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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232603/a-highly-regular-fucan-sulfate-from-the-sea-cucumber-stichopus-horrens
#1
Nadezhda E Ustyuzhanina, Maria I Bilan, Andrey S Dmitrenok, Elizaveta Yu Borodina, Nikolay E Nifantiev, Anatolii I Usov
A highly regular fucan sulfate SHFS was isolated from the sea cucumber Stichopus horrens by extraction of the body walls in the presence of papain followed by ion-exchange and gel permeation chromatography. SHFS had MW of about 140 kDa and contained fucose and sulfate in the molar ratio of about 1:1. Chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods were applied for the structural characterization of the polysaccharide. SHFS was shown to have linear molecules built up of 3-linked α-l-fucopyranose 2-sulfate residues...
December 7, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232386/on-the-calculation-of-betweenness-centrality-in-marine-connectivity-studies-using-transfer-probabilities
#2
Andrea Costa, Anne A Petrenko, Katell Guizien, Andrea M Doglioli
Betweenness has been used in a number of marine studies to identify portions of sea that sustain the connectivity of whole marine networks. Herein we highlight the need of methodological exactness in the calculation of betweenness when graph theory is applied to marine connectivity studies based on transfer probabilities. We show the inconsistency in calculating betweeness directly from transfer probabilities and propose a new metric for the node-to-node distance that solves it. Our argumentation is illustrated by both simple theoretical examples and the analysis of a literature data set...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231898/the-venom-of-the-spine-bellied-sea-snake-hydrophis-curtus-proteome-toxin-diversity-and-intraspecific-variation
#3
Vanessa Neale, Javier Sotillo, Jamie E Seymour, David Wilson
The spine-bellied sea snake (Hydrophis curtus) is known to cause human deaths, yet its venom composition has not yet been proteomically characterised. An indepth proteomic analysis was performed on H. curtus venom from two different seasons, January and June, corresponding to adults and subadults, respectively. Venoms from adult and subadult H. curtus individuals were compared using reversedphase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) to detect intraspecific variation, and the molecular weight data obtained with ESIMS were used to assess toxin diversity...
December 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231510/-study-of-the-multidimensional-perspectives-on-the-theory-of-syndrome-differentiation-and-treatment-with-acupuncture-and-moxibustion
#4
Bing Liu
Aiming at many questions nowadays in the study on the theory of syndrome differentiation and treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion, the relevant rules and important theoretic issues were discussed on the syndrome differentiation and treatment with acupuncture and moxibustion in the paper from the multidimensional perspectives, named the treatment in view of yinyang differentiation-pulse-based acupuncture, the treatment in view of meridian-collateral (zangfu) differentiation, the treatment in view of body differentiation, the treatment in view of "four seas" differentiation, etc...
June 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231352/-acupoint-selection-thought-for-post-stroke-anxiety-disorder-in-terms-of-heart-and-brain-differentiation
#5
Zhenhai Zhao, Sheng Chen, Jingling Chang, Cheng Tan, Ying Gao, Jun Wang
To explore the relativity between heart-brain and post-stroke anxiety disorder by analyzing the pathogenesis of post-stroke anxiety disorder combined with the physiology and pathology of organs. The acupoint selection thought was explored by its selection rule according to literature. Post-stroke anxiety belongs to the brain organic anxiety disorder, whose basic pathogenesis is mind injury. The crucial cause is heart and brain disorder at the same time. Thus, Baihui (GV 20), Fengfu (GV 16) for brain and Xinshu (BL 15), Shenmen (HT 7) for heart can improve anxiety disorder according to the theories such as five organ, qijie (qi thoroughfare), sihai (four seas), meridian and collateral...
August 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231075/sea-trial-verification-of-ultrasonic-antifouling-control
#6
Ji-Soo Park, Jeung-Hoon Lee
An ultrasonic antifouling treatment was applied to a 96,000 m3 class drill-ship to verify its feasibility through a sea-trial. Soon after the hull cleaning had been performed, six ultrasonic projectors were evenly deployed around the starboard shell plate. Driven by a 23 kHz sinusoidal ultrasound in an intermittent manner, the projectors emitted a high-intensity sound reaching 214 dB at the source level causing cavitation around the adjacent water and eventually deterring the settlement of marine fouling organisms...
December 12, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230929/application-of-protoplast-technology-to-crispr-cas9-mutagenesis-from-single-cell-mutation-detection-to-mutant-plant-regeneration
#7
Choun-Sea Lin, Chen-Tran Hsu, Ling-Hung Yang, Lan-Ying Lee, Jin-Yuan Fu, Qiao-Wei Cheng, Fu-Hui Wu, Han Chen-Wei Hsiao, Yesheng Zhang, Ru Zhang, Wan-Jung Chang, Chen-Ting Yu, Wen Wang, Li-Jen Liao, Stanton B Gelvin, Ming-Che Shih
Plant protoplasts are useful for assessing the efficiency of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR Associated Protein 9 (Cas9) mutagenesis. We improved the process of protoplast isolation and transfection of several plant species. We also developed a method to isolate and regenerate single mutagenized Nicotianna tabacum protoplasts into mature plants. Following transfection of protoplasts with constructs encoding Cas9 and sgRNAs, target gene DNA could be amplified for further analysis to determine mutagenesis efficiency...
December 12, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230359/genetic-differentiation-and-phylogeography-of-mediterranean-north-eastern-atlantic-blue-shark-prionace-glauca-l-1758-using-mitochondrial-dna-panmixia-or-complex-stock-structure
#8
Agostino Leone, Ilenia Urso, Dimitrios Damalas, Jann Martinsohn, Antonella Zanzi, Stefano Mariani, Emilio Sperone, Primo Micarelli, Fulvio Garibaldi, Persefoni Megalofonou, Luca Bargelloni, Rafaella Franch, David Macias, Paulo Prodöhl, Séan Fitzpatrick, Marco Stagioni, Fausto Tinti, Alessia Cariani
Background: The blue shark (Prionace glauca, Linnaeus 1758) is one of the most abundant epipelagic shark inhabiting all the oceans except the poles, including the Mediterranean Sea, but its genetic structure has not been confirmed at basin and interoceanic distances. Past tagging programs in the Atlantic Ocean failed to find evidence of migration of blue sharks between the Mediterranean and the adjacent Atlantic, despite the extreme vagility of the species. Although the high rate of by-catch in the Mediterranean basin, to date no genetic study on Mediterranean blue shark was carried out, which constitutes a significant knowledge gap, considering that this population is classified as "Critically Endangered", unlike its open-ocean counterpart...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230070/assessing-climate-change-impacts-on-the-stability-of-small-tidal-inlets-part-2-data-rich-environments
#9
Trang Minh Duong, Roshanka Ranasinghe, Marcus Thatcher, Sarith Mahanama, Zheng Bing Wang, Pushpa Kumara Dissanayake, Mark Hemer, Arjen Luijendijk, Janaka Bamunawala, Dano Roelvink, Dirkjan Walstra
Climate change (CC) is likely to affect the thousands of bar-built or barrier estuaries (here referred to as Small tidal inlets - STIs) around the world. Any such CC impacts on the stability of STIs, which governs the dynamics of STIs as well as that of the inlet-adjacent coastline, can result in significant socio-economic consequences due to the heavy human utilisation of these systems and their surrounds. This article demonstrates the application of a process based snap-shot modelling approach, using the coastal morphodynamic model Delft3D, to 3 case study sites representing the 3 main STI types; Permanently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 1), Permanently open, alongshore migrating inlets (Type 2) and Seasonally/Intermittently open, locationally stable inlets (Type 3)...
January 1, 2018: Marine Geology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230028/abundance-and-richness-of-key-antarctic-seafloor-fauna-correlates-with-modelled-food-availability
#10
Jan Jansen, Nicole A Hill, Piers K Dunstan, John McKinlay, Michael D Sumner, Alexandra L Post, Marc P Eléaume, Leanne K Armand, Jonathan P Warnock, Benjamin K Galton-Fenzi, Craig R Johnson
Most seafloor communities at depths below the photosynthesis zone rely on food that sinks through the water column. However, the nature and strength of this pelagic-benthic coupling and its influence on the structure and diversity of seafloor communities is unclear, especially around Antarctica where ecological data are sparse. Here we show that the strength of pelagic-benthic coupling along the East Antarctic shelf depends on both physical processes and the types of benthic organisms considered. In an approach based on modelling food availability, we combine remotely sensed sea-surface chlorophyll-a, a regional ocean model and diatom abundances from sediment grabs with particle tracking and show that fluctuating seabed currents are crucial in the redistribution of surface productivity at the seafloor...
December 11, 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229964/aerosols-cause-intraseasonal-short-term-suppression-of-indian-monsoon-rainfall
#11
Prashant Dave, Mani Bhushan, Chandra Venkataraman
Aerosol abundance over South Asia during the summer monsoon season, includes dust and sea-salt, as well as, anthropogenic pollution particles. Using observations during 2000-2009, here we uncover repeated short-term rainfall suppression caused by coincident aerosols, acting through atmospheric stabilization, reduction in convection and increased moisture divergence, leading to the aggravation of monsoon break conditions. In high aerosol-low rainfall regions extending across India, both in deficient and normal monsoon years, enhancements in aerosols levels, estimated as aerosol optical depth and absorbing aerosol index, acted to suppress daily rainfall anomaly, several times in a season, with lags of a few days...
December 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229800/evolution-of-statistically-inhomogeneous-degenerate-water-wave-quartets
#12
R Stuhlmeier, M Stiassnie
A discretized equation for the evolution of random surface wave fields on deep water is derived from Zakharov's equation, allowing for a general treatment of the stability and long-time behaviour of broad-banded sea states. It is investigated for the simple case of degenerate four-wave interaction, and the instability of statistically homogeneous states to small inhomogeneous disturbances is demonstrated. Furthermore, the long-time evolution is studied for several cases and shown to lead to a complex spatio-temporal energy distribution...
January 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229560/first-steps-towards-echinometra-lucunter-embryo-cryopreservation
#13
Marcella Bueno Ribeiro, Tatiana Furley, Flávia Regina Spago, Estefania Paredes
We have studied the sensitivity to cryoprotecting agents of different embryos of the local sea urchin, Echinometra lucunter which is the species used for embryo-larval bioassays in Brazil. We have located significant differences between both species sensitivity to cryoprotecting agents; while for P. lividus propylene glycol was the less toxic compound for most development stages, whereas for E. lucunter is was the most toxic and the least toxic was Dimethyl sulfoxide. There is a significant difference between development stages as well; in the case of P...
December 8, 2017: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229441/does-dietary-insect-meal-affect-the-fish-immune-system-the-case-of-mealworm-tenebrio-molitor-on-european-sea-bass-dicentrarchus-labrax
#14
M A Henry, L Gasco, S Chatzifotis, G Piccolo
Feeding small European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, for 6 weeks with Tenebrio molitor larval meal showed significant anti-inflammatory responses (ceruloplasmin, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide). Serum bacteriolytic activity against a Gram negative bacterium was not significantly affected by dietary Tenebrio, while both lysozyme antibacterial activity and serum trypsin inhibition usually linked to the anti-parasite activity of the fish, were significantly enhanced. The latter may be due to the similarities in the composition of the exoskeleton of parasites and insects that may therefore act as an immunostimulant potentially increasing the anti-parasitic activity...
December 8, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228257/physiological-response-of-prorocentrum-lima-dinophyceae-to-varying-light-intensities
#15
Helena David, Aitor Laza-Martínez, Jacco C Kromkamp, Emma Orive
The benthic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima is among the most common toxic morphospecies with a cosmopolitan distribution. This study explored if strains from different environments and different morphotypes, isolated from three locations in the Atlantic Iberian Peninsula and two from the Mediterranean Sea, showed different responses to varying light regimes, after confirming that all strains belonged to the same ribotype. Growth rates and photosynthetic parameters such as Fo, Fv/Fm, and rETRmax were analyzed with a Coulter counter, a Water-PAM and a FRRF...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228244/prokaryote-composition-and-predicted-metagenomic-content-of-two-cinachyrella-morphospecies-and-water-from-west-papuan-marine-lakes
#16
D F R Cleary, A R M Polónia, N J de Voogd
Certain sponge species are difficult to identify using traditional morphology and other techniques are often necessary. Here we used 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to investigate bacterial and archaeal communities of two distinct Cinachyrella morphospecies collected from two Indonesian marine lakes with differing degrees of connection to the surrounding sea. Our main goal was to assess whether these morphospecies hosted distinct bacterial and archaeal communities and to what extent these differed from those found in lake water...
December 5, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228006/sea-star-wasting-disease-in-asterias-forbesi-along-the-atlantic-coast-of-north-america
#17
Caitlin Bucci, Madison Francoeur, Jillon McGreal, Roxanna Smolowitz, Vanesa Zazueta-Novoa, Gary M Wessel, Marta Gomez-Chiarri
As keystone species, sea stars serve to maintain biodiversity and species distribution through trophic level interactions in marine ecosystems. Recently, Sea Star Wasting Disease (SSWD) has caused widespread mass mortality in several sea star species from the Pacific Coast of the United States of America (USA) and Asterias forbesi on the Atlantic Coast. A densovirus, named Sea Star associated Densovirus (SSaDV), has been associated with the wasting disease in Pacific Coast sea stars, and limited samples of A...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227999/ancient-connections-among-the-european-rivers-and-watersheds-revealed-from-the-evolutionary-history-of-the-genus-telestes-actinopterygii-cypriniformes
#18
Ivana Buj, Zoran Marčić, Marko Ćaleta, Radek Šanda, Matthias F Geiger, Jörg Freyhof, Annie Machordom, Jasna Vukić
In order to better understand the complex geologic history of the Mediterranean area, we have analysed evolutionary history, phylogeographic structure and molecular diversity of freshwater fishes belonging to the genus Telestes. As primary freshwater fishes distributed largely in the Mediterranean basin, this genus represents a suitable model system for investigating the historical biogeography of freshwater drainage systems in southern Europe. In this investigation we have included samples representing all Telestes species and based our analyses on one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227942/the-interaction-between-bacterial-abundance-and-selected-pollutants-concentration-levels-in-an-arctic-catchment-southwest-spitsbergen-svalbard
#19
Klaudia Kosek, Katarzyna Kozak, Krystyna Kozioł, Katarzyna Jankowska, Stanisław Chmiel, Żaneta Polkowska
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been a topic of interest in environmental sciences for >60years. POPs in the Arctic have been investigated since the 1970s, when first atmospheric measurements revealed the presence of these pollutants in the polar regions. Major contaminant transport routes to the Arctic include atmospheric and oceanic transport, as well as inflow from rivers and sea ice. The sources of pollutants, such as industry, power generators, vehicle and ship exhausts, introduce the PAHs, phenols, formaldehyde or metals into the Arctic...
December 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227876/temporal-and-spatial-variations-of-134cs-and-137cs-levels-in-the-sea-of-japan-and-pacific-coastal-region-implications-for-dispersion-of-fdnpp-derived-radiocesium
#20
M Inoue, Y Shirotani, S Yamashita, H Takata, H Kofuji, D Ambe, N Honda, Y Yagi, S Nagao
To investigate the dispersion of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP)-derived radiocesium in the Sea of Japan and western Pacific coastal region and determine the sources of radiocesium in these areas, we examined the temporal and spatial variations of 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations (activities) during 2011-2016 in seawaters around the western Japanese Archipelago, particularly in the Sea of Japan. In May 2013, the surface concentration of 134Cs was ∼0.5 mBq/L (decay-corrected to March 11, 2011), and that of 137Cs exceeded the pre-accident level in this study area, where the effects of radiocesium depositions just after the FDNPP accident disappeared in surface waters in October 2011...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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