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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535611/sea-buckthorn-hippophae-rhamnoides-l-leaf-extracts-protect-neuronal-pc-12-cells-from-oxidative-stress
#1
Chi Heung Cho, Ho Lim Jang, Migi Lee, Hee Kang, Ho Jjn Heo, Dae-Ok Kim
The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidative and neuroprotective effects of sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaves (SBL) harvested at different times. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed five major phenolic compounds: ellagic acid, gallic acid, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin. SBL harvested in August had the highest total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacity. Treatment of neuronal PC-12 cells with the ethyl acetate fraction of SBL harvested in August in increased their viability and membrane integrity and reduced intracellular oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535598/antarctic-seals-molecular-biomarkers-as-indicators-for-pollutant-exposure-health-effects-and-diet
#2
K Lehnert, L Weirup, K C Harding, T Härkönen, O Karlsson, J Teilmann
Weddell (Leptonychotes weddellii), Ross (Ommatophoca rossii) and crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophaga) are phocid seals with a circumpolar distribution around Antarctica. As long-lived and large top predators, they bioaccumulate contaminants and are considered as sentinels of ecosystem health. Antarctic seals are increasingly exposed to climate change, pollution, shipping and fisheries. To reveal and understand possible anthropogenic impacts on their immune and health status, this study investigates sensitive biomarkers of the xenobiotic metabolism and immune system in relation to mercury (Hg) burden...
May 19, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535490/moderate-ocean-warming-mitigates-but-more-extreme-warming-exacerbates-the-impacts-of-zinc-from-engineered-nanoparticles-on%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-marine-larva
#3
Benjamin Mos, Katrina L Kaposi, Andrew L Rose, Brendan Kelaher, Symon A Dworjanyn
There is growing concern about the combined effects of multiple human-induced stressors on biodiversity. In particular, there are substantial knowledge gaps about the combined effects of existing stressors (e.g. pollution) and predicted environmental stress from climate change (e.g. ocean warming). We investigated the impacts of ocean warming and engineered nanoparticles (nano-zinc oxide, nZnO) on larvae of a cosmopolitan tropical sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Larval T. gratilla were exposed to all combinations of three temperatures, 25, 27 and 29 °C (current SST and near-future predicted warming of +2 and + 4 °C) and six concentrations of nZnO (0, 0...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535489/large-scale-deposition-of-weathered-oil-in-the-gulf-of-mexico-following-a-deep-water-oil-spill
#4
Isabel C Romero, Gerardo Toro-Farmer, Arne-R Diercks, Patrick Schwing, Frank Muller-Karger, Steven Murawski, David J Hollander
The blowout of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) drilling rig in 2010 released an unprecedented amount of oil at depth (1,500 m) into the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). Sedimentary geochemical data from an extensive area (∼194,000 km(2)) was used to characterize the amount, chemical signature, distribution, and extent of the DWH oil deposited on the seafloor in 2010-2011 from coastal to deep-sea areas in the GoM. The analysis of numerous hydrocarbon compounds (N = 158) and sediment cores (N = 2,613) suggests that, 1...
May 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535464/occurrence-of-marine-algal-toxins-in-oyster-and-phytoplankton-samples-in-daya-bay-south-china-sea
#5
Tao Jiang, Lei Liu, Yang Li, Jing Zhang, Zhijun Tan, Haiyan Wu, Tianjiu Jiang, Songhui Lu
The occurrence and seasonal variations of marine algal toxins in phytoplankton and oyster samples in Daya Bay (DYB), South China Sea were investigated. Two Dinophysis species, namely, D. caudata and D. acuminata complex, were identified as Okadaic acid (OA)/pectenotoxin (PTX) related species. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis demonstrated that 2.04-14.47 pg PTX2 per cell was the predominant toxin in single-cell isolates of D. caudata. D. acuminata was not subjected to toxin analysis...
May 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534807/lobophorin-k-a-new-natural-product-with-cytotoxic-activity-produced-by-streptomyces-sp-m-207-associated-with-the-deep-sea-coral-lophelia-pertusa
#6
Alfredo F Braña, Aida Sarmiento-Vizcaíno, Miguel Osset, Ignacio Pérez-Victoria, Jesús Martín, Nuria de Pedro, Mercedes de la Cruz, Caridad Díaz, Francisca Vicente, Fernando Reyes, Luis A García, Gloria Blanco
The present article describes the isolation of a new natural product of the lobophorin family, designated as lobophorin K (1), from cultures of the marine actinobacteria Streptomyces sp. M-207, previously isolated from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa collected at 1800 m depth during an expedition to the submarine Avilés Canyon. Its structure was determined using a combination of spectroscopic techniques, mainly ESI-TOF MS and 1D and 2D NMR. This new natural product displayed cytotoxic activity against two human tumor cell lines, such as pancreatic carcinoma (MiaPaca-2) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7)...
May 19, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534690/decreased-left-atrial-myocardial-strain-in-patients-with-suboptimal-blood-pressure-control
#7
Xiao-Jing Chen, Chen Chen, Yu-Jia Liang, Xi-Lian Gao, Jing Jiang, Yu Kang, Yu-Cheng Chen, Qing Zhang, Zhi Zeng
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control is commonly observed in patients receiving antihypertensive agents, but the relationship between uncontrolled BP and left atrial (LA) impairment remains unknown. METHODS: This study enrolled 279 hypertensive patients who had been medicated, as well as 85 matched normal controls. The BP of systolic <140 mmHg and diastolic<90 mmHg was defined as optimal (HT1 group, n=146), otherwise as suboptimal BP control (HT2 group, n = 133)...
May 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533965/reappraisal-of-the-extinct-seal-phoca-vitulinoides-from-the-neogene-of-the-north-sea-basin-with-bearing-on-its-geological-age-phylogenetic-affinities-and-locomotion
#8
Leonard Dewaele, Eli Amson, Olivier Lambert, Stephen Louwye
BACKGROUND: Discovered on the southern margin of the North Sea Basin, "Phoca" vitulinoides represents one of the best-known extinct species of Phocidae. However, little attention has been given to the species ever since its original 19th century description. Newly discovered material, including the most complete specimen of fossil Phocidae from the North Sea Basin, prompted the redescription of the species. Also, the type material of "Phoca" vitulinoides is lost. METHODS: "Phoca" vitulinoides is redescribed...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533952/quantifying-climate-change-impacts-emphasises-the-importance-of-managing-regional-threats-in-the-endangered-yellow-eyed-penguin
#9
Thomas Mattern, Stefan Meyer, Ursula Ellenberg, David M Houston, John T Darby, Melanie Young, Yolanda van Heezik, Philip J Seddon
Climate change is a global issue with effects that are difficult to manage at a regional scale. Yet more often than not climate factors are just some of multiple stressors affecting species on a population level. Non-climatic factors-especially those of anthropogenic origins-may play equally important roles with regard to impacts on species and are often more feasible to address. Here we assess the influence of climate change on population trends of the endangered Yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) over the last 30 years, using a Bayesian model...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533949/worldwide-exploration-of-the-microbiome-harbored-by-the-cnidarian-model-exaiptasia-pallida-agassiz-in-verrill-1864-indicates-a-lack-of-bacterial-association-specificity-at-a-lower-taxonomic-rank
#10
Tanya Brown, Christopher Otero, Alejandro Grajales, Estefania Rodriguez, Mauricio Rodriguez-Lanetty
Examination of host-microbe interactions in early diverging metazoans, such as cnidarians, is of great interest from an evolutionary perspective to understand how host-microbial consortia have evolved. To address this problem, we analyzed whether the bacterial community associated with the cosmopolitan and model sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida shows specific patterns across worldwide populations ranging from the Caribbean Sea, and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. By comparing sequences of the V1-V3 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene, we revealed that anemones host a complex and diverse microbial community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533562/accelerating-tropicalization-and-the-transformation-of-temperate-seagrass-meadows
#11
Glenn A Hyndes, Kenneth L Heck, Adriana Vergés, Euan S Harvey, Gary A Kendrick, Paul S Lavery, Kathryn McMahon, Robert J Orth, Alan Pearce, Mathew Vanderklift, Thomas Wernberg, Scott Whiting, Shaun Wilson
Climate-driven changes are altering production and functioning of biotic assemblages in terrestrial and aquatic environments. In temperate coastal waters, rising sea temperatures, warm water anomalies and poleward shifts in the distribution of tropical herbivores have had a detrimental effect on algal forests. We develop generalized scenarios of this form of tropicalization and its potential effects on the structure and functioning of globally significant and threatened seagrass ecosystems, through poleward shifts in tropical seagrasses and herbivores...
November 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533556/evolution-of-th2-responses-characterization-of-il-4-13-in-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax-l-and-studies-of-expression-and-biological-activity
#12
Valentina Stocchi, Tiehui Wang, Elisa Randelli, Massimo Mazzini, Marco Gerdol, Alberto Pallavicini, Chris J Secombes, Giuseppe Scapigliati, Francesco Buonocore
Th2 immunity is a primary host defence against metazoan pathogens and two of the important cytokines involved in this immune response in mammals are IL-4 and IL-13. Recently the origin and evolution of Th2 immune responses have been investigated in fish where a molecule with relatedness to both IL-4 and IL-13 is present, termed IL-4/13. Different IL-4/13 paralogues (IL-4/13 A and IL-4/13B) exist in teleost fish. In this paper, we have focused on the IL-4/13 isoforms found in the European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533547/the-variable-influence-of-dispersant-on-degradation-of-oil-hydrocarbons-in-subarctic-deep-sea-sediments-at-low-temperatures-0-5%C3%A2-%C3%A2-c
#13
Robert M W Ferguson, Evangelia Gontikaki, James A Anderson, Ursula Witte
The microbial degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons at low temperatures was investigated in subarctic deep-sea sediments in the Faroe Shetland Channel (FSC). The effect of the marine oil dispersant, Superdispersant 25 on hydrocarbon degradation was also examined. Sediments collected at 500 and 1000 m depth were spiked with a model oil containing 20 hydrocarbons and incubated at ambient temperature (5 and 0 °C, respectively) with and without marine dispersant. Treatment of sediments with hydrocarbons resulted in the enrichment of Gammaproteobacteria, and specifically the genera Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, Halomonas, and Cobetia...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533520/the-response-of-a-boreal-deep-sea-sponge-holobiont-to-acute-thermal-stress
#14
R Strand, S Whalan, N S Webster, T Kutti, J K H Fang, H M Luter, R J Bannister
Effects of elevated seawater temperatures on deep-water benthos has been poorly studied, despite reports of increased seawater temperature (up to 4 °C over 24 hrs) coinciding with mass mortality events of the sponge Geodia barretti at Tisler Reef, Norway. While the mechanisms driving these mortality events are unclear, manipulative laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify the effects of elevated temperature (up to 5 °C, above ambient levels) on the ecophysiology (respiration rate, nutrient uptake, cellular integrity and sponge microbiome) of G...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533412/extraordinarily-rapid-speciation-in-a-marine-fish
#15
Paolo Momigliano, Henri Jokinen, Antoine Fraimout, Ann-Britt Florin, Alf Norkko, Juha Merilä
Divergent selection may initiate ecological speciation extremely rapidly. How often and at what pace ecological speciation proceeds to yield strong reproductive isolation is more uncertain. Here, we document a case of extraordinarily rapid speciation associated with ecological selection in the postglacial Baltic Sea. European flounders (Platichthys flesus) in the Baltic exhibit two contrasting reproductive behaviors: pelagic and demersal spawning. Demersal spawning enables flounders to thrive in the low salinity of the Northern Baltic, where eggs cannot achieve neutral buoyancy...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533403/reassessment-of-20th-century-global-mean-sea-level-rise
#16
Sönke Dangendorf, Marta Marcos, Guy Wöppelmann, Clinton P Conrad, Thomas Frederikse, Riccardo Riva
The rate at which global mean sea level (GMSL) rose during the 20th century is uncertain, with little consensus between various reconstructions that indicate rates of rise ranging from 1.3 to 2 mm⋅y(-1) Here we present a 20th-century GMSL reconstruction computed using an area-weighting technique for averaging tide gauge records that both incorporates up-to-date observations of vertical land motion (VLM) and corrections for local geoid changes resulting from ice melting and terrestrial freshwater storage and allows for the identification of possible differences compared with earlier attempts...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533378/pyrite-sulfur-isotopes-reveal-glacial-interglacial-environmental-changes
#17
Virgil Pasquier, Pierre Sansjofre, Marina Rabineau, Sidonie Revillon, Jennifer Houghton, David A Fike
The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth's surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ(34)S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth's surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ(34)S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532267/body-disposal
#18
Jonghan Sea, Eric Beauregard
This study explores the body disposal patterns in a sample of 54 Korean homicides that occurred between 2006 and 2012. Based on information collected by the police during their investigation, factors that could influence body disposal patterns were examined, such as homicide classification, intention, whether an accomplice was present, and offender mental disorder. Bivariate analyses showed that the majority of the victims who were disposed of were acquaintances of the offenders. Moreover, several offenders were more likely to dispose of the dead body "within hours" of killing the victim...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531951/identifying-and-quantifying-geochemical-and-mixing-processes-in-the-matanza-riachuelo-aquifer-system-argentina
#19
S Armengol, M Manzano, S A Bea, S Martínez
The Matanza-Riachuelo River Basin, in the Northeast of the Buenos Aires Province, is one of the most industrialized and populated region in Argentina and it is worldwide known for its alarming environmental degradation. In order to prevent further damages, the aquifer system, which consists of two overlaid aquifers, is being monitored from 2008 by the river basin authority, Autoridad de la Cuenca Matanza-Riachuelo. The groundwater chemical baseline has been established in a previous paper (Zabala et al., 2016), and this one is devoted to the identification of the main physical and hydrogeochemical processes that control groundwater chemistry and its areal distribution...
May 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531798/environmental-hazard-assessment-of-a-marine-mine-tailings-deposit-site-and-potential-implications-for-deep-sea-mining
#20
Nélia C Mestre, Thiago L Rocha, Miquel Canals, Cátia Cardoso, Roberto Danovaro, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cristina Gambi, Francesco Regoli, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Maria João Bebianno
Portmán Bay is a heavily contaminated area resulting from decades of metal mine tailings disposal, and is considered a suitable shallow-water analogue to investigate the potential ecotoxicological impact of deep-sea mining. Resuspension plumes were artificially created by removing the top layer of the mine tailings deposit by bottom trawling. Mussels were deployed at three sites: i) off the mine tailings deposit area; ii) on the mine tailings deposit beyond the influence from the resuspension plumes; iii) under the influence of the artificially generated resuspension plumes...
May 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
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