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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330975/mitogenomes-and-relatedness-do-not-predict-frequency-of-tool-use-by-sea-otters
#1
Katherine Ralls, Nancy Rotzel McInerney, Roderick B Gagne, Holly B Ernest, M Tim Tinker, Jessica Fujii, Jesus Maldonado
Many ecological aspects of tool-use in sea otters are similar to those in Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins. Within an area, most tool-using dolphins share a single mitochondrial haplotype and are more related to each other than to the population as a whole. We asked whether sea otters in California showed similar genetic patterns by sequencing mitogenomes of 43 otters and genotyping 154 otters at 38 microsatellite loci. There were six variable sites in the mitogenome that yielded three haplotypes, one found in only a single individual...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330696/corrigendum-to-assessing-trace-elements-in-striped-dolphins-from-the-strait-of-gibraltar-clues-to-link-the-bioaccumulation-in-the-westernmost-mediterranean-sea-area-and-nearest-atlantic-ocean-chemosphere-170-2017-41-50
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322212/severe-mutilation-of-a-critically-endangered-taiwanese-humpback-dolphin-sousa-chinensis-taiwanensis-by-fishing-gear
#3
John Y Wang, Claryana Araújo-Wang
Direct observations of the causes of injuries to cetaceans are rare events. For very small and declining populations, such events may be even less likely to be observed because of the few individuals that remain. A long-term monitoring program using photographic identification of individuals resulted in the documentation of an individual Taiwanese humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis taiwanensis that survived a harmful interaction with fishing gear. An adult female that was accompanied by a young calf sustained massive damage to several tissue types on her dorsal surface...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322211/prey-species-of-franciscana-pontoporia-blainvillei-as-paratenic-hosts-of-helminths
#4
Tony Silveira, Mariana H Remião, Ricardo B Robaldo, Kaio Freitas, Ana Luísa S Valente
The distribution of franciscana Pontoporia blainvillei Gervais & d'Orbigny, 1884, is restricted to the estuarine and coastal waters of the southwestern Atlantic. The diet of this dolphin is composed of fishes, squids, and shrimps, many of which harbor helminths that may infect franciscana. Larval forms of the trematode Synthesium pontoporiae and the acanthocephalan Bolbosoma turbinella have been recorded in franciscana; however, they have not yet been identified in any of the prey species of this cetacean. We evaluated 3 components of the diet of franciscana as possible transmission sources of parasitiasis...
March 21, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306330/effect-of-changing-the-head-position-on-accuracy-of-transverse-measurements-of-the-maxillofacial-region-made-on-cone-beam-computed-tomography-and-conventional-posterior-anterior-cephalograms
#5
Abbas Shokri, Amirfarhang Miresmaeili, Nasrin Farhadian, Sepideh Falah-Kooshki, Payam Amini, Najmeh Mollaie
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the effect of head position on the accuracy of transverse measurements of the maxillofacial region on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and conventional posterior-anterior (PA) cephalograms. The second objective of this study was to find skull positions with the greatest and smallest effect on transverse measurements in the maxillofacial region. METHODS: PA cephalograms and CBCT scans were obtained from 10 dry human skulls in seven positions namely the central position, 10° and 20° rotations, 10° and 20° tilts and 10° and 20° tips...
March 17, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299272/three-dimensional-planning-in-craniomaxillofacial-surgery
#6
Josep Rubio-Palau, Alejandra Prieto-Gundin, Asteria Albert Cazalla, Miguel Bejarano Serrano, Gemma Garcia Fructuoso, Francisco Parri Ferrandis, Alejandro Rivera Baró
INTRODUCTION: Three-dimensional (3D) planning in oral and maxillofacial surgery has become a standard in the planification of a variety of conditions such as dental implants and orthognathic surgery. By using custom-made cutting and positioning guides, the virtual surgery is exported to the operating room, increasing precision and improving results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We present our experience in the treatment of craniofacial deformities with 3D planning. Software to plan the different procedures has been selected for each case, depending on the procedure (Nobel Clinician, Kodak 3DS, Simplant O&O, Dolphin 3D, Timeus, Mimics and 3-Matic)...
July 2016: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298467/swimming-and-diving-energetics-in-dolphins-a-stroke-by-stroke-analysis-for-predicting-the-cost-of-flight-responses-in-wild-odontocetes
#7
Terrie M Williams, Traci L Kendall, Beau P Richter, Courtney R Ribeiro-French, Jason S John, Kim L Odell, Barbara A Losch, David A Feuerbach, M Andrew Stamper
Exponential increases in hydrodynamic drag and physical exertion occur when swimmers move quickly through water, and underlie the preference for relatively slow routine speeds by marine mammals regardless of body size. Because of this and the need to balance limited oxygen stores when submerged, flight (escape) responses may be especially challenging for this group. To examine this, we used open-flow respirometry to measure the energetic cost of producing a swimming stroke during different levels of exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298459/high-speed-dolphins-burn-double-calories
#8
Kathryn Knight
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293739/a-new-synthesium-species-digenea-brachycladiidae-from-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-cetacea-delphinidae-in-southwestern-atlantic-waters
#9
Mariana B Ebert, Maria I Mülller, Juliana Marigo, Ana L S Valente, Marta J Cremer, Reinaldo J da Silva
A new species of Synthesium from the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus in South Brazilian waters is described. Morphological and molecular identification was performed, and phylogenetic analyses were carried out using the ribosomal small subunit and internal transcribed spacer 1 and the mitochondrial NDH dehydrogenase subunit 3 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 genes. The main characteristics of the new species are the subterminal round-shaped oral sucker, the anterior distribution of vitellaria reaching the level of the ovary and the oval-shaped testes...
March 14, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283815/a-novel-cetacean-adenovirus-in-stranded-harbour-porpoises-from-the-north-sea-detection-and-molecular-characterization
#10
Steven J van Beurden, Lonneke L IJsseldijk, Marco W G van de Bildt, Lineke Begeman, James F X Wellehan, Thomas B Waltzek, Geert de Vrieze, Andrea Gröne, Thijs Kuiken, M Hélène Verheije, Judit J Penzes
Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are the most prevalent cetaceans in the North Sea. The fecal viral flora of 21 harbour porpoises stranded along the Dutch coastline was analyzed by a metagenomics approach. Sequences of a novel cetacean mastadenovirus, designated harbour porpoise adenovirus 1 (HpAdV-1), were detected. The sequence of a 23-kbp genomic region, spanning the conserved late region, was determined using primer walking. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that HpAdV-1 is most closely related to bottlenose dolphin adenovirus and clusters with Cetartiodactyla adenoviruses...
March 10, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283410/insecticide-pyrethroids-in-liver-of-striped-dolphin-from-the-mediterranean-sea
#11
Òscar Aznar-Alemany, Joan Giménez, Renaud de Stephanis, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló
Pyrethroid pesticides were analysed in liver of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Alboran Sea (south of Spain, Mediterranean Sea). The occurrence and bioaccumulation of pyrethroid insecticides in marine mammal tissues from the northern hemisphere had never been determined before. Pyrethroids were detected in 87% of the specimens with a mean total concentration of 300 ng g(-1) lw ± 932 (range 2.7-5200 ng g(-1) lw). Permethrin and tetramethrin were the main contributors to the pyrethroid profiles, with enantiospecific accumulation for the first and isomer specific accumulation for the latter...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280561/temporally-and-spatially-partitioned-behaviours-of-spinner-dolphins-implications-for-resilience-to-human-disturbance
#12
Julian A Tyne, David W Johnston, Fredrik Christiansen, Lars Bejder
Selective forces shape the evolution of wildlife behavioural strategies and influence the spatial and temporal partitioning of behavioural activities to maximize individual fitness. Globally, wildlife is increasingly exposed to human activities which may affect their behavioural activities. The ability of wildlife to compensate for the effects of human activities may have implications for their resilience to disturbance. Resilience theory suggests that behavioural systems which are constrained in their repertoires are less resilient to disturbance than flexible systems...
January 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275285/don-t-forget-the-porpoise-acoustic-monitoring-reveals-fine-scale-temporal-variation-between-bottlenose-dolphin-and-harbour-porpoise-in-cardigan-bay-sac
#13
Hanna K Nuuttila, Winnie Courtene-Jones, Sarah Baulch, Malene Simon, Peter G H Evans
Populations of bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise inhabit Cardigan Bay, which was designated a Special Area of Conservation (SAC), with bottlenose dolphin listed as a primary feature for its conservation status. Understanding the abundance, distribution and habitat use of species is fundamental for conservation and the implementation of management. Bottlenose dolphin and harbour porpoise usage of feeding sites within Cardigan Bay SAC was examined using passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic detections recorded with calibrated T-PODs (acoustic data loggers) indicated harbour porpoise to be present year round and in greater relative abundance than bottlenose dolphin...
2017: Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275142/the-remarkable-convergence-of-skull-shape-in-crocodilians-and-toothed-whales
#14
Matthew R McCurry, Alistair R Evans, Erich M G Fitzgerald, Justin W Adams, Philip D Clausen, Colin R McHenry
The striking resemblance of long-snouted aquatic mammals and reptiles has long been considered an example of morphological convergence, yet the true cause of this similarity remains untested. We addressed this deficit through three-dimensional morphometric analysis of the full diversity of crocodilian and toothed whale (Odontoceti) skull shapes. Our focus on biomechanically important aspects of shape allowed us to overcome difficulties involved in comparing mammals and reptiles, which have fundamental differences in the number and position of skull bones...
March 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273558/mutations-and-polymorphism-in-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-montagu-1821-albumin-gene-first-identification-of-mutations-responsible-for-inherited-bisalbuminemia
#15
Claudia Gili, Federico Bonsembiante, Giorgia Beffagna, Sandro Mazzariol, Maria Elena Gelain
Hereditary bisalbuminemia is an asymptomatic and heterozygous condition in a range of species characterized by the presence of two serum albumin fractions with different electrophoretic mobility resulting in a bicuspid pattern on serum electrophoresis. Bisalbuminemia has been diagnosed by electrophoresis in two bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) families, but causative mutations and the inheritance pattern have not been identified. The aims of this work are: to investigate polymorphisms of the bottlenose dolphin albumin gene and to identify mutations causative of bisalbuminemia; to identify the inheritance pattern in two bottlenose dolphin families...
February 24, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257606/morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-amazon-river-dolphin-inia-geoffrensis-spermatozoa
#16
Rodrigo S Amaral, Vera M F da Silva, Fabíola X Valdez Domingos, Anthony R Martin
The spermatozoa from seven adult Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis, CETACEA: INIIDAE) were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The spermatozoa showed an elongated ellipsoid shaped head and a long tail with a well distinguishable midpiece. The head spermatozoa have a smooth surface like other odontocetes examined, with the exception of the Delphinidae family. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were within the range already reported for other cetaceans. The spermatozoa midpiece, as in other cetaceans, showed a random pattern of mitochondria, different from that described for other mammals...
March 3, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256585/lrp1-influences-trafficking-of-n-type-calcium-channels-via-interaction-with-the-auxiliary-%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-subunit
#17
Ivan Kadurin, Simon W Rothwell, Beatrice Lana, Manuela Nieto-Rostro, Annette C Dolphin
Voltage-gated Ca(2+) (CaV) channels consist of a pore-forming α1 subunit, which determines the main functional and pharmacological attributes of the channel. The CaV1 and CaV2 channels are associated with auxiliary β- and α2δ-subunits. The molecular mechanisms involved in α2δ subunit trafficking, and the effect of α2δ subunits on trafficking calcium channel complexes remain poorly understood. Here we show that α2δ-1 is a ligand for the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor-related Protein-1 (LRP1), a multifunctional receptor which mediates trafficking of cargoes...
March 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253667/reconstruction-of-the-forehead-acoustic-properties-in-an-indo-pacific-humpback-dolphin-sousa-chinensis-with-investigation-on-the-responses-of-soft-tissue-sound-velocity-to-temperature
#18
Zhongchang Song, Yu Zhang, Per Berggren, Chong Wei
Computed tomography (CT) imaging and ultrasound experimental measurements were combined to reconstruct the acoustic properties (density, velocity, and impedance) of the head from a deceased Indo-Pacific humpback dolphin (Sousa chinensis). The authors extracted 42 soft forehead tissue samples to estimate the sound velocity and density properties at room temperature, 25.0  °C. Hounsfield Units (HUs) of the samples were read from CT scans. Linear relationships between the tissues' HUs and velocity, and HUs and density were revealed through regression analyses...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248616/precision-of-le-fort-i-osteotomy-planning-versus-outcome-a-multi-centre-retrospective-study
#19
Stefan Abela, David Tewson, Sharon Prince, Martyn Sherriff, Dirk Bister
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of Le Fort I surgery by comparing planned surgical movements with actual outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A minimum number of seven consecutive cases that had undergone a Le Fort I osteotomy procedure alone or in combination with a mandibular osteotomy from six different hospital units in the East of England between 2009 and 2010 were identified. A total of 56 cases met the inclusion criteria where surgical splints were used and model surgery had been performed...
March 2017: Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238073/non-neurogenic-svz-like-niche-in-dolphins-mammals-devoid-of-olfaction
#20
Roberta Parolisi, Bruno Cozzi, Luca Bonfanti
Adult neurogenesis has been implicated in brain plasticity and brain repair. In mammals, it is mostly restricted to specific brain regions and specific physiological functions. The function and evolutionary history of mammalian adult neurogenesis has been elusive so far. The largest neurogenic site in mammals (subventricular zone, SVZ) generates neurons destined to populate the olfactory bulb. The SVZ neurogenic activity appears to be related to the dependence of the species on olfaction since it occurs at high rates throughout life in animals strongly dependent on this function for their survival...
February 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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