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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509625/direct-current-stimulation-does-little-to-improve-the-outcome-of-working-memory-training-in-older-adults
#1
Jonna Nilsson, Alexander V Lebedev, Anders Rydström, Martin Lövdén
The promise of transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) as a modulator of cognition has appealed to researchers, media, and the general public. Researchers have suggested that tDCS may increase effects of cognitive training. In this study of 123 older adults, we examined the interactive effects of 20 sessions of anodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex (vs. sham tDCS) and simultaneous working memory training (vs. control training) on change in cognitive abilities. Stimulation did not modulate gains from pre- to posttest on latent factors of either trained or untrained tasks in a statistically significant manner...
May 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474292/brain-activation-upon-ideal-body-media-exposure-and-peer-feedback-in-late-adolescent-girls
#2
Mara van der Meulen, Jolanda Veldhuis, Barbara R Braams, Sabine Peters, Elly A Konijn, Eveline A Crone
Media's prevailing thin-body ideal plays a vital role in adolescent girls' body image development, but the co-occurring impact of peer feedback is understudied. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test media imagery and peer feedback combinations on neural activity related to thin-body ideals. Twenty-four healthy female late adolescents rated precategorized body sizes of bikini models (too thin or normal), directly followed by ostensible peer feedback (too thin or normal)...
May 4, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469018/pleasure-junkies-all-around-why-it-matters-and-why-the-arts-might-be-the-answer-a-biopsychological-perspective
#3
Julia F Christensen
Today's society is pleasure seeking. We expect to obtain pleasurable experiences fast and easily. We are used to hyper-palatable foods and drinks, and we can get pornography, games and gadgets whenever we want them. THE PROBLEM: with this type of pleasure-maximizing choice behaviour we may be turning ourselves into mindless pleasure junkies, handing over our free will for the next dopamine shoot. Pleasure-only activities are fun. In excess, however, such activities might have negative effects on our biopsychological health: they provoke a change in the neural mechanisms underlying choice behaviour...
May 17, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466195/beneficial-neurocognitive-effects-of-transcranial-laser-in-older-adults
#4
Enrique Vargas, Douglas W Barrett, Celeste L Saucedo, Li-Da Huang, Jacob A Abraham, Hirofumi Tanaka, Andreana P Haley, F Gonzalez-Lima
Transcranial infrared laser stimulation (TILS) at 1064 nm, 250 mW/cm(2) has been proven safe and effective for increasing neurocognitive functions in young adults in controlled studies using photobiomodulation of the right prefrontal cortex. The objective of this pilot study was to determine whether there is any effect from TILS on neurocognitive function in older adults with subjective memory complaint at risk for cognitive decline (e.g., increased carotid artery intima-media thickness or mild traumatic brain injury)...
May 2, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402568/how-real-life-health-messages-engage-our-brains-shared-processing-of-effective-anti-alcohol-videos
#5
Martin A Imhof, Ralf Schmälzle, Britta Renner, Harald T Schupp
Health communication via mass media is an important strategy when targeting risky drinking, but many questions remain about how health messages are processed and how they unfold their effects within receivers. Here we examine how the brains of young adults - a key target group for alcohol prevention - 'tune in' to real-life health prevention messages about risky alcohol use. In a first study, a large sample of authentic public service announcements (PSAs) targeting the risks of alcohol was characterized using established measures of message effectiveness...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035636/neuromodulation-can-reduce-aggressive-behavior-elicited-by-violent-video-games
#6
Paolo Riva, Alessandro Gabbiadini, Leonor J Romero Lauro, Luca Andrighetto, Chiara Volpato, Brad J Bushman
Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games...
December 29, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965597/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-effects-on-athletes-cognitive-performance-an-exploratory-proof-of-concept-trial
#7
Davimar M M Borducchi, July Silveira Gomes, Henrique Akiba, Quirino Cordeiro, José Henrique M Borducchi, Lívia Stocco Sanches Valentin, Gabrielle M Borducchi, Álvaro Machado Dias
Among the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games' unforgettable moments, one could not overlook performances by Phelps and Bolt, which challenge old premises about the maximum extension of individual supremacism in ultracompetitive modalities and the doping scandals. Different media channels resonated these two trends, with an unseen rise on discussions about traits and practices that may set ultrahigh performance athletes apart from the more ordinary ones. Yet, some key issues remain undebated. This paper aims to add to this debate, with a proof of concept trial, which investigates whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may serve as an aid for professional athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27347337/effects-of-propofol-on-the-dopamine-metabolites-and-gabaa-receptors-in-media-prefrontal-cortex-in-freely-moving-rats
#8
Yuan Wang, Tian Yu, Chengdong Yuan, Jie Yuan, Zhuxin Luo, Yunchao Pan, Yi Zhang, Yu Zhang, Buwei Yu
Recent researches indicate that the mechanism of anesthetic induce loss of consciousness (LOC) is related to dopamine dysfunction in the media prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Given GABAA receptors are the main target for commonly intravenous anesthetic propofol, in this study, we test whether that propofol induced LOC mediate by GABAA receptors in mPFC through altering the dopamine and its metabolites. In the present study, we use Loss of righting reflex (LORR) and Recovery of righting reflex (RORR) as measure to respectively reflect the status of unconsciousness and consciousness recovery in rats...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26948055/sharing-self-related-information-is-associated-with-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-cortical-midline-brain-regions
#9
Dar Meshi, Loreen Mamerow, Evgeniya Kirilina, Carmen Morawetz, Daniel S Margulies, Hauke R Heekeren
Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants' degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use...
March 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26400858/functional-brain-imaging-predicts-public-health-campaign-success
#10
Emily B Falk, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Steven Tompson, Richard Gonzalez, Sonya Dal Cin, Victor Strecher, Kenneth Michael Cummings, Lawrence An
Mass media can powerfully affect health decision-making. Pre-testing through focus groups or surveys is a standard, though inconsistent, predictor of effectiveness. Converging evidence demonstrates that activity within brain systems associated with self-related processing can predict individual behavior in response to health messages. Preliminary evidence also suggests that neural activity in small groups can forecast population-level campaign outcomes. Less is known about the psychological processes that link neural activity and population-level outcomes, or how these predictions are affected by message content...
February 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26336909/clinical-and-neural-effects-of-six-week-administration-of-oxytocin-on-core-symptoms-of-autism
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Takamitsu Watanabe, Miho Kuroda, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Yuta Aoki, Norichika Iwashiro, Natsubori Tatsunobu, Hidemasa Takao, Yasumasa Nippashi, Yuki Kawakubo, Akira Kunimatsu, Kiyoto Kasai, Hidenori Yamasue
Autism spectrum disorder is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with no established pharmacological treatment for its core symptoms. Although previous literature has shown that single-dose administration of oxytocin temporally mitigates autistic social behaviours in experimental settings, it remains in dispute whether such potentially beneficial responses in laboratories can result in clinically positive effects in daily life situations, which are measurable only in long-term observations of individuals with the developmental disorder undergoing continual oxytocin administration...
November 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26280313/-unfocus-on-foc-us-commercial-tdcs-headset-impairs-working-memory
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laura Steenbergen, Roberta Sellaro, Bernhard Hommel, Ulman Lindenberger, Simone Kühn, Lorenza S Colzato
In this study, we tested whether the commercial transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) headset foc.us improves cognitive performance, as advertised in the media. A single-blind, sham-controlled, within-subject design was used to assess the effect of online and off-line foc.us tDCS-applied over the prefrontal cortex in healthy young volunteers (n = 24) on working memory (WM) updating and monitoring. WM updating and monitoring, as assessed by means of the N-back task, is a cognitive-control process that has been shown to benefit from interventions with CE-certified tDCS devices...
March 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26252933/altered-brain-reactivity-to-game-cues-after-gaming-experience
#13
Hyeon Min Ahn, Hwan Jun Chung, Sang Hee Kim
Individuals who play Internet games excessively show elevated brain reactivity to game-related cues. This study attempted to test whether this elevated cue reactivity observed in game players is a result of repeated exposure to Internet games. Healthy young adults without a history of excessively playing Internet games were recruited, and they were instructed to play an online Internet game for 2 hours/day for five consecutive weekdays. Two control groups were used: the drama group, which viewed a fantasy TV drama, and the no-exposure group, which received no systematic exposure...
August 2015: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26211645/regulation-of-intermittent-hypoxia-on-brain-dopamine-in-amphetaminized-rats
#14
Po-Ling Yu, Shu-Yun Cheng, Jou-Chun Chou, Wynn H T Pan, Shyi-Wu Wang, Paulus S Wang
We investigated intermittent hypoxia (IH) on dopamine (DA) release in rat brain treated with or without amphetamine (AMPH). Rats were divided into four groups including normoxia, IH, AMPH, and AMPH + IH treatments. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected and the DA levels were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plasma prolactin (PRL) concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). We found that IH reduced basal DA concentration in media prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased that in striatum, where DA level was also increased in rats treated with AMPH or AMPH + IH...
August 31, 2015: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26001387/improving-response-inhibition-systems-in-frontotemporal-dementia-with-citalopram
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Laura E Hughes, Timothy Rittman, Ralf Regenthal, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Disinhibition is a cardinal feature of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia, presenting as impulsive and impetuous behaviours that are often difficult to manage. The options for symptomatic treatments are limited, but a potential target for therapy is the restoration of serotonergic function, which is both deficient in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and closely associated with inhibitory control. Based on preclinical studies and psychopharmacological interventions in other disorders, we predicted that inhibition would be associated with the right inferior frontal gyrus and dependent on serotonin...
July 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25919973/neurogenetic-and-epigenetic-correlates-of-adolescent-predisposition-to-and-risk-for-addictive-behaviors-as-a-function-of-prefrontal-cortex-dysregulation
#16
REVIEW
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, David E Smith, A Kenison Roy, Zsolt Demetrovics, Frans J Cronjé, John Femino, Gozde Agan, James L Fratantonio, Subhash C Pandey, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population...
May 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25720821/n-acetyl-s-n-n-diethylcarbamoyl-cysteine-in-rat-nucleus-accumbens-medial-prefrontal-cortex-and-in-rat-and-human-plasma-after-disulfiram-administration
#17
Robert D Winefield, Anthonius A M Heemskerk, Swetha Kaul, Todd D Williams, Michael J Caspers, Thomas E Prisinzano, Elinore F McCance-Katz, Craig E Lunte, Morris D Faiman
Disulfiram (DSF), a treatment for alcohol use disorders, has shown some clinical effectiveness in treating addiction to cocaine, nicotine, and pathological gambling. The mechanism of action of DSF for treating these addictions is unclear but it is unlikely to involve the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). DSF is a pro-drug and forms a number of metabolites, one of which is N-acetyl-S-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyl) cysteine (DETC-NAC). Here we describe a LCMS/MS method on a QQQ type instrument to quantify DETC-NAC in plasma and intracellular fluid from mammalian brain...
March 25, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25489985/examination-of-neural-systems-sub-serving-facebook-addiction
#18
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Gui Xue, Lin Xiao, Antoine Bechara
Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli...
December 2014: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25447789/nimodipine-enhances-neurite-outgrowth-in-dopaminergic-brain-slice-co-cultures
#19
Katja Sygnecka, Claudia Heine, Nico Scherf, Mario Fasold, Hans Binder, Christian Scheller, Heike Franke
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play important roles in neuroplasticity and the regeneration of nerves. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations are regulated by Ca(2+) channels, among them L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are inhibited by dihydropyridines like nimodipine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nimodipine on neurite growth during development and regeneration. As an appropriate model to study neurite growth, we chose organotypic brain slice co-cultures of the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and the prefrontal cortex from neonatal rat brains...
February 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25206552/effects-of-task-orientation-on-subsequent-source-memory-as-revealed-by-functional-mri
#20
Xiuyan Guo, Lei Zhu, Li Zheng, Jianqi Li, Qianfeng Wang, Zhiliang Yang
Episodic memories are composed of various interrelated elements, including those specific to items of central interest and those pertaining to related features, such as the color, shape, size, spatial location, temporal order, and media or modalities of presentation. Memory about a core item (such as a word, object, or picture) is called item memory while memory about the context or related fea-tures of a core item is defined as source memory. What determines which sources within an episode are successfully remembered is of particular interest to researchers...
September 15, 2013: Neural Regeneration Research
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