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Bohao Fang, Juha Merilä, Filipe Ribeiro, Carlos M Alexandre, Paolo Momigliano
Stickleback fishes in the family Gasterosteidae have become model organisms in ecology and evolutionary biology. However, even in the case of the most widely studied species in this family - the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) - the worldwide phylogenetic relationships and colonization history of the different populations and lineages remain poorly resolved. Using a large collection of samples covering most parts of the species distribution range, we subjected thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms to coalescent analyses in order to reconstruct a robust worldwide phylogeny of extant G...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Yanan Sun, Eunice Wong, Shane T Ahyong, Jane E Williamson, Pat A Hutchings, Elena K Kupriyanova
Hydroides is a large and diverse group of calcareous tubeworms (Serpulidae, Annelida) recognised by a distinctive but variable two-tiered operculum. Despite considerable research using several species of Hydroides as models in ecological and biofouling studies, phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships within the genus are still poorly understood. Using combined mitochondrial (COI, cytochrome b) and nuclear (18S, 28S and ITS) gene markers for 284 individuals of 45 morphospecies of Hydroides, we investigated the global phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships within the genus...
June 12, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Eugene B Kolomeisky, Joseph P Straley
The dispersion law for plasma oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas in the hydrodynamic approximation interpolates between Ω∝sqrt[q] and Ω∝q dependences as the wave vector q increases. As a result, downstream of a charged impurity in the presence of a uniform supersonic electric current flow, a wake pattern of induced charge density and potential is formed whose geometry is controlled by the Mach number M. For 1<M≤sqrt[2], the wake consists of transverse wave fronts confined within a sector, whose angle is given by the classic Mach condition...
June 1, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Songee Beak, Hyeri Kim, Kyung Bin Song
Sea squirt (Halocynthia roretzi) shell protein (SSP) was used as a biodegradable film material and laminated with polylactic acid (PLA) to improve its physical and water barrier properties. Cinnamon bark oil (CBO) was incorporated into the SSP film as a bioactive material. After laminating with PLA, the tensile strength and elongation at break of the SSP film increased from 4.07 to 9.09 MPa and from 8.68 to 138.84%, respectively. In addition, water vapor permeability and water solubility decreased from 5.62 to 0...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Mehmet Cetin, Hakan Sevik, Nurcan Yigit
This research aimed to determine changes to some micromorphological characteristics of certain landscape plants grown in areas with different dominant climate types. Leaf samples were collected from eight woody plant species in areas with terrestrial, Black Sea, and Mediterranean climate types in Turkey. Then, scaled images of the collected leaf samples were obtained using SEM. StomaLength, StomaWidth, PoreLength, PoreWidth, and StomaDensity were determined using measurements made on the images. Data were statistically evaluated, and the changes to these characteristics by climate type and species were determined...
June 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Giuseppe Merlino, Alan Barozzi, Grégoire Michoud, David Kamanda Ngugi, Daniele Daffonchio
Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are unique water bodies occurring within fractures at the bottom of the sea, where the dissolution of anciently buried evaporites created dense anoxic brines that are separated by a chemocline/pycnocline from the overlying oxygenated deep-seawater column. DHABs have been described in the Gulf of Mexico, the Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea and the Red Sea. They are characterized by prolonged historical separation of the brines from the upper water column due to lack of mixing and by extreme conditions of salinity, anoxia, and relatively high hydrostatic pressure and temperatures...
July 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Stefan Muckenhuber, Hanne Sagen
Three GPS trackers have been deployed on sea ice in Fram Strait collecting GPS positions between 7th July 2016 until 10th September 2016 with an interval between 5 and 30 min. For an easy understanding and usage, corresponding satellite images and python scripts are added to the GPS data.
June 2018: Data in Brief
Mohd Hariri Arifin, John Stephen Kayode, Muhammad Azrief Azahar, Habibah Jamil, Saznira Fadila Ahmad Sabri
The paper presents the data from the surface and subsurface mapping of this area for the purpose of siting industrial city in the area. The field data collected combine with the borehole data was to successfully apply these to solving geological, environmental and engineering complications posed by the complexity of the subsurface geological structures underlain this area. The Electrical Resistivity, (ER) and Induced Polarization, (IP) data were initially processed using RES2DINV software model to generate the depth to the lithological units together with topographic correction...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Stefan Muckenhuber, Stein Sandven
1541 Sentinel-1 SAR images, acquired over Fram Strait between 2014 and 2016, were considered for sea ice drift retrieval using an open-source feature tracking algorithm. Based on this SAR image data set, 2026 and 3120 image pairs in HH and HV polarisation were used to calculate monthly mean sea ice velocities at 79 N.
June 2018: Data in Brief
Yanlu Qiao, Jiwen Liu, Meixun Zhao, Xiao-Hua Zhang
The mud sediments of the eastern China marginal seas (ECMS) are deposited under different hydrodynamic conditions with different organic matter sources. These events have been demonstrated to exert significant influences on microbial communities and biogeochemical processes in surface sediments. However, the extent to which such effects occur in subsurface microbial communities remains unclear. In this study, both horizontal and vertical (five sites, each for eight layers) distributions of bacterial abundance and community composition in mud deposits of the South Yellow Sea (SYS) and East China Sea (ECS) were investigated by quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sven Le Moine Bauer, Anne Stensland, Frida L Daae, Ruth-Anne Sandaa, Ingunn H Thorseth, Ida H Steen, Håkon Dahle
The oceanographic features of the Nordic Seas, situated between Iceland and Svalbard, have been extensively studied over the last decades. As well, the Nordic Seas hydrothermal systems situated on the Arctic Mid-Ocean Ridge System have received an increasing interest. However, there is very little knowledge on the microbial communities inhabiting the water column of the Nordic Seas, and nothing is known about the influence of the different water masses and hydrothermal plumes on the microbial community structures...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rocío Pérez-Portela, Owen S Wangensteen, Alex Garcia-Cisneros, Claudio Valero-Jiménez, Cruz Palacín, Xavier Turon
The genetic structure of 13 populations of the amphiatlantic sea urchin Arbacia lixula, as well as temporal genetic changes in three of these localities, were assessed using ten hypervariable microsatellite loci. This thermophilous sea urchin is an important engineer species triggering the formation of barren grounds through its grazing activity. Its abundance seems to be increasing in most parts of the Mediterranean, probably favoured by warming conditions. Significant genetic differentiation was found both spatially and temporally...
June 14, 2018: Heredity
Enrique Isla, Elisabet Pérez-Albaladejo, Cinta Porte
Industrial activity generates harmful substances which can travel via aerial or water currents thousands of kilometers away from the place they were used impacting the local biota where they deposit. The presence of harmful anthropogenic substances in the Antarctic is particularly surprising and striking due to its remoteness and the apparent geophysical isolation developed with the flows of the Antarctic Circumpolar current and the ring of westerly winds surrounding the continent. However, long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of pollutants has been detected in the Antarctic since the 70's along the Antarctic trophic food web from phytoplankton to birds...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chris T Perry, Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip, Nicholas A J Graham, Peter J Mumby, Shaun K Wilson, Paul S Kench, Derek P Manzello, Kyle M Morgan, Aimee B A Slangen, Damian P Thomson, Fraser Januchowski-Hartley, Scott G Smithers, Robert S Steneck, Renee Carlton, Evan N Edinger, Ian C Enochs, Nuria Estrada-Saldívar, Michael D E Haywood, Graham Kolodziej, Gary N Murphy, Esmeralda Pérez-Cervantes, Adam Suchley, Lauren Valentino, Robert Boenish, Margaret Wilson, Chancey Macdonald
Sea-level rise (SLR) is predicted to elevate water depths above coral reefs and to increase coastal wave exposure as ecological degradation limits vertical reef growth, but projections lack data on interactions between local rates of reef growth and sea level rise. Here we calculate the vertical growth potential of more than 200 tropical western Atlantic and Indian Ocean reefs, and compare these against recent and projected rates of SLR under different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. Although many reefs retain accretion rates close to recent SLR trends, few will have the capacity to track SLR projections under RCP4...
June 14, 2018: Nature
Dolores Molina-Fernández, Daniel Rubio-Calvo, Francisco Javier Adroher, Rocío Benítez
The infection of blue whiting Micromesistius poutassou from the western Mediterranean Sea, off the eastern coast of Spain, with larvae of Anisakis spp. was studied. Between April 2016 and April 2017, 140 fish were analyzed. Total epidemiological data showed that the prevalence of Anisakis spp. was 29.3% and the mean intensity 1.8. Of the 74 larvae collected, 61% were type I and the remaining 39%, type II. Of the former, 91% were molecularly identified as Anisakis pegreffii (P = 19.3%; MI = 1.4), 2.2% as Anisakis simplex s...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Prapaporn Jattujan, Pawanrat Chalorak, Tanapan Siangcham, Kant Sangpairoj, Saksit Nobsathian, Tanate Poomtong, Prasert Sobhon, Krai Meemon
Holothuria scabra is a sea cucumber that is mostly found in the Indo-Pacific region including Thailand. Extracts from many sea cucumbers possess pharmacological activities proposed to benefit human health. In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-ageing activities of extracts from H. scabra by using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism. Parts of H. scabra were solvent-extracted and divided into nine fractions including whole body-hexane (WBHE), whole body-ethyl acetate (WBEA), whole body-butanol (WBBU), body wall-hexane (BWHE), body wall-ethyl acetate (BWEA), body wall-butanol (BWBU), viscera-hexane (VIHE), viscera-ethyl acetate (VIEA), and viscera-butanol (VIBU)...
June 11, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Vanessa N Bednarz, Malik S Naumann, Ulisse Cardini, Nanne van Hoytema, Laura Rix, Mamoon M D Al-Rshaidat, Christian Wild
Tropical corals are often associated with dinitrogen (N2)-fixing bacteria (diazotrophs), and seasonal changes in key environmental parameters, such as dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) availability and seawater temperature, are known to affect N2 fixation in coral-microbial holobionts. Despite, then, such potential for seasonal and depth-related changes in N2 fixation in reef corals, such variation has not yet been investigated. Therefore, this study quantified seasonal (winter vs. summer) N2 fixation rates associated with the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata collected from depths of 5, 10 and 20 m in the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea)...
2018: PloS One
Hiroki Yoshino, Futa Yamaji, Takeshi A Ohsawa
The marine isopod genus Limnoria contains algae-eating species. Previous phylogeographic studies have suggested that Limnoria species feeding on buoyant kelp underwent low genetic differentiation on a large spatial scale because rafting on floating host kelps promotes high levels of gene flow. In this paper, we survey the genetic structure of Limnoria nagatai, which bores into the non-buoyant kelps Eisenia bicyclis and E. arborea. We analyze the mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase subunit I [COI] gene) and morphological traits of L...
2018: PloS One
Signed Esperanza Prieto Bohórquez, Javier Oswaldo Rodríguez Velásquez, Catalina Correa Herrera, Juan Mauricio Pardo Oviedo, Javier Ardila
Introducción: una ley exponencial se ha hallado para los sistemas dinámicos caóticos cardiacos, logrando cuantificar las diferencias entre dinámicas cardiacas normales y  patológicas.Metodología: Se analizaron 120 registros electrocardiográficos, 40 correspondían a sujetos dentro de los límites de normalidad y 80 con diferentes patologías. Para cada holter se analizaron los atractores generados con los datos durante 18 horas y durante toda la dinámica. Se calculó la dimensión fractal del atractor y su ocupación espacial...
March 23, 2018: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Médicas
Chih Chen, Hau-Wen Li, Wei-Lun Ku, Chien-Ju Lin, Ching-Fong Chang, Guan-Chung Wu
Unlike vitellegenin, which is the sole major precursor of yolk protein in all oviparous vertebrates, a variety of major precursor of yolk proteins are found among oviparous invertebrates. Sea urchin have a transferrin-like yolk protein, while all other major precursor of yolk proteins in oviparous invertebrates belong to the superfamily of large lipid-transfer proteins (LLTPs). However, a comprehensive understanding of vitellogenesis is absent in cephalopods. To understand control of vitellogenesis by the LLTPs gene, two vitellogenins (VTG1 and VTG2), two apolipophorins (APOLP2A and APOLP2B), and a cytosolic large subunit of microsomal triglyceride-transfer protein (MTTP) found in the bigfin reef squid...
June 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
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