Read by QxMD icon Read


M A Postnikov, D A Trunin, N V Pankratova, A M Nesterov, M I Sadykov, S A Ostankov
The diagnostics and treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients aged 6-12 is an vital problem in orthodontics. Method of orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III in patients with the help of improved and patented orthodontic construction - 'Postnikov appliance' - and face mask and bracket system is analysed in the article. Orthodontic treatment of malocclusion Class III was examined in 24 patients aged 6-12 by the suggested method. All patients were examined clinically and with the help af additional diagnostic methods: head cephalometry in lateral position with further data analysis in Dolphin Imaging (USA)...
2018: Stomatologii︠a︡
Sam H Ridgway, Dianna S Dibble, Jaime A Kennemer
Two dolphins carrying cameras swam in the ocean as they searched for and marked mine simulators - buried, proud or moored. As the animals swam ahead of a boat they searched the ocean. Cameras on their harness recorded continuous sound and video. Once a target was detected, the dolphins received a marker to take to the simulator's location. During search and detection, dolphins made almost continuous trains of varying interval clicks. During the marking phase, shorter click trains were interrupted by periods of silence...
February 20, 2018: Biology Open
Paula Méndez-Fernandez, Satie Taniguchi, Marcos C O Santos, Irma Cascão, Sophie Quérouil, Vidal Martín, Marisa Tejedor, Manuel Carrillo, Carolina Rinaldi, Renato Rinaldi, Rosalinda C Montone
The Atlantic spotted dolphin (Stenella frontalis) is an endemic species of the tropical-temperate Atlantic Ocean with widespread distribution. Although this species has been the subject of a large number of studies throughout its range, it remains in the "data deficient" category of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Chemical pollution by persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been listed as one of the major threats to this species, however, there is no information on a wide scale...
February 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Maria João Cruz, Miguel Machete, Gui Menezes, Emer Rogan, Mónica A Silva
Small-scale artisanal fisheries can have a significant negative impact in cetacean populations. Cetacean bycatch has been documented in the pole-and-line tuna fishery in the Azores with common dolphins being the species more frequently taken. Based on data collected by observers on ∼50% of vessels operating from 1998 to 2012, we investigate the influence of various environmental and fisheries-related factors in common dolphin bycatch and calculate fleet-wide estimates of total bycatch using design-based and model-based methods...
2018: PeerJ
Varghah Lotfi, Ahmed Ghoneima, Manuel Lagravere, Katherine Kula, Kelton Stewart
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the airway volume changes associated with rapid maxillary expansion (RME) protocols using different activation rates. A sample of forty RME treated cases was classified into two groups according to the rate of RME activation (Group A: 0.8mm per day and Group B: 0.5mm per day). Three-dimensional images were obtained for each case before and three months after expansion. Dolphin imaging software was used to identify landmarks and calculate airway volumes. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to confirm reliability and Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used for comparison between the initial and final measurements within each group and between groups...
February 13, 2018: International Orthodontics
Alice Lima, Mélissa Sébilleau, Martin Boye, Candice Durand, Martine Hausberger, Alban Lemasson
Bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops truncatus ) spontaneously emit individual acoustic signals that identify them to group members. We tested whether these cetaceans could learn artificial individual sound cues played underwater and whether they would generalize this learning to airborne sounds. Dolphins are thought to perceive only underwater sounds and their training depends largely on visual signals. We investigated the behavioral responses of seven dolphins in a group to learned human-made individual sound cues, played underwater and in the air...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jordan T Andersen, Ross H Sanders
Propulsion, one of the most important factors in front crawl swimming performance, is generated from both the upper and lower limbs, yet little is known about the mechanisms of propulsion from the alternating movements of the lower limbs in the flutter kick (FK). The purpose of this systematic review was to review the literature relating to the mechanisms of propulsion from FK in front crawl. There was limited information about the mechanisms of propulsion in FK. Since movements of the lower limbs are similar between FK and the dolphin kick (DK), mechanisms of propulsion from DK were reviewed to better understand propulsion from FK...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
A Fahlman, M Brodsky, R Wells, K McHugh, J Allen, A Barleycorn, J C Sweeney, D Fauquier, M Moore
We measured respiratory flow rates, and expired O2 in 32 (2-34 years, body mass [Mb] range: 73-291 kg) common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during voluntary breaths on land or in water (between 2014 and 2017). The data were used to measure the resting O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text], range: 0.76-9.45 ml O2 min-1 kg-1) and tidal volume (VT, range: 2.2-10.4 l) during rest. For adult dolphins, the resting VT, but not [Formula: see text], correlated with body mass (Mb, range: 141-291 kg) with an allometric mass-exponent of 0...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Marisa L Trego, Eunha Hoh, Nicholas M Kellar, Sara Meszaros, Michelle N Robbins, Nathan Gray Dodder, Andrew Whitehead, Rebecca L Lewison
While environmental pollutants have been associated with changes in endocrine health in cetaceans, efforts to link contaminant exposure with hormones have largely been limited to a list of known, targeted contaminants, overlooking minimally characterized or unknown compounds of emerging concern. To address this gap, we analyzed a suite of potential endocrine disrupting halogenated organic compounds (HOCs) in blubber from 16 male short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) with known maturity status collected from fishery bycatch in the Southern California Bight...
February 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yuefei Ruan, James C W Lam, Xiaohua Zhang, Paul K S Lam
Stereoisomeric compositions of 1,2,5,6,9,10-hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH) were investigated in the blubber of two species of marine mammals, finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis), from the South China Sea between 2005 and 2015. The concentrations of ΣHBCD in samples of porpoise (n = 59) and dolphin (n = 32) ranged from 97.2 to 6,260 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and from 447 to 45,800 ng/g lw, respectively, while those of ΣTBECH were both roughly two orders of magnitude lower...
February 4, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Laura N Kloepper, John R Buck, Yang Liu, Paul E Nachtigall
Broadband active sonar systems estimate range from time delay and velocity from Doppler shift. Relatively little attention has been paid to how the received echo spectrum encodes information about the bearing of an object. This letter derives the bearing Fisher Information encoded in the frequency dependent transmitter beampattern. This leads to a counter-intuitive result: directing the sonar beam so that a target of interest is slightly off-axis maximizes the bearing information about the target. Beam aim data from a dolphin biosonar experiment agree closely with the angle predicted to maximize bearing information...
January 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Brian K Branstetter, Victoria F Bowman, Dorian S Houser, Megan Tormey, Patchouly Banks, James J Finneran, Keith Jenkins
Vibratory pile drivers, used for marine construction, can produce sustained, high sound pressure levels (SPLs) in areas that overlap with dolphin habitats. Dolphins rely on echolocation for navigation, detecting predators and prey, and to coordinate group behavior. This study examined the effects of vibratory pile driver noise on dolphin sustained target detection capabilities through echolocation. Five dolphins were required to scan their enclosure and indicate the occurrences of phantom echoes during five different source levels of vibratory pile driver playback sound (no-playback control, 110, 120, 130, and 140 dB re 1 μPa)...
January 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Isabella L K Clegg, Fabienne Delfour
Many animals display a suite of increased vigilance and/or activity responses in relation to upcoming events, termed "anticipatory behavior." Anticipatory behavior toward positive events has been suggested as a cross-species measure of affective state as it likely reflects the balance of the reward-sensitivity system: various studies suggest that animals in poorer welfare situations show higher or excessive levels of anticipation for positive events. Another tool for evaluating animals' affective state is cognitive bias testing, and although it has been attempted, a link has not yet been made between cognitive bias and anticipatory behavior levels...
January 31, 2018: Zoo Biology
Carla Grattarola, Federica Giorda, Barbara Iulini, Alessandra Pautasso, Marco Ballardini, Simona Zoppi, Letizia Marsili, Simone Peletto, Loretta Masoero, Katia Varello, Fulvio Garibaldi, Frine E Scaglione, Giovanni Di Guardo, Alessandro Dondo, Maria Goria, Laura Serracca, Walter Mignone, Cristina Casalone
A juvenile female striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba live stranded on 4 March 2016 at Alassio, western Ligurian Sea coast, Italy. The dolphin died shortly after stranding, and a complete postmortem examination was performed. Necropsy revealed severe tracheal occlusion and unilateral bronchial stenosis with luminal accumulation of abundant green-yellow mucous-gelatinous material. Histological features suggestive of tracheobronchial aspergillosis were observed. Cultures of lung tissue and tracheo-bronchial exudate isolated Aspergillus fumigatus, identified by a Microseq D2 LSUrDNA fungal sequencing kit...
January 31, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Mridula Srinivasan, Todd M Swannack, William E Grant, Jolly Rajan, Bernd Würsig
In mammals, lactation can be the most energetically expensive part of the reproductive cycle. Thus, when energy needs are compromised due to predation risk, environmental disturbance, or resource scarcity, future reproductive success can be impacted. In marine and terrestrial environments, foraging behavior is inextricably linked to predation risk. But quantification of foraging energetics for lactating animals under predation risk is less understood. In this study, we used a spatially explicit individual-based model to study how changes in physiology (lactating or not) and the environment (predation risk) affect optimal behavior in dolphins...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Marie-Françoise Van Bressem, Koen Van Waerebeek, Pádraig J Duignan
Clinical and epidemiological features of tattoo skin disease (TSD) are reported for 257 common bottlenose dolphins held in 31 facilities in the Northern Hemisphere. Photographs and biological data of 146 females and 111 males were analyzed. Dolphins were classified into three age classes: 0-3 years, 4-8 years, and older than 9 years. From 2012 to 2014, 20.6% of the 257 dolphins showed clinical TSD. The youngest dolphins with tattoo lesions were 14 and 15 months old. TSD persisted from 4 to 65 months in 30 dolphins...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Adam B Smith, Aude F Pacini, Paul E Nachtigall
Odontocete marine mammals explore the environment by rapidly producing echolocation signals and receiving the corresponding echoes, which likewise return at very rapid rates. Thus, it is important that the auditory system has a high temporal resolution to effectively process and extract relevant information from click echoes. This study used auditory evoked potential methods to investigate auditory temporal resolution of individuals from four different odontocete species, including a spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris), pygmy killer whale (Feresa attenuata), long-finned pilot whale (Globicephala melas), and Blainville's beaked whale (Mesoplodon densirostris)...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
Simone Peletto, Claudio Caruso, Francesco Cerutti, Paola Modesto, Cristina Biolatti, Alessandra Pautasso, Carla Grattarola, Federica Giorda, Sandro Mazzariol, Walter Mignone, Loretta Masoero, Cristina Casalone, Pier Luigi Acutis
The Dolphin Morbillivirus (DMV) genome from the first Mediterranean epidemic (1990-'92) is the only cetacean Morbillivirus that has been completely sequenced. Here, we report the first application of next generation sequencing (NGS) to morbillivirus infection of aquatic mammals. A viral isolate, representative of the 2006-'08 Mediterranean epidemic (DMV_IZSPLV_2008), efficiently grew on Vero.DogSLAMtag cells and was submitted to whole genome characterization by NGS. The final genome length was 15,673 nucleotides, covering 99...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexandros H Kanellopoulos, Jennifer Koenig, Honglei Huang, Martina Pyrski, Queensta Millet, Stéphane Lolignier, Toru Morohashi, Samuel J Gossage, Maude Jay, John E Linley, Georgios Baskozos, Benedikt M Kessler, James J Cox, Annette C Dolphin, Frank Zufall, John N Wood, Jing Zhao
The voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.7 plays a critical role in pain pathways. We generated an epitope-tagged NaV1.7 mouse that showed normal pain behaviours to identify channel-interacting proteins. Analysis of NaV1.7 complexes affinity-purified under native conditions by mass spectrometry revealed 267 proteins associated with Nav1.7 in vivo The sodium channel β3 (Scn3b), rather than the β1 subunit, complexes with Nav1.7, and we demonstrate an interaction between collapsing-response mediator protein (Crmp2) and Nav1...
January 15, 2018: EMBO Journal
Cecilia Passadore, Luciana Möller, Fernando Diaz-Aguirre, Guido J Parra
Information on site fidelity and ranging patterns of wild animals is critical to understand how they use their environment and guide conservation and management strategies. Delphinids show a wide variety of site fidelity and ranging patterns. Between September 2013 and October 2015, we used boat-based surveys, photographic identification, biopsy sampling, clustering analysis, and geographic information systems to determine the site-fidelity patterns and representative ranges of southern Australian bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops cf...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"