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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819052/dolphin-blubber-axial-muscle-shear-implications-for-rigid-trans-dermal-intra-muscular-tracking-tag-trauma-in-whales
#1
Michael J Moore, Alexandre N Zerbini
Whale tracking tags often penetrate semi-rigid blubber, with intramuscular sharp tips and toggling barbs under the subdermal sheath to reduce premature shedding. Tag sites can show persistent regional swellings or depressions. Fibroelastic blubber grips a tag, so if muscle shears relative to blubber during locomotion, the tag tip could cavitate the muscle within overall shearing distance. We modelled shearing of blubber relative to muscle, within the dorsal-ventral peduncular movement range of four common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) cadavers (mean length 186 cm)...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818026/herpesviral-infection-in-a-guiana-dolphin-sotalia-guianensis-from-the-northern-coast-of-brazil
#2
Gisele C C Seade, Valíria D Cerqueira, Eva Sierra, Jaese F Chaves, Márcio A O Moura, Daniele P Montão, Gabriela Riet-Correa, Carlos A Oliveira, Salvatore Siciliano, Renata Emin-Lima, Alexandra Fernandes Costa, Antonio Fernández, Pedro S Bezerra Júnior
We describe herein herpesvirus-associated genital lesions in a Guiana dolphin ( Sotalia guianensis) from the northern Brazilian coast. Papillary lesions on the vulva, with epithelial hyperplasia, swollen keratinocytes, and intranuclear inclusions, were positive for a herpesvirus ( Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily).
August 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816289/-evaluation-of-cone-beam-computed-tomography-on-upper-airway-changes-after-alternating-rapid-palatal-expansion-and-constriction
#3
D T Chang, Y H Zhou, W T Liu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the changes of different parts of upper airway after alternating rapid palatal expansion and constriction via three dimensional measurement, compared with the protocol of rapid palatal expansion alone. METHODS: In the study, 36 patients with retrognathic maxilla were selected and randomized to either group A or group B. The patients in group A were treated with rapid palatal expansion alone. The patients in group B were treated with alternating rapid palatal expansion and constriction...
August 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810710/testing-convergent-evolution-in-auditory-processing-genes-between-echolocating-mammals-and-the-aye-aye-a-percussive-foraging-primate
#4
Richard J Bankoff, Michael Jerjos, Baily Hohman, M Elise Lauterbur, Logan Kistler, George H Perry
Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802692/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-and-rna-seq-expression-analysis-in-blood-from-beluga-whales-of-bristol-bay-ak
#5
Jeanine S Morey, Kathy A Burek Huntington, Michelle Campbell, Tonya M Clauss, Caroline E Goertz, Roderick C Hobbs, Denise Lunardi, Amanda J Moors, Marion G Neely, Lori H Schwacke, Frances M Van Dolah
Assessing the health of marine mammal sentinel species is crucial to understanding the impacts of environmental perturbations on marine ecosystems and human health. In Arctic regions, beluga whales, Delphinapterus leucas, are upper level predators that may serve as a sentinel species, potentially forecasting impacts on human health. While gene expression profiling from blood transcriptomes has widely been used to assess health status and environmental exposures in human and veterinary medicine, its use in wildlife has been limited due to the lack of available genomes and baseline data...
August 9, 2017: Marine Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799088/metazoan-parasites-from-odontocetes-off-new-zealand-new-records
#6
Kristina Lehnert, Haseeb Randhawa, Robert Poulin
Information about the parasite fauna of spectacled porpoises and cetaceans from New Zealand waters in general is scarce. This study takes advantage of material archived in collections of the Otago Museum in Dunedin and Massey University in Auckland, sampled from cetacean species found stranded along the New Zealand coastline between 2007 and 2014. Parasites from seven species of cetaceans (spectacled porpoise, Phocoena dioptrica (n = 2 individuals examined); pygmy sperm whale (n = 1); long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas (n = 1); Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus (n = 1); short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis (n = 7); striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (n = 3) and dusky dolphin, Lagenorhynchus obscurus (n = 2)) from the respiratory and gastro-intestinal tract, cranial sinus, liver, urogenital and mammary tract, fascia and blubber were investigated...
August 10, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794579/temporal-and-geographic-patterns-of-kinship-structure-in-common-dolphins-delphinus-delphis-suggest-site-fidelity-and-female-biased-long-distance-dispersal
#7
Laura Ball, Kypher Shreves, Małgorzata Pilot, André E Moura
ABSTRACT: Social structure plays a crucial role in determining a species' dispersal patterns and genetic structure. Cetaceans show a diversity of social and mating systems, but their effects on dispersal and genetic structure are not well known, in part because of technical difficulties in obtaining robust observational data. Here, we combine genetic profiling and GIS analysis to identify patterns of kin distribution over time and space, to infer mating structure and dispersal patterns in short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis)...
2017: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793352/brucellosis-in-mammals-of-costa-rica-an-epidemiological-survey
#8
Gabriela Hernández-Mora, Roberto Bonilla-Montoya, Osvaldo Barrantes-Granados, Andrea Esquivel-Suárez, Danilo Montero-Caballero, Rocío González-Barrientos, Zeanne Fallas-Monge, José David Palacios-Alfaro, Mario Baldi, Elena Campos, Grettel Chanto, Elías Barquero-Calvo, Carlos Chacón-Díaz, Esteban Chaves-Olarte, Caterina Guzmán Verri, Juan-José Romero-Zúñiga, Edgardo Moreno
Brucellosis has been an endemic disease of cattle and humans in Costa Rica since the beginning of XX century. However, brucellosis in sheep, goats, pigs, water buffaloes, horses and cetaceans, has not been reported in the country. We have performed a brucellosis survey in these host mammal species, from 1999-2016. In addition, we have documented the number of human brucellosis reported cases, from 2003-2016. The brucellosis seroprevalence in goat and sheep herds was 0.98% and 0.7% respectively, with no Brucella isolation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792947/exodus-large-scale-displacement-and-social-adjustments-of-resident-atlantic-spotted-dolphins-stenella-frontalis-in-the-bahamas
#9
Denise L Herzing, Bethany N Augliere, Cindy R Elliser, Michelle L Green, Adam A Pack
Over the last 20 years, significant habitat shifts have been documented in some populations of cetaceans. On Little Bahama Bank (LBB) there are sympatric communities of resident Atlantic spotted dolphins (Stenella frontalis) and bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), monitored since 1985. The size and social structure (three clusters: Northern, Central, Southern) have been stable among the spotted dolphin community with little immigration/emigration, even after large demographic losses (36%) following two major hurricanes in 2004...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791513/what-s-in-a-voice-dolphins-do-not-use-voice-cues-for-individual-recognition
#10
Laela S Sayigh, Randall S Wells, Vincent M Janik
Most mammals can accomplish acoustic recognition of other individuals by means of "voice cues," whereby characteristics of the vocal tract render vocalizations of an individual uniquely identifiable. However, sound production in dolphins takes place in gas-filled nasal sacs that are affected by pressure changes, potentially resulting in a lack of reliable voice cues. It is well known that bottlenose dolphins learn to produce individually distinctive signature whistles for individual recognition, but it is not known whether they may also use voice cues...
August 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791178/kelp-and-dolphin-gulls-cause-perineal-wounds-in-south-american-fur-seal-pups-arctocephalus-australis-at-guafo-island-chilean-patagonia
#11
Mauricio Seguel, Francisco Muñoz, Felipe Montalva, Diego Perez-Venegas, Héctor Pavés, Nicole Gottdenker
During five reproductive seasons, we documented the presence, extent and origin of perineal wounds in South American fur seal pups (Arctocephalus australis) on Guafo Island, Northern Chilean Patagonia. The seasonal prevalence of perineal wounds ranged from 5 to 9%, and new cases were more common at the end of the breeding season (February), when pups were on average two months old and were actively expelling hookworms (Uncinaria sp). Histologically, wounds corresponded to marked ulcerative lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic dermatitis with granulation tissue and mixed bacterial colonies...
July 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774992/genome-sequence-of-a-gammaherpesvirus-from-a-common-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#12
Andrew J Davison, Kuttichantran Subramaniam, Karen Kerr, Jessica M Jacob, Nelmarie Landrau-Giovannetti, Michael T Walsh, Randall S Wells, Thomas B Waltzek
A herpesvirus genome was sequenced directly from a biopsy specimen of a rectal lesion from a female common bottlenose dolphin. This genome sequence comprises a unique region (161,235 bp) flanked by multiple copies of a terminal repeat (4,431 bp) and contains 72 putative genes. The virus was named common bottlenose dolphin gammaherpesvirus 1.
August 3, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770682/radiographic-assessment-of-dental-pathology-and-abnormalities-in-dolphins
#13
Carolina Loch, Liliane J Grando, Maria I Meurer, Michella Zastrow, Angela Fernandes, Paulo C Simões-Lopes
This study proposes a simple standardized method for the production of analog X-ray images of dolphin teeth, and to explore its potential use as a complementary technique in the evaluation of dental pathology in small cetaceans. We investigated exposure times that produced the best results, and whether radiographs helped in the diagnosis of macroscopic abnormalities. Teeth of six species of dolphins (Delphinidae: Tursiops truncatus, Steno bredanensis, Sotalia guianensis, Delphinus sp., Stenella coeruleoalba, and Stenella frontalis) were X-rayed in an analog dental X-ray machine operating at 70 kVp and 7 mA...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768268/qualitative-and-quantitative-analysis-of-primary-neocortical-areas-in-selected-mammals
#14
Elisabeth van Kann, Bruno Cozzi, Patrick R Hof, Helmut H A Oelschläger
The present study focuses on the relationship between neocortical structures and functional aspects in three selected mammalian species. Our aim was to compare cortical layering and neuron density in the projection areas (somatomotor, M1; somatosensory, S1; auditory, A1; and visual, V1; each in a wider sense). Morphological and design-based stereological analysis was performed in the wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) as a representative terrestrial hoofed animal (artiodactyl) and the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) as a highly derived related aquatic mammal (cetartiodactyl)...
July 29, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767677/limited-trophic-partitioning-among-sympatric-delphinids-off-a-tropical-oceanic-atoll
#15
Hillary Young, Katherine Nigro, Douglas J McCauley, Lisa T Ballance, Erin M Oleson, Simone Baumann-Pickering
Understanding trophic relationships among marine predators in remote environments is challenging, but it is critical to understand community structure and dynamics. In this study, we used stable isotope analysis of skin biopsies to compare the isotopic, and thus, trophic niches of three sympatric delphinids in the waters surrounding Palmyra Atoll, in the Central Tropical Pacific: the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra), Gray's spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris longirostris), and the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766738/major-shifts-in-amazon-wildlife-populations-from-recent-climatic-intensification
#16
Richard Bodmer, Pedro Mayor, Miguel Antunez, Kimberlyn Chota, Tula Fang, Pablo Puertas, Marlini Pittet, Maire Kirkland, Mike Walkey, Claudia Rios, Pedro Perez-Peña, Peter Henderson, William Bodmer, Andy Bicerra, Joseph Zegarra, Emma Docherty
In the western Amazon basin, recent intensification of river level cycles has increased flooding during the wet seasons and decreased precipitation during the dry season. Greater than normal floods occurred in 2009 and in all years from 2011-2015 during high water seasons, and a drought occurred during the 2010 low water season. During these years, we surveyed populations of terrestrial, arboreal and aquatic wildlife in a seasonally flooded Amazonian forest to study the consequences of intensification of climatic fluctuations to wildlife populations and in turn resource use by traditional people...
August 2, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764295/photographic-assessment-of-cephalometric-measurements-in-skeletal-class-ii-cases-a-comparative-study
#17
Pooja Mehta, Roshan M Sagarkar, Silju Mathew
INTRODUCTION: Cephalometry has many limitations of which radiation exposure is most important. Hence, there is a need to resort to other safer methods which could give equal if not better results. AIM: The purpose of this study was to compare and correlate the craniofacial measurements obtained from cephalometric radiographs and analogous measurements from standardized facial profile photographs in skeletal class II cases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 lateral cephalograms and profile photographs of patients exhibiting skeletal class II malocclusion, in the age group of 19-25 years of age, were examined in this study using Dolphin software (version 11...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761914/kinematic-and-emg-data-during-underwater-dolphin-kick-change-while-synchronizing-with-or-without-synchronization-of-kick-frequency-with-the-beat-of-a-metronome
#18
Keisuke Kobayashi Yamakawa, Hirofumi Shimojo, Hideki Takagi, Shozo Tsubakimoto, Yasuo Sengoku
We investigated the effects of synchronizing kick frequency with the beat of a metronome on kinematic and electromyographic (EMG) parameters during the underwater dolphin kick as a pilot study related to the research that entitled "Effect of increased kick frequency on propelling efficiency and muscular co-activation during underwater dolphin kick" (Yamakawa et al., 2017) [1]. Seven collegiate female swimmers participated in this experiment. The participants conducted two underwater dolphin kick trials: swimming freely at maximum effort, and swimming while synchronizing the kick frequency of maximum effort with the beat of a metronome...
October 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751031/natural-and-anthropogenic-events-influence-the-soundscapes-of-four-bays-on-hawaii-island
#19
Heather L Heenehan, Sofie M Van Parijs, Lars Bejder, Julian A Tyne, Brandon L Southall, Hugh Southall, David W Johnston
The soundscapes of four bays along the Kona Coast of Hawaii Island were monitored between January 2011 and March 2013. Equivalent, unweighted sound pressure levels within standard 1/3rd-octave bands (dB re: 1μPa) were calculated for each recording. Sound levels increased at night and were lowest during the daytime when spinner dolphins use the bays to rest. A tsunami provided an opportunity to monitor the soundscape with little anthropogenic component. We detected a decrease in sound levels and variability in one of the busiest bays...
July 24, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749265/emergency-anesthesia-and-exploratory-laparotomy-in-a-compromised-pacific-white-sided-dolphin-lagenorhynchus-obliquidens
#20
Justin F Rosenberg, Martin Haulena, James E Bailey, Dean A Hendrickson, Marina Ivančić, Stephen A Raverty
Anesthesia and surgery in cetaceans have inherent risks and have rarely been utilized as viable treatment options. This report represents the first known multidisciplinary team approach to emergency laparotomy in a compromised, 22-yr-old, female Pacific white-sided dolphin ( Lagenorhynchus obliquidens ). The inciting clinical signs and ancillary diagnostics were consistent with a mechanical ileus. Although no torsion or obstruction was apparent during surgery, severe enteritis and peritonitis were noted. Postoperatively, the animal was maintained on aggressive medical management with continuous supportive care until succumbing 3 days later with clinical pathology indicative of terminal sepsis and profound inflammation...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
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