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wild life veterinary

Christine Böhmer, Estella Böhmer
In contrast to wild lagomorphs, pet rabbits exhibit a noticeably high frequency of dental problems. Although dietary habits are considered as a major factor contributing to acquired malocclusions, the exact causes and interrelationships are still under debate. In this regard, an important aspect that has not been considered thoroughly to date is the effect of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in skull morphology. Therefore, we conducted a geometric morphometric analysis on skull radiological images of wild and pet rabbits in order to quantify intraspecific variation in craniomandibular morphology...
January 24, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
V Naidoo, M A Taggart, N Duncan, K Wolter, J Chipangura, R E Green, T H Galligan
Veterinary medicines can be extremely damaging to the environment, as seen with the catastrophic declines in Gyps vulture in South Asia due to their secondary exposure to diclofenac in their primary food source. Not surprisingly, concern has been raised over other similar drugs. In this study, we evaluate the toxicity of carprofen to the Gyps vulture clade through plasma pharmacokinetics evaluations in Bos taurus cattle (their food source) and Gyps africanus (a validated model species); tissue residues in cattle; and the effect of carprofen as a secondary toxicant as both tissue-bound residue or pure drug at levels expected in cattle tissues...
September 14, 2017: Chemosphere
Shruthi Krishnamurthy, Bin Deng, Roxana Del Rio, Kerry R Buchholz, Moritz Treeck, Siniša Urban, John Boothroyd, Ying-Wai Lam, Gary E Ward
UNLABELLED: Apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) is a receptor protein on the surface of Toxoplasma gondii that plays a critical role in host cell invasion. The ligand to which T gondii AMA1 (TgAMA1) binds, TgRON2, is secreted into the host cell membrane by the parasite during the early stages of invasion. The TgAMA1-TgRON2 complex forms the core of the "moving junction," a ring-shaped zone of tight contact between the parasite and host cell membranes, through which the parasite pushes itself during invasion...
September 13, 2016: MBio
Peter F Cook, Colleen Reichmuth, Andrew Rouse, Sophie Dennison, Bill Van Bonn, Frances Gulland
Domoic acid is a naturally occurring algal toxin that causes neurological symptoms and mortality in exposed marine life. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) are the most visible victims, and suffer epilepsy and progressive hippocampal atrophy. Despite its reliable neurological effects, little is known about how exposure to domoic acid alters behavior, which is critical for understanding the impact of toxic exposure on long-term survival in sea lions and other exposed animals, including humans. Better understanding of the behavioral effects may also inform veterinary diagnosis and treatment...
September 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Javier Millán, Tatiana Proboste, Isabel G Fernández de Mera, Andrea D Chirife, José de la Fuente, Laura Altet
Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas...
March 2016: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Maria Anete Lallo, Lidiana Flora Vidoto Da Costa, Anuska Marcelino Alvares-Saraiva, Paulo Ricardo Dell'Armelina Rocha, Diva Denelle Spadacci-Morena, Fabiana Toshie de Camargo Konno, Ivana Barbosa Suffredini
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular mitochondria-lacking pathogens that rely on host cells to grow and multiply. Microsporidia, currently classified as fungi, are ubiquitous in nature and are found worldwide. They infect a large number of mammals and are recognized as opportunistic infection agents in HIV-AIDS patients. Its importance for veterinary medicine has been unveiled in recent years through the description of clinical and subclinical forms of infection in domestic and wild animals. Domestic and wild birds may be infected by the same human microsporidia, reinforcing their zoonotic potential...
February 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Farhan Ahmad Atif
Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum are the most important tick-borne bacteria of veterinary and public health significance in the family Anaplasmataceae. The objective of current review is to provide knowledge on ecology and epidemiology of A. phagocytophilum and compare major similarities and differences of A. marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Bovine anaplasmosis is globally distributed tick-borne disease of livestock with great economic importance in cattle industry. A. phagocytophilum, a cosmopolitan zoonotic tick transmitted pathogen of wide mammalian hosts...
November 2015: Parasitology Research
Michelle A Kutzler
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: Reversible contraceptives are highly desired by purebred cat breeders for managing estrous cycles and by scientists managing assisted reproduction programs. A variety of alternative medicine approaches have been explored as methods to control feline fertility. SCOPE: In the field of veterinary homeopathy, wild carrot seed and papaya have been used for centuries. Both appear to be safe, but their efficacy as feline contraceptives remains anecdotal...
September 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Z Széll, Z Tolnai, T Sréter
Mesocestoides spp. are zoonotic cestodes of wild and domesticated carnivores. Although the adult stages are relatively harmless intestinal parasites, the metacestode stages (tetrathyridia) can be responsible for life-threatening peritonitis and pleuritis in several species including dogs, cats, non-human primates and probably man. The aim of the present study was to reveal the spatial distribution pattern of Mesocestoides spp. in the most important final hosts, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), to analyse the relationship of these patterns with landscape and climate by geographical information systems and to evaluate faecal flotation method for the detection of infection in the final host...
September 15, 2015: Veterinary Parasitology
Ute Mackenstedt, David Jenkins, Thomas Romig
During the last 100 years in many countries of the world, there have been dramatic changes in natural/rural landscapes due to urbanization. Since many wildlife species are unable to adapt to these alterations in their environment, urbanization is commonly responsible for a decline of biodiversity in areas of urban development. In contrast, some wild animal species are attracted to peri-urban and urban habitats due to the availability of an abundant food supply and the presence of structures in which to shelter...
April 2015: International Journal for Parasitology. Parasites and Wildlife
B V Purse, S Carpenter, G J Venter, G Bellis, B A Mullens
Culicoides midges are abundant hematophagous flies that vector arboviruses of veterinary and medical importance. Dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Culicoides-borne arboviruses have occurred since 1998, including the emergence of exotic viruses in northern temperate regions, increases in global disease incidence, and enhanced virus diversity in tropical zones. Drivers may include changes in climate, land use, trade, and animal husbandry. New Culicoides species and new wild reservoir hosts have been implicated in transmission, highlighting the dynamic nature of pathogen-vector-host interactions...
January 7, 2015: Annual Review of Entomology
Linda L Marcusson, Patricia Komp Lindgren, Sara K Olofsson, Diarmaid Hughes, Otto Cars
Pharmacodynamic and mutant prevention properties of the fluoroquinolone pradofloxacin (PRA) were measured against a set of 17 Escherichia coli strains carrying no, one or two known mutations conferring reduced fluoroquinolone susceptibility. The strains included susceptible wild-types, isogenic constructed mutants, isogenic selected mutants and clinical isolates. The effectiveness of PRA was determined with regard to preventing the selection of resistant mutants, using static and changing concentrations of drug...
October 2014: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Hüseyin Can, Mert Döşkaya, Daniel Ajzenberg, H Gökhan Özdemir, Ayşe Caner, Sultan Gülce İz, Aysu Değirmenci Döşkaya, Esra Atalay, Çağdaş Çetinkaya, Saygun Ürgen, Sabire Karaçalı, Cemal Ün, Marie-Laure Dardé, Yüksel Gürüz
Currently, some Toxoplasma gondii genotypes are being associated with serious clinical presentations. A recent report showing the Africa 1 genotype in two local congenital toxoplasmosis cases acquired in Turkey formed the basis of this study because atypical Africa 1 genotype is most frequently detected in animals and patients from sub-Saharan Africa. Since stray cats are considered as the linkage between wild life and urban life in T. gondii transmission, the present study aimed to isolate and characterize T...
2014: PloS One
Gad Baneth
A wide variety of pathogens is transmitted from ticks to vertebrates including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and helminths, of which most have a life cycle that requires passage through the vertebrate host. Tick-borne infections of humans, farm and companion animals are essentially associated with wildlife animal reservoirs. While some flying insect-borne diseases of humans such as malaria, filariasis and Kala Azar caused by Leishmania donovani target people as their main host, major tick-borne infections of humans, although potentially causing disease in large numbers of individuals, are typically an infringement of a circulation between wildlife animal reservoirs and tick vectors...
August 2014: International Journal for Parasitology
K D Murrell
Humans suffer from several foodborne helminth zoonotic diseases, some of which can be deadly (e.g., trichinellosis, cerebral cysticercosis) while others are chronic and cause only mild illness (e.g., intestinal taeniosis). The route of infection is normally consumption of the parasite's natural host as a human food item (e.g., meat). The risk for infection with these parasites is highest wherever people have an inadequate knowledge of infection and hygiene, poor animal husbandry practices, and unsafe management and disposal of human and animal waste products...
August 2013: Revue Scientifique et Technique
Veerupaxagouda Patil, Pamela J Lescault, Dario Lirussi, Ann B Thompson, Mariana Matrajt
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is an important human and veterinary pathogen. Asexual replication of T. gondii in humans and intermediate hosts is characterized by two forms: rapidly growing "tachyzoites" and latent "bradyzoite" tissue cysts. Tachyzoites are responsible for acute illness and congenital neurological birth defects, while the more slowly dividing bradyzoite form can remain latent within the tissues for many years, representing a threat to immunocompromised patients. We have developed a genetic screen to identify regulatory genes that control parasite differentiation and have isolated mutants that fail to convert to bradyzoites...
2012: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Adrian Muwonge, Tone B Johansen, Edvardsen Vigdis, Jacques Godfroid, Francisco Olea-Popelka, Demelash Biffa, Eystein Skjerve, Berit Djønne
BACKGROUND: Bovine tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis is primarily a disease of ruminants, particularly cattle (Bos primigenius) and buffalo (Syncerus caffer), and is endemic in most developing countries. To date, studies done in Uganda have documented the prevalence of M. bovis in cattle, humans and wild life, in addition to non-tuberculous mycobacteria in pigs. Pigs are increasingly becoming an important component of the livestock sector and share the human ecosystem in rural Uganda...
2012: BMC Veterinary Research
Marino Garcia-Montijano, J Julio de Lucas, Casilda Rodríguez, Fernando González, Manuel Ignacio San Andrés, Samanta Waxman
Marbofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone developed specifically for veterinary use, has demonstrated considerable pharmokinetic variation among avian species. The goal of this study was to determine the disposition kinetics of marbofloxacin in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) after a single intravenous injection. Six wild mallard ducks were used in the study. Marbofloxacin was injected at a dose of 2 mg/kg into the basilic vein, and blood was subsequently collected at regular intervals from each bird. Plasma marbofloxacin concentrations were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatography...
March 2012: Journal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Seraphine N Esemu, Lucy M Ndip, Roland N Ndip
Ehrlichiae are obligate intracellular Gram-negative tick-borne bacteria that are responsible for life-threatening emerging human zoonoses and diseases of veterinary importance worldwide, collectively called ehrlichioses. The genus Ehrlichia consists of five recognized species, including E. canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, E. muris, and E. ruminantium. The recent discoveries of Ehrlichia species in new areas and of tick species that were previously thought to be uninfected by these agents have suggested that these agents may have wider distribution than originally thought...
2011: Reviews on Environmental Health
Renu Sharma, R K Manhas, Rani Magotra
UNLABELLED: The triangle of relationship between human beings, animals and plants has existed for ages, and has given rise to intense-relationships and consequently rich traditions of ethnoveterinary knowledge throughout the world. The predominantly rural population and the strong agricultural base have provided unique situation for rich ethnoveterinary practices in the study area. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was conducted in the Kathua district of Jammu and Kashmir between 2007 and 2009 to provide list of the important plants of the region for further phytochemical and pharmacological studies, and to prepare inventory of the ethnoveterinary practices for the future generations...
May 7, 2012: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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