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Rodrigo Mogollón, Paulo H R Calil
It has been hypothesized that global warming will strengthen upwelling-favorable winds in the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) as a consequence of the increase of the land-sea thermal gradient along the Peruvian coast. The effect of strengthened winds in this region is assessed with the use of a coupled physical-biogeochemical model forced with projected and climatological winds. Strengthened winds induce an increase in primary production of 2% per latitudinal degree from 9.5°S to 5°S. In some important coastal upwelling sites primary production is reduced...
April 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
Qifeng Li, Yonglong Lu, Pei Wang, Tieyu Wang, Yueqing Zhang, Sarvajayakesavalu Suriyanarayanan, Ruoyu Liang, Yvette Baninla, Kifayatullah Khan
Between 1945 and 1983, China was the world's largest producer of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the second largest producer of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). The provinces of Liaoning, Hebei, Tianjin, Shandong, and Jiangsu around the Yellow and Bohai Seas have a long history of production and usage of OCPs and PCBs. To investigate their residual concentration, distribution, risk level, and temporal degradation, 7 OCPs and 7 indicator PCBs were determined in surface soils collected around the Yellow and Bohai Seas...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Md Arzoo Ansari, H V Mohokar, Archana Deodhar, Noble Jacob, U K Sinha
Tritium concentration in rivers, groundwater, precipitation and mine pits water, all over Goa state was characterized to find out spatial and temporal variability of tritium. Twenty four water samples were collected during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon and analyzed for their tritium concentration. The mean tritium concentration in surface and sub-surface hydrosphere is 2.5 (±0.6) TU. The mean concentration of tritium in rivers, groundwater, mines pits water and rain water are 2.9 (±0.5) TU, 1.95 (±0.5) TU, 2...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
Minghua Zhu, Hongxia Zhao, Deming Xia, Juan Du, Huaijun Xie, Jingwen Chen
An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with in-cell clean-up method coupled to ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed to determine 21 antibiotics in sea cucumber. The analytes include 10 sulfonamides, 4 fluoroquinolones, 3 amphenicols, 2 beta-lactams, 1 lincosamide and trimethoprim. Optimal parameters of ASE method were obtained at 80 °C, 1 static cycle of 5 min with methanol/acetonitrile (1/1, v/v) using 2 g of C18 as adsorbent. Recoveries at 50...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Celia Seguin, Gilles Blaquière, Anderson Loundou, Pierre Michelet, Thibaut Markarian
BACKGROUND: Drowning literature have highlighted the submersion time as the most powerful predictor in assessing the prognosis. Reducing the time taken to provide a flotation device and prevent submersion appears of paramount importance. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can provide the location of the swimmer and a flotation device. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this simulation study was to evaluate the efficiency of a UAV in providing a flotation device in different sea conditions, and to compare the times taken by rescue operations with and without a UAV (standard vs UAV intervention)...
April 10, 2018: Resuscitation
Olivier Glippa, Jonna Engström-Öst, Mirella Kanerva, Anni Rein, Kristiina Vuori
On a daily basis, planktonic organisms migrate vertically and thus experience widely varying conditions in their physico-chemical environment. In the Gulf of Finland, these changes are larger than values predicted by climate change scenarios predicted for the next century (up to 0.5 units in pH and 5°C in temperature). In this work, we are interested in how temporal variations in physico-chemical characteristics of the water column on a daily and weekly scale influence oxidative stress level and antioxidant responses in the planktonic copepod of the genus Acartia...
2018: PloS One
Weibo Huo, Yulin Huang, Jifang Pei, Qian Zhang, Qin Gu, Jianyu Yang
Ship detection from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is one of the crucial issues in maritime surveillance. However, due to the varying ocean waves and the strong echo of the sea surface, it is very difficult to detect ships from heterogeneous and strong clutter backgrounds. In this paper, an innovative ship detection method is proposed to effectively distinguish the vessels from complex backgrounds from a SAR image. First, the input SAR image is pre-screened by the maximally-stable extremal region (MSER) method, which can obtain the ship candidate regions with low computational complexity...
April 13, 2018: Sensors
Peng Huang, Jinlei Shi, Qingwen Sun, Xianping Dong, Ning Zhang
Lysozymes are known as ubiquitously distributed immune effectors with hydrolytic activity against peptidoglycan, the major bacterial cell wall polymer, to trigger cell lysis. In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequence of a novel sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus invertebrate-type lysozyme (sp-iLys) was synthesized according to the codon usage bias of Pichia pastoris and was cloned into a constitutive expression plasmid pPIC9K. The resulting plasmid, pPIC9K-sp-iLys, was integrated into the genome of P...
April 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Paulina Corral, Fortunato Palma Esposito, Pietro Tedesco, Angela Falco, Emiliana Tortorella, Luciana Tartaglione, Carmen Festa, Maria Valeria D'Auria, Giorgio Gnavi, Giovanna Cristina Varese, Donatella de Pascale
The exploration of poorly studied areas of Earth can highly increase the possibility to discover novel bioactive compounds. In this study, the cultivable fraction of fungi and bacteria from Barents Sea sediments has been studied to mine new bioactive molecules with antibacterial activity against a panel of human pathogens. We isolated diverse strains of psychrophilic and halophilic bacteria and fungi from a collection of nine samples from sea sediment. Following a full bioassay-guided approach, we isolated a new promising polyextremophilic marine fungus strain 8Na, identified as Aspergillus protuberus MUT 3638, possessing the potential to produce antimicrobial agents...
April 12, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Elizabeth L Chamberlain, Torbjörn E Törnqvist, Zhixiong Shen, Barbara Mauz, Jakob Wallinga
The decline of several of the world's largest deltas has spurred interest in expensive coastal restoration projects to make these economically and ecologically vital regions more sustainable. The success of these projects depends, in part, on our understanding of how delta plains evolve over time scales longer than the instrumental record. Building on a new set of optically stimulated luminescence ages, we demonstrate that a large portion (~10,000 km2 ) of the late Holocene river-dominated Mississippi Delta grew in a radially symmetric fashion for almost a millennium before abandonment...
April 2018: Science Advances
Abdoljalal Marjani, Aman Mohammad Gharanjik
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is involved in metabolism of many important drugs and its genotype variations is thought to affect drug efficacy and the treatment process. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of CYP2C9 allele and genotypic variants in Sistani ethnic group, living in Gorgan, South East of Caspian Sea and North East of Iran. This study included 140 Sistani, referred to the health center of Gorgan. CYP2C9 genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
J Kotta, T Wernberg, H Jänes, I Kotta, K Nurkse, M Pärnoja, H Orav-Kotta
The escalating spread of invasive species increases the risk of disrupting the pathways of energy flow through native ecosystems, modify the relative importance of resource ('bottom-up') and consumer ('top-down') control in food webs and thereby govern biomass production at different trophic levels. The current lack of understanding of interaction cascades triggered by non-indigenous species underscores the need for more basic exploratory research to assess the degree to which novel species regulate bottom-up and/or top down control...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Cristina Romera-Castillo, Maria Pinto, Teresa M Langer, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Gerhard J Herndl
Approximately 5.25 trillion plastic pieces are floating at the sea surface. The impact of plastic pollution on the lowest trophic levels of the food web, however, remains unknown. Here we show that plastics release dissolved organic carbon (DOC) into the ambient seawater stimulating the activity of heterotrophic microbes. Our estimates indicate that globally up to 23,600 metric tons of DOC are leaching from marine plastics annually. About 60% of it is available to microbial utilization in less than 5 days. If exposed to solar radiation, however, this DOC becomes less labile...
April 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Elena García-Valdés, Margarita Gomila, Magdalena Mulet, Jorge Lalucat
Pseudomonas oceani DSM 100277T was isolated from deep seawater in the Okinawa Trough at 1390 m. P. oceani belongs to the Pseudomonas pertucinogena group. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of P. oceani , which has an estimated size of 4.1 Mb and exhibits 3,790 coding sequences, with a G+C content of 59.94 mol%.
April 12, 2018: Genome Announcements
Denis Allemand, Paola Furla
Cnidarians (corals and sea anemones) harbouring photosynthetic microalgae derive several benefits from their association. To allow this association, numerous symbiotic-dependent adaptations in both partners, resulting from evolutionary pressures, have been selected. The dinoflagellate symbionts (zooxanthellae) are located inside a vesicle in the cnidarian host cell and are therefore exposed to a very different environment compared to the free-living state of these microalgae in terms of ion concentration and carbon content and speciation...
April 9, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
Katarina M Jørgensen, Monica F Solberg, Francois Besnier, Anders Thorsen, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Øystein Skaala, Ketil Malde, Kevin A Glover
BACKGROUND: In fish, morphological colour changes occur from variations in pigment concentrations and in the morphology, density, and distribution of chromatophores in the skin. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved in most species. Here, we describe the first investigation into the genetic and environmental basis of spot pattern development in one of the world's most studied fishes, the Atlantic salmon. We reared 920 salmon from 64 families of domesticated, F1-hybrid and wild origin in two contrasting environments (Hatchery; tanks for the freshwater stage and sea cages for the marine stage, and River; a natural river for the freshwater stage and tanks for the marine stage)...
April 12, 2018: BMC Ecology
Ivan Voltski, Andrew J Gooday, Jan Pawlowski
Vanhoeffenella is a common deep-sea monothalamous foraminifer, some species of which have a unique eye-like test morphology. Owing to its world-wide distribution, it has been recorded numerous times since the "heroic age" of the deep-sea exploration in the early 20th century. So far, only 4 species have been described, and no attempts have been made to estimate the real diversity of this peculiar genus. Over the last fifteen years, we have collected specimens of Vanhoeffenella from various deep-sea areas, providing the basis for an integrative taxonomy and biogeography of this genus...
November 26, 2017: Protist
Zhiyong Hu, Hongda Hu, Yuxia Huang
Artificial lighting at night has becoming a new type of pollution posing an important anthropogenic environmental pressure on organisms. The objective of this research was to examine the potential association between nighttime artificial light pollution and nest densities of the three main sea turtle species along Florida beaches, including green turtles, loggerheads, and leatherbacks. Sea turtle survey data was obtained from the "Florida Statewide Nesting Beach Survey program". We used the new generation of satellite sensor "Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)" (version 1 D/N Band) nighttime annual average radiance composite image data...
April 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
F Galli, D Previtali, G Bozzano, C L Bianchi, F Manenti, C Pirola
Oxygen enriched air intensifies oxidation processes since smaller reactors reach the same conversion of typical unit operations that employ simple air as reactant. However, the cost to produce pure oxygen or oxygen enriched air with traditional methods, i.e. cryogenic separation or membrane technologies, may be unaffordable. Here, we propose a new continuous technology for gas mixture separation, focusing on the production of oxygen enriched air as a case study. This operation is an absorption-desorption process that takes advantage of the higher oxygen solubility in water compared to nitrogen...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Qifeng Li, Yueqing Zhang, Yonglong Lu, Pei Wang, Sarvajayakesavalu Suriyanarayanan, Jing Meng, Yunqiao Zhou, Ruoyu Liang, Kifayatullah Khan
Xiaoqing River, located in the Laizhou Bay of Bohai Sea, is heavily polluted by various pollutants including heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs), bisphenol A (BPA) and pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs). The aim of this study is to identify the relative risks of such contaminants that currently affect the coastal ecosystem. The median and highest concentrations of PFAAs and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were 3.23 μg L-1 and 325...
April 6, 2018: Chemosphere
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