insect targets. First, we describe the swimming and swarming motility of insect pathogenic bacteria and its impact on insect colonization. Then, we describe the coupling between the expression of flagellar and virulence genes and the dynamic of expression of the flagellar regulon during invertebrate infection...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091931/identifying-anti-host-effectors-in-photorhabdus
#2
Andrea J Dowling
The death of the insect host is an essential part of the life cycle of Photorhabdus, and as a result, this bacterium comes equipped with a dazzlingly large array of toxins and virulence factors that ensure rapid insect death. Elucidation of the key players in insect infection and mortality has therefore proved difficult using traditional microbiological techniques such as individual gene knockouts due to the high level of functional redundancy displayed by Photorhabdus virulence factors. Thus, knockout of any individual toxin gene may serve to delay time to death but not to render the bacteria avirulent due to the continued presence of an array of other toxins and virulence factors in the single-gene mutant...
December 28, 2016: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091797/mass-spectrometric-identification-of-phenol-soluble-modulins-in-the-atcc%C3%A2-43300-standard-strain-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-harboring-two-distinct-phenotypes
#3
K S Jang, M Park, J Y Lee, J S Kim
Staphylococcus aureus subsp. aureus Rosenbach (ATCC® 43300™) is a representative methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strain that is used as a quality control strain for testing the methicillin susceptibility of clinical isolates. It has been consistently observed that colonies with two different colors (golden yellow and white) grow from the ATCC stock on blood agar plates. In this study, staphylococcal peptide and protein profiling was performed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry...
January 14, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089143/long-term-mortality-following-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-bloodstream-infection
#4
K L McCarthy, D L Paterson
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa bloodstream infections (BSI) are associated with substantial short-term mortality. There is little data on long-term mortality associated with this BSI. AIM: To describe mortality rates up to one year post infection and the significant factors associated with death. METHODS: Positive blood cultures for P. aeruginosa were identified retrospectively from January 2008 to January 2011 at seven tertiary care hospitals...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088526/subcutaneous-immunization-with-streptococcus-pneumoniae-gapdh-confers-effective-protection-in-mice-via-tlr2-and-tlr4
#5
Xiaoyu Sun, Jichao Wang, Jie Zhou, Hong Wang, Xiaofang Wang, Jingwen Wu, Yujuan He, Yibing Yin, Xuemei Zhang, Wenchun Xu
The surface localized Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is best known as housekeeping protein. Currently, GAPDH has been recognized as moonlighting protein and virulent factor. Therefore, we investigate whether GAPDH can act as a suitable vaccine candidate protein to prevent pneumococcal infection. In this study, mice received subcutaneous vaccination with recombinant GAPDH followed by challenge with D39 and 19F showing higher survival rate and lower bacterial loads in nasal washes and lung homogenates than control...
January 12, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087925/host-responses-to-urinary-tract-infections-and-emerging-therapeutics-sensation-and-pain-within-the-urinary-tract
#6
Lori A Birder, David J Klumpp
Urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis is understood increasingly at the level of the uropathogens and the cellular and molecular mediators of host inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the mediators of symptoms during UTI and what distinguishes symptomatic events from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Here, we review bladder physiology and sensory pathways in the context of an emerging literature from murine models dissecting the host and pathogen factors mediating pain responses during UTI. The bladder urothelium is considered a mediator of sensory responses and appears to play a role in UTI pain responses...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087840/vibrio-cholerae-cholix-toxin-induced-hepg2-cell-death-is-enhanced-by-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-through-ros-and-intracellular-signal-regulated-kinases
#7
Kohei Ogura, Yasuhiro Terasaki, Tohru Miyoshi-Akiyama, Mika Terasaki, Joel Moss, Masatoshi Noda, Kinnosuke Yahiro
Cholix toxin (Cholix) from Vibrio cholerae is a potent virulence factor exhibiting ADP-ribosyltransferase activity on eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) of host cells, resulting in inhibition of protein synthesis. Administration of Cholix or its homologue Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PEA) to mice causes lethal hepatocyte damage. In this study, we demonstrate cytotoxicity of Cholix on immortalized human hepatocytes in the presence of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), which has been reported to play a fatal role in PEA administered to mice...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087696/genetic-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-gene-operon-for-trans-aconitic-acid-a-novel-nematicide-from-bacillus-thuringiensis
#8
Cuiying Du, Shiyun Cao, Xiangyu Shi, Xiangtao Nie, Jinshui Zheng, Yun Deng, Lifang Ruan, Donghai Peng, Ming Sun
Trans-aconitic acid (TAA) is an isomer of cis-aconitic acid (CAA), an intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle that is synthesized by aconitase. Although TAA production has been detected in bacteria and plants for many years and is known to be a potent inhibitor of aconitase, its biosynthetic origins and the physiological relevance of its activity have remained unclear. We have serendipitously uncovered key information relevant to both of these questions. Specifically, in a search for novel nematicidal factors from Bacillus thuringiensis, a significant nematode pathogen harboring many protein virulence factors, we discovered a high-yielding component that showed activity against the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita and surprisingly identified it as TAA...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087659/plant-parasitic-nematodes-towards-understanding-molecular-players-in-stress-responses
#9
REVIEW
François-Xavier Gillet, Caroline Bournaud, Jose Dijair Antonino de Souza Júnior, Maria Fatima Grossi-de-Sa
BACKGROUND: Plant-parasitic nematode interactions occur within a vast molecular plant immunity network. Following initial contact with the host plant roots, plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) activate basal immune responses. Defence priming involves the release in the apoplast of toxic molecules derived from reactive species or secondary metabolism. In turn, PPNs must overcome the poisonous and stressful environment at the plant-nematode interface. The ability of PPNs to escape this first line of plant immunity is crucial and will determine its virulence...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086793/methicillin-resistance-and-virulence-genes-in-invasive-and-nasal-staphylococcus-epidermidis-isolates-from-neonates
#10
Vivian Carolina Salgueiro, Natalia Lopes Pontes Iorio, Marcelle Cristina Ferreira, Raiane Cardoso Chamon, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen involved in hospital-acquired infections, particularly in those related to medical devices. This study characterized 50 genetically unrelated S. epidermidis isolates from bloodstream infections (BSIs, n = 31) and nares (n = 19) of neonates in relation to staphylococcal chromosomal cassette mec (SCCmec) type, biofilm production and associated genes, and the arginine catabolic mobile elements (ACME), in order to detect virulence factors that could discriminate a potential invasiveness isolate or predict an increasing pathogenicity...
January 13, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081347/virulence-factors-biofilm-forming-ability-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-urinary-escherichia-coli-strains-isolated-from-hospitalized-patients
#11
Barbara Kot, Jolanta Wicha, Agata Grużewska, Małgorzata Piechota, Katarzyna Wolska, Maria Obrębska
BACKGROUND/AIM: Escherichia coli is the most frequent cause of urinary tract infections. We investigated the possible associations between the origin of strains, antimicrobial resistance, the presence of urovirulence factors, and biofilm-forming ability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antibiotic susceptibility of E. coli strains was tested by disk diffusion method. Hemagglutination assays were performed for phenotypic characterization of the cell surface. Multiplex PCR was used for detection of virulence genes and for determination of phylogenetic relationships...
December 20, 2016: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081265/the-plasmin-sensitive-protein-pls-in-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa-is-a-glycoprotein
#12
Isabelle Bleiziffer, Julian Eikmeier, Gottfried Pohlentz, Kathryn McAulay, Guoqing Xia, Muzaffar Hussain, Andreas Peschel, Simon Foster, Georg Peters, Christine Heilmann
Most bacterial glycoproteins identified to date are virulence factors of pathogenic bacteria, i.e. adhesins and invasins. However, the impact of protein glycosylation on the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus remains incompletely understood. To study protein glycosylation in staphylococci, we analyzed lysostaphin lysates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains by SDS-PAGE and subsequent periodic acid-Schiff's staining. We detected four (>300, ∼250, ∼165, and ∼120 kDa) and two (>300 and ∼175 kDa) glycosylated surface proteins with strain COL and strain 1061, respectively...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081189/global-gene-expression-analysis-of-cross-protected-phenotype-of-pectobacterium-atrosepticum
#13
Vladimir Gorshkov, Stanford Kwenda, Olga Petrova, Elena Osipova, Yuri Gogolev, Lucy N Moleleki
The ability to adapt to adverse conditions permits many bacterial species to be virtually ubiquitous and survive in a variety of ecological niches. This ability is of particular importance for many plant pathogenic bacteria that should be able to exist, except for their host plants, in different environments e.g. soil, water, insect-vectors etc. Under some of these conditions, bacteria encounter absence of nutrients and persist, acquiring new properties related to resistance to a variety of stress factors (cross-protection)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#14
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079684/the-cif-virulence-factor-gene-is-present-in-isolates-from-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-keratitis
#15
Christopher D Bahl, Jessica D St Laurent, R Siva Ganesa Karthikeyan, J Lakshmi Priya, Lalitha Prajna, Michael E Zegans, Dean R Madden
PURPOSE: To determine whether the cif gene is present in pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from patients with bacterial keratitis at Aravind Eye Hospital, a referral eye care center in southern India, and from corresponding environmental isolates. METHODS: Polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed on strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from ocular infections and environmental soil samples were collected from the area surrounding Aravind Eye Hospital...
January 11, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077337/stress-hormone-epinephrine-adrenaline-and-norepinephrine-noradrenaline-effects-on-the-anaerobic-bacteria
#16
REVIEW
Lyudmila Boyanova
Microbial endocrinology is a relatively new research area that already encompasses the anaerobes. Stress hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, can affect the growth of anaerobic bacteria such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, Prevotella spp., Porhyromonas spp., Tanerella forsythia and Propionibacterium acnes and can increase virulence gene expression, iron acquisition and many virulence factors of some anaerobic species such as Clostridium perfringens, Porphyromonas gingivalis and Brachyspira pilosicoli. Epinephrine and norepinephrine effects can lead to a growth increase or decrease, or no effect on the growth of the anaerobes...
January 8, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074388/lactobacillus-slpa-promotes-esc-growth-through-the-erk1-2-pathway
#17
Jinying He, Ya Tuo, Wenjie Yan, Jing Yang
Bacterial surface layers (S-layers) are cell envelope structures ubiquitously found in gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, including Lactobacillus. S-layers play a role in the determination and maintenance of cell shape as virulence factors, mediate cell adhesion, and regulate immature dendritic and T cells. In this study, we sought to understand the involvement of MAPK serine/threonine kinases in alterations in Endometrial epithelial cells (ESC) growth induced by Lactobacillus crispatus (L. crispatus) slpA, an S-layer protein...
January 10, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074125/shiga-vero-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-isolated-from-the-hospital-foods-virulence-factors-o-serogroups-and-antimicrobial-resistance-properties
#18
Reza Ranjbar, Mojtaba Masoudimanesh, Farhad Safarpoor Dehkordi, Nematollah Jonaidi-Jafari, Ebrahim Rahimi
BACKGROUND: According to the presence of the weak, diabetic and immunosuppressive patients in hospitals, hospital foods should have a high quality and safety. Cooking a lot of foods higher than daily requirement, storage of cooked foods in an inappropriate condition and presence of nurses and servants in distribution of food to patients are the main reasons caused contamination of hospital foods. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli is one of the common cause of food poisoning in hospitals...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074027/a-unique-cis-encoded-small-noncoding-rna-is-regulating-legionella-pneumophila-hfq-expression-in-a-life-cycle-dependent-manner
#19
Giulia Oliva, Tobias Sahr, Monica Rolando, Maike Knoth, Carmen Buchrieser
: Legionella pneumophila is an environmental bacterium that parasitizes protozoa, but it may also infect humans, thereby causing a severe pneumonia called Legionnaires' disease. To cycle between the environment and a eukaryotic host, L. pneumophila is regulating the expression of virulence factors in a life cycle-dependent manner: replicating bacteria do not express virulence factors, whereas transmissive bacteria are highly motile and infective. Here we show that Hfq is an important regulator in this network...
January 10, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073340/a-comparative-genomic-analysis-of-putative-pathogenicity-genes-in-the-host-specific-sibling-species-colletotrichum-graminicola-and-colletotrichum-sublineola
#20
E A S Buiate, K V Xavier, N Moore, M F Torres, M L Farman, C L Schardl, L J Vaillancourt
BACKGROUND: Colletotrichum graminicola and C. sublineola cause anthracnose leaf and stalk diseases of maize and sorghum, respectively. In spite of their close evolutionary relationship, the two species are completely host-specific. Host specificity is often attributed to pathogen virulence factors, including specialized secondary metabolites (SSM), and small-secreted protein (SSP) effectors. Genes relevant to these categories were manually annotated in two co-occurring, contemporaneous strains of C...
January 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
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