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virulence factor

Shuhong Zhang, Guangzhu Yang, Qinghua Ye, Qingping Wu, Jumei Zhang, Yuanbin Huang
Klebsiella pneumoniae is not only a major hospital-acquired pathogen but also an important food-borne pathogen that can cause septicaemia, liver abscesses, and diarrhea in humans. The phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae in retail foods have not been thoroughly investigated in China. The objective of this study was to characterize K. pneumoniae isolates through biotyping, serotyping, determination of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance testing, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR), and (GTG)5 -PCR molecular typing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Satoshi Kawato, Reiko Nozaki, Hidehiro Kondo, Ikuo Hirono
Vibrio penaeicida is a bacterial pathogen of cultured shrimp. The draft genome sequence of V. penaeicida strain TUMSAT-NU1 consists of 100 scaffolds with a total of 6.41 Mbp. We identified possible virulence factors, and we found that V. penaeicida and Vibrio nigripulchritudo are closely related.
March 15, 2018: Genome Announcements
Memi Muto, Wataru Kamitani, Mizuki Sakai, Minato Hirano, Shintaro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Kariwa, Kentaro Yoshii
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe neurological disease, but the pathogenetic mechanism is unclear. The conformational structure of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of TBEV is associated with its virulence. We tried to identify host proteins interacting with the 3'-UTR of TBEV. Cellular proteins of HEK293T cells were co-precipitated with biotinylated RNAs of the 3'-UTR of low- and high-virulence TBEV strains and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Fifteen host proteins were found to bind to the 3'-UTR of TBEV, four of which- cold shock domain containing-E1 (CSDE1), spermatid perinuclear RNA binding protein (STRBP), fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3)-bound specifically to that of the low-virulence strain...
March 12, 2018: Virus Research
Olivier Poupel, Caroline Proux, Bernd Jagla, Tarek Msadek, Sarah Dubrac
The success of Staphylococcus aureus, as both a human and animal pathogen, stems from its ability to rapidly adapt to a wide spectrum of environmental conditions. Two-component systems (TCSs) play a crucial role in this process. Here, we describe a novel staphylococcal virulence factor, SpdC, an Abi-domain protein, involved in signal sensing and/or transduction. We have uncovered a functional link between the WalKR essential TCS and the SpdC Abi membrane protein. Expression of spdC is positively regulated by the WalKR system and, in turn, SpdC negatively controls WalKR regulon genes, effectively constituting a negative feedback loop...
March 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Miguel R Lugo, Bronwyn Lyons, Cristina Lento, Derek J Wilson, A Rod Merrill
Scabin is a mono-ADP-ribosyltransferase enzyme and is a putative virulence factor produced by the plant pathogen, Streptomyces scabies. Previously, crystal structures of Scabin were solved in the presence and absence of substrate analogues and inhibitors. Herein, experimental (hydrogen-deuterium exchange), simulated (molecular dynamics), and theoretical (Gaussian Network Modeling) approaches were systematically applied to study the dynamics of apo-Scabin in the context of a Scabin·NAD+·DNA model. MD simulations revealed that the apo-Scabin solution conformation correlates well with the X-ray crystal structure, beyond the conformation of the exposed, mobile regions...
2018: PloS One
Bruna Maria Salotti de Souza, Taís Fernanda Borgonovi, Sabrina Neves Casarotti, Svetoslav Dimitrov Todorov, Ana Lúcia Barretto Penna
The objective of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum strains, as well as to select novel and safe strains for future development of functional fermented products. The in vitro auto-aggregation, co-aggregation, hydrophobicity, β-galactosidase production, survival to gastrointestinal tract (GIT), and antibiotic susceptibility were evaluated. The selected strains were additionally tested by the presence of genes encoding adhesion, aggregation and colonization, virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and biogenic amine production, followed by the evaluation of acidifying kinetic parameters in milk, and survival of the strains under simulated GIT conditions during refrigerated storage of fermented milk...
March 14, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Shuaishuai Ni, Baoli Li, Feifei Chen, Hanwen Wei, Fei Mao, Yifu Liu, Yixiang Xu, Xiaoxi Qiu, Xiaokang Li, Wenwen Liu, Linghao Hu, Dazheng Ling, Manjiong Wang, Xinyu Zheng, Jin Zhu, Lefu Lan, Jian Li
Diapophytoene desaturase (CrtN) is a potential novel target for intervening in the biosynthesis of the virulence factor staphyloxanthin. In this study, 38 1,4-benzodioxan-derived CrtN inhibitors were designed and synthesized to overwhelm the defects of leading compound 4a . Derivative 47 displayed superior pigment inhibitory activity, better hERG inhibitory properties and water solubility, and significantly sensitized MRSA strains to immune clearance in vitro. Notably, 47 displayed excellent efficacy against pigmented S...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Katherine Y Le, Matthew D Park, Michael Otto
The primary virulence factor of the skin commensal and opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus epidermidis , is the ability to form biofilms on surfaces of implanted materials. Much of this microorganism's pathogenic success has been attributed to its ability to evade the innate immune system. The primary defense against S. epidermidis biofilm infection consists of complement activation, recruitment and subsequent killing of the pathogen by effector cells. Among pathogen-derived factors, the biofilm exopolysaccharide polysaccharide intercellular adhesion (PIA), as well as the accumulation-associated protein (Aap), and the extracellular matrix binding protein (Embp) have been shown to modulate effector cell-mediated killing of S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
José F Muñoz, Juan G McEwen, Oliver K Clay, Christina A Cuomo
Dimorphic fungal pathogens cause a significant human disease burden and unlike most fungal pathogens affect immunocompetent hosts. To examine the origin of virulence of these fungal pathogens, we compared genomes of classic systemic, opportunistic, and non-pathogenic species, including Emmonsia and two basal branching, non-pathogenic species in the Ajellomycetaceae, Helicocarpus griseus and Polytolypa hystricis. We found that gene families related to plant degradation, secondary metabolites synthesis, and amino acid and lipid metabolism are retained in H...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Joy Ogbechi, Belinda S Hall, Thomas Sbarrato, Jack Taunton, Anne E Willis, Ronald C Wek, Rachel E Simmonds
Mycolactone is the exotoxin virulence factor of Mycobacterium ulcerans that causes the neglected tropical disease Buruli ulcer. We recently showed it to be a broad spectrum inhibitor of Sec61-dependent co-translational translocation of proteins into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). An outstanding question is the molecular pathway linking this to its known cytotoxicity. We have now used translational profiling to better understand the reprogramming that occurs in cells exposed to mycolactone. Gene ontology identified enrichment in genes involved in cellular response to stress, and apoptosis signalling among those showing enhanced translation...
March 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Yvonne Gräser, Michel Monod, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Karolina Dukik, Pietro Nenoff, Alexandra Kargl, Christiane Kupsch, Ping Zhan, Ann Packeu, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Sybren de Hoog
Dermatophyte research has renewed interest because of changing human floras with changing socioeconomic conditions, and because of severe chronic infections in patients with congenital immune disorders. Main taxonomic traits at the generic level have changed considerably, and now fine-tuning at the species level with state-of-the-art technology has become urgent. Research on virulence factors focuses on secreted proteases now has support in genome data. It is speculated that most protease families are used for degrading hard keratin during nitrogen recycling in the environment, while others, such as Sub6 may have emerged as a result of ancestral gene duplication, and are likely to have specific roles during infection...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Flavia De Bernardis, Sofia Graziani, Flavio Tirelli, Stavroula Antonopoulou
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common mucosal infection affecting a large proportion of women with some of them affected by recurrent often intractable forms of the disease. Thus, there is an increasing interest in understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of our work was to characterize, in animal models of vaginal candidiasis, the components of the host-fungus interaction at the mucosal level.The evidence of an immune response in the vaginal compartment was very encouraging to identify the proper targets for new strategies for vaccination or immunotherapy of vaginal candidiasis...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Andoni Ramirez-Garcia, Aize Pellon, Aitor Rementeria, Idoia Buldain, Eliana Barreto-Bergter, Rodrigo Rollin-Pinheiro, Jardel Vieira de Meirelles, Mariana Ingrid D S Xisto, Stephane Ranque, Vladimir Havlicek, Patrick Vandeputte, Yohann Le Govic, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Sandrine Giraud, Sharon Chen, Johannes Rainer, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martin-Gomez, Leyre M López-Soria, Javier Peman, Carsten Schwarz, Anne Bernhardt, Kathrin Tintelnot, Javier Capilla, Adela Martin-Vicente, Jose Cano-Lira, Markus Nagl, Michaela Lackner, Laszlo Irinyi, Wieland Meyer, Sybren de Hoog, Fernando L Hernando
Species of Scedosporium and Lomentospora are considered as emerging opportunists, affecting immunosuppressed and otherwise debilitated patients, although classically they are known from causing trauma-associated infections in healthy individuals. Clinical manifestations range from local infection to pulmonary colonization and severe invasive disease, in which mortality rates may be over 80%. These unacceptably high rates are due to the clinical status of patients, diagnostic difficulties, and to intrinsic antifungal resistance of these fungi...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Xinfeng Zhang, Lei Wang, Renpeng Li, Peiqiang Hou, Yuanqing Zhang, Ming Fang, Bin Hu
The objective of this study was to investigate the presence and characterization of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) from the intestinal tract. 43 KP strains were isolated from 551 stool specimens from diarrhea patients from 2013 to 2016,with a carriage rate of 7.80%. All isolates were hypervirulent KP (hvKp) strains with hypermucoviscosity (HM) phenotype. The virulence factors and antibiotic resistance exhibited diverse distribution. 2.33% (1/43), 2.33% (1/43), 6.98% (3/43), 6.98% (3/43), 4.65% (2/43), 11.63% (5/43) and 18...
March 14, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Manuel R Gonzalez, Verena Ducret, Sara Leoni, Betty Fleuchot, Paris Jafari, Wassim Raffoul, Lee A Applegate, Yok-Ai Que, Karl Perron
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a severe opportunistic pathogen and is one of the major causes of hard to treat burn wound infections. Herein we have used an RNA-seq transcriptomic approach to study the behavior of P. aeruginosa PAO1 growing directly on human burn wound exudate. A chemical analysis of compounds used by this bacterium, coupled with kinetics expression of central genes has allowed us to obtain a global view of P. aeruginosa physiological and metabolic changes occurring while growing on human burn wound exudate...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Arwa Abu Khweek, Amal O Amer
Legionella pneumophila ( L. pneumophila ) is an opportunistic waterborne pathogen and the causative agent for Legionnaires' disease, which is transmitted to humans via inhalation of contaminated water droplets. The bacterium is able to colonize a variety of man-made water systems such as cooling towers, spas, and dental lines and is widely distributed in multiple niches, including several species of protozoa In addition to survival in planktonic phase, L. pneumophila is able to survive and persist within multi-species biofilms that cover surfaces within water systems...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Qingyun Dai, Lei Xu, Lu Xiao, Kaixiang Zhu, Yunhong Song, Changfu Li, Lingfang Zhu, Xihui Shen, Yao Wang
Urease acts as an important acid resistance system and virulence factor that is widespread among microorganisms. RovM is a global regulator that regulates a series of genes and pathways including acid survival systems in the enteric bacterium Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) . However, whether RovM regulates the urease activity in Yptb was still unknown. In this study, by using qualitative and quantitative urease assays, we show that the urease expression responds to nutrient conditions and the RovM protein represses urease expression by binding to its promoter...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Adam J Pelzek, Bo Shopsin, Emily E Radke, Kayan Tam, Beatrix M Ueberheide, David Fenyö, Stuart M Brown, Qianhao Li, Ada Rubin, Yi Fulmer, William K Chiang, David N Hernandez, Hanane El Bannoudi, William E Sause, Alexis Sommerfield, Isaac P Thomsen, Andy O Miller, Victor J Torres, Gregg J Silverman
Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive opportunistic pathogen that causes superficial and invasive infections in the hospital and community. High mortality from infection emphasizes the need for improved methods for prevention and treatment. Although S. aureus possesses an arsenal of virulence factors that contribute to evasion of host defenses, few studies have examined long-term humoral and B-cell responses. Adults with acute-phase skin and soft tissue infections were recruited; blood samples were obtained; and S...
March 13, 2018: MBio
Claudia C Paredes-Amaya, Gilberto Valdés-García, Víctor R Juárez-González, Enrique Rudiño-Piñera, Víctor H Bustamante
HilD is an AraC-like transcriptional regulator that plays a central role in Salmonella virulence. HilD controls the expression of the genes within the Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 (SPI-1) and of several genes located outside SPI-1, which are mainly required for Salmonella invasion of host cells. The expression, amount and activity of HilD are tightly controlled by the activities of several factors. The HilE protein represses the expression of the SPI-1 genes through its interaction with HilD; however, the mechanism by which HilE affects HilD is unknown...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Pooja Sadana, Rebecca Geyer, Joern Pezoldt, Saskia Helmsing, Jochen Huehn, Michael Hust, Petra Dersch, Andrea Scrima
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a Gram-negative bacterium and zoonotic pathogen responsible for a wide range of diseases, ranging from mild diarrhea, enterocolitis, lymphatic adenitis to persistent local inflammation. The Y. pseudotuberculosis invasin D (InvD) molecule belongs to the invasin (InvA)-type autotransporter proteins, but its structure and function remain unknown. In this study, we present the first crystal structure of InvD, analyzed its expression and function in a murine infection model, and identified its target molecule in the host...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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