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Sophia M SÁnchez, Liat Y Goldstein, Norman O Dronen
Cobbold (1858) established Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 with the description of Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum Cobbold, 1858 from the common harbor porpoise, Phocoena phocoena (Linnaeus) (Phocoenidae), from the North Sea off Scotland. Diphyllobothrium stemmacephalum typically has been reported from a number of Phocoenidae and Delphinidae hosts from a variety of localities: common harbor porpoise from the northern Atlantic Ocean, Baltic Sea and Black sea (e.g. Cobbold, 1858; Delyamure 1955; Delyamure 1968; Delyamure 1971; Delyamure et al...
February 15, 2018: Zootaxa
James G McCormick, Sam H Ridgway
It is important for academic-minded human anesthesiologists to have an interdisciplinary perspective when engaging in cutting-edge research as well as the practice of human anesthesiology. This was a philosophy promoted by Dr. Robert Dripps, former pioneering Chairman of the Anesthesiology Department at the University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania). Many human and veterinary anesthesiologists as well as biomedical engineers and neuroscientists benefited from Dr. Dripps's constructive outlook personified in the quest to develop dolphin anesthesiology...
April 17, 2018: Anesthesiology
Yuan Yuan, Peijun Zhang, Kun Wang, Mingzhong Liu, Jing Li, Jingsong Zheng, Ding Wang, Wenjie Xu, Mingli Lin, Lijun Dong, Chenglong Zhu, Qiang Qiu, Songhai Li
The Yangtze finless porpoise ( Neophocaena asiaeorientalis ssp. asiaeorientalis ) is a subspecies of the narrow-ridged finless porpoise ( N. asiaeorientalis ). In total, 714.28 gigabases (Gb) of raw reads were generated by whole-genome sequencing of the Yangtze finless porpoise, using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. After filtering the low-quality and duplicated reads, we assembled a draft genome of 2.22 Gb, with contig N50 and scaffold N50 values of 46.69 kilobases (kb) and 1.71 megabases (Mb), respectively...
April 16, 2018: Genes
Thomas M Galligan, Lori H Schwacke, Dorian S Houser, Randall S Wells, Teri Rowles, Ashley S P Boggs
Systemic steroid hormone measurements are often used in the assessment of reproductive, developmental, and stress physiology in vertebrates. In protected wildlife, such as the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), these measures can provide critical information about health and fitness to aid in effective conservation and management. Circulating steroid hormone concentrations are typically measured by immunoassays, which have imperfect specificity and are limited to the measurement of a single hormone per assay...
April 5, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Amanda Lury Yamashita, Lilian Cristina Vessoni Iwaki, Gustavo Nascimento de Souza Pinto, Bárbara Aline Gerke, Mariliani Chicarelli, Liogi Iwaki Filho
PURPOSE: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of two-dimensional (2D) virtual surgical planning (VSP) of pharyngeal airway space (PAS) in patients submitted to bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. METHODS: This study was conducted with lateral cephalograms acquired through cone-beam computed tomography records of 33 patients, divided into group 1-patients submitted to maxillary advancement and mandibular setback (n = 17) and group 2-patients submitted to maxillomandibular advancement (n = 16)...
April 5, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Wen-Ta Li, Hui-Wen Chang, Wei-Cheng Yang, Chieh Lo, Lei-Ya Wang, Victor Fei Pang, Meng-Hsien Chen, Chian-Ren Jeng
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been extensively used and are considered as an emerging contaminant in the ocean. The environmental contamination of AgNPs is expected to increase greatly over time, and cetaceans, as the top ocean predators, will suffer the negative impacts of AgNPs. In the present study, we investigate the immunotoxicity of AgNPs on the leukocytes of cetaceans using several methods, including cytomorphology, cytotoxicity, and functional activity assays. The results reveal that 20 nm Citrate-AgNPs (C-AgNP20 ) induce different cytomorphological alterations and intracellular distributions in cetacean polymorphonuclear cells (cPMNs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (cPBMCs)...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Simona Sacchini, Manuel Arbelo, Cristiano Bombardi, Antonio Fernández, Bruno Cozzi, Yara Bernaldo de Quirós, Pedro Herráez
The locus coeruleus (LC) is the largest catecholaminergic nucleus and extensively projects to widespread areas of the brain and spinal cord. The LC is the largest source of noradrenaline in the brain. To date, the only examined Delphinidae species for the LC has been a bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus). In our experimental series including different Delphinidae species, the LC was composed of five subdivisions: A6d, A6v, A7, A5, and A4. The examined animals had the A4 subdivision, which had not been previously described in the only Delphinidae in which this nucleus was investigated...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xuming Zhou, Di Sun, Xuanmin Guang, Siming Ma, Xiaodong Fang, Marco Mariotti, Rasmus Nielsen, Vadim N Gladyshev, Guang Yang
Cetaceans (whales, dolphins, and porpoises) are a group of specialized mammals that evolved from terrestrial ancestors and are fully adapted to aquatic habitats. Taking advantage of the recently sequenced finless porpoise genome, we conducted comparative analyses of the genomes of seven cetaceans and related terrestrial species to provide insight into the molecular bases of adaptation of these aquatic mammals. Changes in gene sequences were identified in main lineages of cetaceans, offering an evolutionary picture of cetacean genomes that reveal new pathways that could be associated with adaptation to aquatic lifestyle...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Mohamed Bazina, Lucia Cevidanes, Antonio Ruellas, Manish Valiathan, Faisal Quereshy, Ali Syed, Rongning Wu, J Martin Palomo
INTRODUCTION: Superimposition of 2 cone-beam computed tomography images is possible by using landmarks, surfaces, or density information (voxel-based). Voxel-based superimposition is automated and uses the most image content, providing accurate results. Until recently, this superimposition was extremely laborious, but a user-friendly voxel-based superimposition has recently been introduced. Our aim was to evaluate the precision and reliability of Dolphin 3-dimensional voxel-based superimposition (Dolphin Imaging, Chatsworth, Calif)...
April 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Adam Rufa, Katherine Beissner, Michelle Dolphin
INTRODUCTION: Chronic pain due to musculoskeletal disorders is the leading cause of disability among older adults and is associated with a lower quality of life, reduced function, and increased risk of institutionalization. Pain Neuroscience Education (PNE) has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing pain and improving pain self-efficacy in individuals under 60 years of age, but there is a paucity of research examining its use with older adults. If PNE has similar effects in older adults, it has the potential to be a useful non-pharmacological intervention for this population...
March 30, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Savrina F Carrizo, Sonja C Jähnig, Vanessa Bremerich, Jörg Freyhof, Ian Harrison, Fengzhi He, Simone D Langhans, Klement Tockner, Christiane Zarfl, William Darwall
Freshwater biodiversity is highly threatened and is decreasing more rapidly than its terrestrial or marine counterparts; however, freshwaters receive less attention and conservation investment than other ecosystems do. The diverse group of freshwater megafauna, including iconic species such as sturgeons, river dolphins, and turtles, could, if promoted, provide a valuable tool to raise awareness and funding for conservation. We found that freshwater megafauna inhabit every continent except Antarctica, with South America, Central Africa, and South and Southeast Asia being particularly species rich...
October 1, 2017: Bioscience
Kátia R Groch, Josué Díaz-Delgado, Carlos Sacristán, Denyiélim E Oliveira, Gabriela Souza, Angélica M Sánchez-Sarmiento, Samira Costa-Silva, Juliana Marigo, Pedro V Castilho, Marta J Cremer, Aline Rodrigues Hoffmann, Fernando Esperón, José L Catão-Dias
We report the gross and microscopic findings and molecular identification of 2 cases of hyphate fungal infection in cetaceans from Brazil. The first case involved an adult male Atlantic spotted dolphin Stenella frontalis with localized pulmonary disease characterized by pyogranulomatous and necrotizing bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae. The second case involved an adult male Bryde's whale Balaenoptera edeni with orchitis, periorchitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis and pyogranulomatous bronchopneumonia with intralesional hyphae...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Eric A Ramos, Delma N Castelblanco-Martínez, Jazmin Garcia, Jorge Rojas Arias, James R Foley, Katherina Audley, Koen Van Waerebeek, Marie-Françoise Van Bressem
Lobomycosis and lobomycosis-like diseases (LLD) (also: paracoccidioidomycosis) are chronic cutaneous infections that affect Delphinidae in tropical and subtropical regions worldwide. In the Americas, these diseases have been relatively well-described, but gaps still exist in our understanding of their distribution across the continent. Here we report on LLD affecting inshore bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from the Caribbean waters of Belize and from the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off the southwestern coast of Mexico...
March 22, 2018: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Francisco Javier Aznar, Jesús Servando Hernández-Orts, Gabriela Vélez-Rubio, Luis M Fernández, Nadia T Muriel, Juan Antonio Raga
BACKGROUND: At present, much research effort has been devoted to investigate overall ("average") responses of parasite populations to specific factors, e.g. density-dependence in fecundity or mortality. However, studies on parasite populations usually pay little attention to individual variation ("inequality") in reproductive success. A previous study on the acanthocephalan Corynosoma cetaceum in franciscana dolphins, Pontoporia blainvillei, revealed no overall intensity-dependent, or microhabitat effects, on mass and fecundity of worms...
March 21, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Jared R Towers, Muriel J Hallé, Helena K Symonds, Gary J Sutton, Alexandra B Morton, Paul Spong, James P Borrowman, John K B Ford
Infanticide can be an extreme result of sexual conflict that drives selection in species in which it occurs. It is a rarely observed behaviour but some evidence for its occurrence in cetaceans exists in three species of dolphin. Here we describe observations of an adult male killer whale (Orcinus orca) and his post-reproductive mother killing a neonate belonging to an unrelated female from the same population in the North Pacific. This is the first account of infanticide reported in killer whales and the only case committed jointly by an adult male and his mother outside of humans...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Federico Sucunza, Daniel Danilewicz, Marta Cremer, Artur Andriolo, Alexandre N Zerbini
Estimation of visibility bias is critical to accurately compute abundance of wild populations. The franciscana, Pontoporia blainvillei, is considered the most threatened small cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean. Aerial surveys are considered the most effective method to estimate abundance of this species, but many existing estimates have been considered unreliable because they lack proper estimation of correction factors for visibility bias. In this study, helicopter surveys were conducted to determine surfacing-diving intervals of franciscanas and to estimate availability for aerial platforms...
2018: PloS One
Yuji Nakaguchi, Takeshi Oono, Masato Maruyama, Yoshinobu Shimohigashi, Yudai Kai, Yuya Nakamura
In this study, we evaluated the basic performance of the three-dimensional dose verification system COMPASS (IBA Dosimetry). This system is capable of reconstructing 3D dose distributions on the patient anatomy based on the fluence measured using a new transmission detector (Dolphin, IBA Dosimetry) during treatment. The stability of the absolute dose and geometric calibrations of the COMPASS system with the Dolphin detector were investigated for fundamental validation. Furthermore, multileaf collimator (MLC) test patterns and a complicated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plan were used to evaluate the accuracy of the reconstructed dose distributions determined by the COMPASS...
March 12, 2018: Radiological Physics and Technology
Auriane Virgili, Matthieu Authier, Pascal Monestiez, Vincent Ridoux
Despite large efforts, datasets with few sightings are often available for rare species of marine megafauna that typically live at low densities. This paucity of data makes modelling the habitat of these taxa particularly challenging. We tested the predictive performance of different types of species distribution models fitted to decreasing numbers of sightings. Generalised additive models (GAMs) with three different residual distributions and the presence only model MaxEnt were tested on two megafauna case studies differing in both the number of sightings and ecological niches...
2018: PloS One
Alina Suzann Fichtner, Mohindar Murugesh Karunakaran, Lisa Starick, Richard W Truman, Thomas Herrmann
1-5% of human blood T cells are Vγ9Vδ2 T cells whose T cell receptor (TCR) contain a TRGV9/TRGJP rearrangement and a TRDV2 comprising Vδ2-chain. They respond to phosphoantigens (PAgs) like isopentenyl pyrophosphate or (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl-pyrophosphate (HMBPP) in a butyrophilin 3 (BTN3)-dependent manner and may contribute to the control of mycobacterial infections. These cells were thought to be restricted to primates, but we demonstrated by analysis of genomic databases that TRGV9, TRDV2 , and BTN3 genes coevolved and emerged together with placental mammals...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mario Mardirossian, Natacha Pérébaskine, Monica Benincasa, Stefano Gambato, Sven Hofmann, Paul Huter, Claudia Müller, Kai Hilpert, C Axel Innis, Alessandro Tossi, Daniel N Wilson
Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) internalize into susceptible bacteria using specific transporters and interfere with protein synthesis and folding. To date, mammalian PrAMPs have so far been identified only in artiodactyls. Since cetaceans are co-phyletic with artiodactyls, we mined the genome of the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus, leading to the identification of two PrAMPs, Tur1A and Tur1B. Tur1A, which is orthologous to the bovine PrAMP Bac7, is internalized into Escherichia coli, without damaging the membranes, using the inner membrane transporters SbmA and YjiL/MdM...
February 22, 2018: Cell Chemical Biology
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