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Alexander Kudryavtsev, Ekaterina Volkova
We isolated and described a brackish-water amoeba, Clydonella sawyeri n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Vannellida), from the littoral habitat in Kandalaksha Bay (The White Sea, northwestern Russia). Morphology of this amoeba corresponds to the initially proposed diagnosis of the genus Clydonella Sawyer, 1975, although it is sufficiently different from other described species of this genus to warrant a distinct species designation. Phylogenetic analysis based on the small-subunit rRNA gene shows that this species is closely related to the two previously studied ATCC strains identified as Clydonella sp...
February 6, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Yongkun Xu, Huimin Qi, Guitao Li, Xueping Guo, Yong Wan, Ga Zhang
Polymer composites have a high potential for applications as tribo-materials exposed to sea water owing to their self-lubrication characteristic and high chemical stability. In the present work, tribological behaviors of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) composites rubbing with stainless steel in sea water were explored using a pin-on-disc tribometer integrated with a potentiostat for electrochemical control. It was demonstrated that further adding 5 vol% hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) nanoparticles into PEEK reinforced with short carbon fibers (SCF) significantly enhanced the wear resistance...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Veronica F Hinman, Robert D Burke
The phylogenetic position of echinoderms is well suited to revealing shared features of deuterostomes that distinguish them from other bilaterians. Although echinoderm neurobiology remains understudied, genomic resources, molecular methods, and systems approaches have enabled progress in understanding mechanisms of embryonic neurogenesis. Even though the morphology of echinoderm larvae is diverse, larval nervous systems, which arise during gastrulation, have numerous similarities in their organization. Diverse neural subtypes and specialized sensory neurons have been identified and details of neuroanatomy using neuron-specific labels provide hypotheses for neural function...
February 22, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
Daniel F R Cleary, Ana R M Polónia, Nicole J de Voogd
Marine lakes are small bodies of landlocked seawater that are isolated from the open sea and have been shown to house numerous rare and unique taxa. The environmental conditions of the lakes are also characterised by lower pH and salinity and higher temperatures than generally found in the open sea. In the present study, we used a 16S rRNA gene barcoded pyrosequencing approach and a predictive metagenomic approach (PICRUSt) to examine bacterial composition and function in three distinct biotopes (sediment, water and the sponge species Biemna fortis) in three habitats (two marine lakes and the open sea) of the Berau reef system, Indonesia...
February 22, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Cathleen E Jones, Benjamin Holt
Satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is frequently used during oil spill response efforts to identify oil slick extent, but suffers from the major disadvantages of potential long latency between when a spill occurs and when a satellite can image the site and an inability to continuously track the spill as it develops. We show using data acquired with the Uninhabited Aerial Vehicle SAR (UAVSAR) instrument how a low noise, high resolution, L-band SAR could be used for oil spill response, with specific examples of tracking slick extent, position and weathering; determining zones of relatively thicker or more emulsified oil within a slick; and identifying oil slicks in coastal areas where look-alikes such as calm waters or biogenic slicks can confound the identification of mineral oil spills...
February 22, 2018: Sensors
Paul Robach, Joar Hansen, Aurélien Pichon, Anne-Kristine Meinild Lundby, Sune Dandanell, Gunnar Slettaløkken Falch, Daniel Hammarström, Dominik H Pesta, Christoph Siebenmann, Stefanie Keiser, Patricia Kérivel, Jon Elling Whist, Bent R Rønnestad, Carsten Lundby
Live high - train low (LHTL) using hypobaric hypoxia was previously found to improve sea-level endurance performance in well-trained individuals, however confirmatory controlled data in athletes are lacking. Here we test the hypothesis that natural-altitude LHTL improves aerobic performance in cross-country skiers, in conjunction with expansion of total hemoglobin mass (Hbmass , carbon-monoxide rebreathing technique) promoted by accelerated erythropoiesis. Following duplicate baseline measurements at sea level over the course of two weeks, nineteen Norwegian cross-country skiers (three women, sixteen men, age 20±2 yr, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) 69±5 ml...
February 22, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Jiang Xu, Weixian Qian, Qian Chen, Yang Zhou
As a new analytical method to identify oil spills at sea, the main effect of a polarization measurement system is the scattering polarization information of different measured parts. To improve measurement accuracy, the scattering polarization characteristics of oil film and seawater were observed in this paper. A useful computational model, the scattering polarization coherency matrix (SPCM), was derived, which is a probabilistic mixture of the polarization coherency matrix. Combined with the Fresnel formula, the amplitude ratio and phase retardation were extracted to verify the scientific nature of the physical model...
February 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Zoe E Smeele, Jennifer M Burns, Koenraad Van Doorsaler, Rafaela S Fontenele, Kara Waits, Daisy Stainton, Michelle R Shero, Roxanne S Beltran, Amy L Kirkham, Rachel Berngartt, Simona Kraberger, Arvind Varsani
Papillomaviridae is a diverse family of circular, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses that infect a broad range of mammalian, avian and fish hosts. While papillomaviruses have been characterized most extensively in humans, the study of non-human papillomaviruses has contributed greatly to our understanding of their pathogenicity and evolution. Using high-throughput sequencing approaches, we identified 7 novel papillomaviruses from vaginal swabs collected from 81 adult female Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) in the Ross Sea of Antarctica between 2014-2017...
February 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Wang Huan, Lu Ya-Jing, Gao Yan-Ru, Wang Shu-Hong, Zhou Rui, Dong Hui-Fen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of miRNA associated with hepatic fibrosis induced by Schistosoma japonicum soluble egg antigen stimulation in mouse hepatocytes (AML12), so as to lay the foundation for clarifying the mechanism of schistosome infection leading to hepatic fibrosis. METHODS: The expressions of miR-122, miR-182, miR-23b, miR27b and KSRP in AML12 cells treated with SEA were measured by q-PCR. KSRP protein in cell lyses was measured by Western blotting...
March 8, 2017: Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Schistosomiasis Control
Avtar K Handa, Tahira Fatima, Autar K Mattoo
Biogenic amines-polyamines (PAs), particularly putrescine, spermidine and spermine are ubiquitous in all living cells. Their indispensable roles in many biochemical and physiological processes are becoming commonly known, including promoters of plant life and differential roles in human health and disease. PAs positively impact cellular functions in plants-exemplified by increasing longevity, reviving physiological memory, enhancing carbon and nitrogen resource allocation/signaling, as well as in plant development and responses to extreme environments...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Bodil A Bluhm, Haakon Hop, Mikko Vihtakari, Rolf Gradinger, Katrin Iken, Igor A Melnikov, Janne E Søreide
Arctic sea ice provides microhabitats for biota that inhabit the liquid-filled network of brine channels and the ice-water interface. We used meta-analysis of 23 published and unpublished datasets comprising 721 ice cores to synthesize the variability in composition and abundance of sea ice meiofauna at spatial scales ranging from within a single ice core to pan-Arctic and seasonal scales. Two-thirds of meiofauna individuals occurred in the bottom 10 cm of the ice. Locally, replicate cores taken within meters of each other were broadly similar in meiofauna composition and abundance, while those a few km apart varied more; 75% of variation was explained by station...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
José Beirão, Jason A Lewis, Brendan F Wringe, Craig F Purchase
Reproduction of external fertilizing vertebrates is typically constrained to either fresh or salt water, not both. For all studied amphibians and fishes, this constraint includes immotile sperm that are activated after ejaculation only by the specific chemistry of the fertilizing medium in which the species evolved (fresh, brackish, or salt water). No amphibians can reproduce in the sea. Although diadromous fishes may migrate between salt and fresh water, they are shackled to their natal environment for spawning in part because of sperm activation...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Zineng Yuan, Dongyan Liu, John K Keesing, Meixun Zhao, Shixin Guo, Yajun Peng, Hailong Zhang
Ocean warming can modify the phytoplankton biomass on decadal scales. Significant increases in sea surface temperature (SST) and rainfall in the northwest of Australia over recent decades are attributed to climate change. Here, we used four biomarker proxies (TEX86 index, long-chain n -alkanes, brassicasterol, and dinosterol) to reconstruct approximately 60-year variations of SST, terrestrial input, and diatom and dinoflagellate biomass in the coastal waters of the remote Kimberley region. The results showed that the most significant increases in SST and terrestrial input occurred since 1997, accompanied by an abrupt increase in diatom and dinoflagellate biomasses...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Kristin L Laidre, Erik W Born, Stephen N Atkinson, Øystein Wiig, Liselotte W Andersen, Nicholas J Lunn, Markus Dyck, Eric V Regehr, Richard McGovern, Patrick Heagerty
Climate change is expected to result in range shifts and habitat fragmentation for many species. In the Arctic, loss of sea ice will reduce barriers to dispersal or eliminate movement corridors, resulting in increased connectivity or geographic isolation with sweeping implications for conservation. We used satellite telemetry, data from individually marked animals (research and harvest), and microsatellite genetic data to examine changes in geographic range, emigration, and interpopulation connectivity of the Baffin Bay (BB) polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) subpopulation over a 25-year period of sea-ice loss...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Carla E Fernández, Melina Campero, Cintia Uvo, Lars-Anders Hansson
Zooplankton have evolved several mechanisms to deal with environmental threats, such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and in order to identify strategies inherent to organisms exposed to different UVR environments, we here examine life-history traits of two lineages of Daphnia pulex . The lineages differed in the UVR dose they had received at their place of origin from extremely high UVR stress at high-altitude Bolivian lakes to low UVR stress near the sea level in temperate Sweden. Nine life-history variables of each lineage were analyzed in laboratory experiments in the presence and the absence of sub-lethal doses of UVR (UV-A band), and we identified trade-offs among variables through structural equation modeling (SEM)...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Regine Redelstein, Thomas Dinter, Dietrich Hertel, Christoph Leuschner
Saltmarsh plants are exposed to multiple stresses including tidal inundation, salinity, wave action and sediment anoxia, which require specific root system adaptations to secure sufficient resource capture and firm anchorage in a temporary toxic environment. It is well known that many saltmarsh species develop large below-ground biomass (roots and rhizomes) but relations between fine roots, in particular, and the abiotic conditions in salt marshes are widely unknown. We studied fine root mass (<2 mm in diameter), fine root depth distribution and fine root morphology in three typical communities ( Spartina anglica -dominated pioneer zone, Atriplex portulacoides -dominated lower marsh, Elytrigia atherica -dominated upper marsh) across elevational gradients in two tidal salt marshes of the German North Sea coast [a mostly sandy marsh on a barrier island (Spiekeroog), and a silty-clayey marsh on the mainland coast (Westerhever)]...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dimosthenis Traganos, Peter Reinartz
Recent research studies have highlighted the decrease in the coverage of Mediterranean seagrasses due to mainly anthropogenic activities. The lack of data on the distribution of these significant aquatic plants complicates the quantification of their decreasing tendency. While Mediterranean seagrasses are declining, satellite remote sensing technology is growing at an unprecedented pace, resulting in a wealth of spaceborne image time series. Here, we exploit recent advances in high spatial resolution sensors and machine learning to study Mediterranean seagrasses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mitsuhiro Yoshida, Tomohiro Mochizuki, Syun-Ichi Urayama, Yukari Yoshida-Takashima, Shinro Nishi, Miho Hirai, Hidetaka Nomaki, Yoshihiro Takaki, Takuro Nunoura, Ken Takai
Previous studies on marine environmental virology have primarily focused on double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses; however, it has recently been suggested that single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) viruses are more abundant in marine ecosystems. In this study, we performed a quantitative viral community DNA analysis to estimate the relative abundance and composition of both ssDNA and dsDNA viruses in offshore upper bathyal sediment from Tohoku, Japan (water depth = 500 m). The estimated dsDNA viral abundance ranged from 3 × 106 to 5 × 106 genome copies per cm3 sediment, showing values similar to the range of fluorescence-based direct virus counts...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lejiang Yu, Shiyuan Zhong, Warren E Heilman, Xindi Bian
Many studies have shown the importance of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in contributing to observed upward trends in the occurrences of temperature extremes over the U.S. However, few studies have investigated the contributions of internal variability in the climate system to these observed trends. Here we use daily maximum temperature time series from the North American Land Data Assimilation System Phase 2 (NLDAS-2) dataset to identify trends in seasonal warm anomalies over the contiguous U.S. in the three most recent decades and explore their relationships to low-frequency modes of internal climate variability...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
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February 21, 2018: Science Progress
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