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media prefrontal cortex

Paolo Riva, Alessandro Gabbiadini, Leonor J Romero Lauro, Luca Andrighetto, Chiara Volpato, Brad J Bushman
Research has shown that exposure to violent media increases aggression. However, the neural underpinnings of violent-media-related aggression are poorly understood. Additionally, few experiments have tested hypotheses concerning how to reduce violent-media-related aggression. In this experiment, we focused on a brain area involved in the regulation of aggressive impulses-the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC). We tested the hypothesis that brain polarization through anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over rVLPFC reduces aggression related to violent video games...
December 29, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Davimar M M Borducchi, July Silveira Gomes, Henrique Akiba, Quirino Cordeiro, José Henrique M Borducchi, Lívia Stocco Sanches Valentin, Gabrielle M Borducchi, Álvaro Machado Dias
Among the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games' unforgettable moments, one could not overlook performances by Phelps and Bolt, which challenge old premises about the maximum extension of individual supremacism in ultracompetitive modalities and the doping scandals. Different media channels resonated these two trends, with an unseen rise on discussions about traits and practices that may set ultrahigh performance athletes apart from the more ordinary ones. Yet, some key issues remain undebated. This paper aims to add to this debate, with a proof of concept trial, which investigates whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may serve as an aid for professional athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Yuan Wang, Tian Yu, Chengdong Yuan, Jie Yuan, Zhuxin Luo, Yunchao Pan, Yi Zhang, Yu Zhang, Buwei Yu
Recent researches indicate that the mechanism of anesthetic induce loss of consciousness (LOC) is related to dopamine dysfunction in the media prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Given GABAA receptors are the main target for commonly intravenous anesthetic propofol, in this study, we test whether that propofol induced LOC mediate by GABAA receptors in mPFC through altering the dopamine and its metabolites. In the present study, we use Loss of righting reflex (LORR) and Recovery of righting reflex (RORR) as measure to respectively reflect the status of unconsciousness and consciousness recovery in rats...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Dar Meshi, Loreen Mamerow, Evgeniya Kirilina, Carmen Morawetz, Daniel S Margulies, Hauke R Heekeren
Human beings are social animals and they vary in the degree to which they share information about themselves with others. Although brain networks involved in self-related cognition have been identified, especially via the use of resting-state experiments, the neural circuitry underlying individual differences in the sharing of self-related information is currently unknown. Therefore, we investigated the intrinsic functional organization of the brain with respect to participants' degree of self-related information sharing using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging and self-reported social media use...
March 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Emily B Falk, Matthew Brook O'Donnell, Steven Tompson, Richard Gonzalez, Sonya Dal Cin, Victor Strecher, Kenneth Michael Cummings, Lawrence An
Mass media can powerfully affect health decision-making. Pre-testing through focus groups or surveys is a standard, though inconsistent, predictor of effectiveness. Converging evidence demonstrates that activity within brain systems associated with self-related processing can predict individual behavior in response to health messages. Preliminary evidence also suggests that neural activity in small groups can forecast population-level campaign outcomes. Less is known about the psychological processes that link neural activity and population-level outcomes, or how these predictions are affected by message content...
February 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Takamitsu Watanabe, Miho Kuroda, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Yuta Aoki, Norichika Iwashiro, Natsubori Tatsunobu, Hidemasa Takao, Yasumasa Nippashi, Yuki Kawakubo, Akira Kunimatsu, Kiyoto Kasai, Hidenori Yamasue
Autism spectrum disorder is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with no established pharmacological treatment for its core symptoms. Although previous literature has shown that single-dose administration of oxytocin temporally mitigates autistic social behaviours in experimental settings, it remains in dispute whether such potentially beneficial responses in laboratories can result in clinically positive effects in daily life situations, which are measurable only in long-term observations of individuals with the developmental disorder undergoing continual oxytocin administration...
November 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Laura Steenbergen, Roberta Sellaro, Bernhard Hommel, Ulman Lindenberger, Simone Kühn, Lorenza S Colzato
In this study, we tested whether the commercial transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) headset improves cognitive performance, as advertised in the media. A single-blind, sham-controlled, within-subject design was used to assess the effect of online and off-line tDCS-applied over the prefrontal cortex in healthy young volunteers (n = 24) on working memory (WM) updating and monitoring. WM updating and monitoring, as assessed by means of the N-back task, is a cognitive-control process that has been shown to benefit from interventions with CE-certified tDCS devices...
March 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Hyeon Min Ahn, Hwan Jun Chung, Sang Hee Kim
Individuals who play Internet games excessively show elevated brain reactivity to game-related cues. This study attempted to test whether this elevated cue reactivity observed in game players is a result of repeated exposure to Internet games. Healthy young adults without a history of excessively playing Internet games were recruited, and they were instructed to play an online Internet game for 2 hours/day for five consecutive weekdays. Two control groups were used: the drama group, which viewed a fantasy TV drama, and the no-exposure group, which received no systematic exposure...
August 2015: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Po-Ling Yu, Shu-Yun Cheng, Jou-Chun Chou, Wynn H T Pan, Shyi-Wu Wang, Paulus S Wang
We investigated intermittent hypoxia (IH) on dopamine (DA) release in rat brain treated with or without amphetamine (AMPH). Rats were divided into four groups including normoxia, IH, AMPH, and AMPH + IH treatments. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was collected and the DA levels were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The plasma prolactin (PRL) concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). We found that IH reduced basal DA concentration in media prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but increased that in striatum, where DA level was also increased in rats treated with AMPH or AMPH + IH...
August 31, 2015: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Laura E Hughes, Timothy Rittman, Ralf Regenthal, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Disinhibition is a cardinal feature of the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia, presenting as impulsive and impetuous behaviours that are often difficult to manage. The options for symptomatic treatments are limited, but a potential target for therapy is the restoration of serotonergic function, which is both deficient in behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and closely associated with inhibitory control. Based on preclinical studies and psychopharmacological interventions in other disorders, we predicted that inhibition would be associated with the right inferior frontal gyrus and dependent on serotonin...
July 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Kenneth Blum, Marcelo Febo, David E Smith, A Kenison Roy, Zsolt Demetrovics, Frans J Cronjé, John Femino, Gozde Agan, James L Fratantonio, Subhash C Pandey, Rajendra D Badgaiyan, Mark S Gold
As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population...
May 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Robert D Winefield, Anthonius A M Heemskerk, Swetha Kaul, Todd D Williams, Michael J Caspers, Thomas E Prisinzano, Elinore F McCance-Katz, Craig E Lunte, Morris D Faiman
Disulfiram (DSF), a treatment for alcohol use disorders, has shown some clinical effectiveness in treating addiction to cocaine, nicotine, and pathological gambling. The mechanism of action of DSF for treating these addictions is unclear but it is unlikely to involve the inhibition of liver aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2). DSF is a pro-drug and forms a number of metabolites, one of which is N-acetyl-S-(N,N-diethylcarbamoyl) cysteine (DETC-NAC). Here we describe a LCMS/MS method on a QQQ type instrument to quantify DETC-NAC in plasma and intracellular fluid from mammalian brain...
March 25, 2015: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Gui Xue, Lin Xiao, Antoine Bechara
Because addictive behaviors typically result from violated homeostasis of the impulsive (amygdala-striatal) and inhibitory (prefrontal cortex) brain systems, this study examined whether these systems sub-serve a specific case of technology-related addiction, namely Facebook "addiction." Using a go/no-go paradigm in functional MRI settings, the study examined how these brain systems in 20 Facebook users (M age = 20.3 yr., SD = 1.3, range = 18-23) who completed a Facebook addiction questionnaire, responded to Facebook and less potent (traffic sign) stimuli...
December 2014: Psychological Reports
Katja Sygnecka, Claudia Heine, Nico Scherf, Mario Fasold, Hans Binder, Christian Scheller, Heike Franke
Calcium ions (Ca(2+)) play important roles in neuroplasticity and the regeneration of nerves. Intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations are regulated by Ca(2+) channels, among them L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels, which are inhibited by dihydropyridines like nimodipine. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of nimodipine on neurite growth during development and regeneration. As an appropriate model to study neurite growth, we chose organotypic brain slice co-cultures of the mesocortical dopaminergic projection system, consisting of the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra and the prefrontal cortex from neonatal rat brains...
February 2015: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Xiuyan Guo, Lei Zhu, Li Zheng, Jianqi Li, Qianfeng Wang, Zhiliang Yang
Episodic memories are composed of various interrelated elements, including those specific to items of central interest and those pertaining to related features, such as the color, shape, size, spatial location, temporal order, and media or modalities of presentation. Memory about a core item (such as a word, object, or picture) is called item memory while memory about the context or related fea-tures of a core item is defined as source memory. What determines which sources within an episode are successfully remembered is of particular interest to researchers...
September 15, 2013: Neural Regeneration Research
Chun-Xia Li, Sudeep Patel, Danny J J Wang, Xiaodong Zhang
The effect of high dose isoflurane on cerebral blood flow (CBF) was investigated in adult macaque monkeys receiving 1% to 2% isoflurane with the pseudo continuous arterial-spin-labeling (pCASL) MRI technique. High concentration (2%) of isoflurane resulted in significant increase in the mean CBF of the global, cortical, subcortical regions and the regional CBF in all subcortical structures and most cortical structures (such as motor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, but not media prefrontal cortex). In addition, the changes of regional CBF in the affected regions correlated linearly with increasing isoflurane concentrations...
September 2014: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Natalia V Malkova, Joseph J Gallagher, Collin Z Yu, Russell E Jacobs, Paul H Patterson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for schizophrenia in offspring. In rodent models, maternal immune activation (MIA) yields offspring with schizophrenia-like behaviors. None of these behaviors are, however, specific to schizophrenia. The presence of hallucinations is a key diagnostic symptom of schizophrenia. In mice, this symptom can be defined as brain activation in the absence of external stimuli, which can be mimicked by administration of hallucinogens. We find that, compared with controls, adult MIA offspring display an increased stereotypical behavioral response to the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), an agonist for serotonin receptor 2A (5-HT2AR)...
June 17, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Tom A Hummer, William G Kronenberger, Yang Wang, Caitlin C Anderson, Vincent P Mathews
Prior research has indicated that self-reported violent media exposure is associated with poorer performance on some neuropsychological tests in adolescents. This study aimed to examine the relationship of executive functioning to violent television viewing in healthy young adult males and examine how brain structure is associated with media exposure measures. Sixty-five healthy adult males (ages 18-29) with minimal video game experience estimated their television viewing habits over the past year and, during the subsequent week, recorded television viewing time and characteristics in a daily media diary...
July 2014: Brain and Cognition
Rebecca Chamberlain, I Chris McManus, Nicola Brunswick, Qona Rankin, Howard Riley, Ryota Kanai
Structural brain differences in relation to expertise have been demonstrated in a number of domains including visual perception, spatial navigation, complex motor skills and musical ability. However no studies have assessed the structural differences associated with representational skills in visual art. As training artists are inclined to be a heterogeneous group in terms of their subject matter and chosen media, it was of interest to investigate whether there would be any consistent changes in neural structure in response to increasing representational drawing skill...
August 1, 2014: NeuroImage
Jiagui Qu, Joshua D Rizak, Yaodong Fan, Xiaoxuan Guo, Jiejing Li, Tanzeel Huma, Yuanye Ma
This paper outlines the establishment of a new and stable cell line, designated GBM-HSF, from a malignant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) removed from a 65-year-old Chinese woman. This cell line has been grown for 1 year without disruption and has been passaged over 50 times. The cells were adherently cultured in RPMI-1640 media with 10% fetal bovine serum supplementation. Cells displayed spindle and polygonal morphology, and displayed multi-layered growth without evidence of contact inhibition. The cell line had a high growth rate with a doubling time of 51 h...
July 2014: Human Cell
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