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Andrew Zikic, Holger Schünemann, Teodora Wi, Ornella Lincetto, Nathalie Broutet, Nancy Santesso
Background: With the continued high prevalence of chlamydia worldwide and high risk of transfer from mothers to their infant during delivery, a need for safe and effective therapies for infants who acquire a chlamydial infection remains. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic treatments, including oral erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim, for neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from their inception to July 14, 2017...
July 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous gadobutrol [Gadovist™ (EU); Gadavist® (USA)] is a second-generation, extracellular non-ionic macrocyclic gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) that is approved for use in paediatric (including term neonates) and adult patients undergoing diagnostic contrast-enhanced (CE) MRI for visualization of pathological lesions in all body regions or for CE MRA to evaluate perfusion and flow-related abnormalities. Its unique physicochemical profile, including its high thermostability and proton relaxation times, means that gadobutrol is formulated at twice the gadolinium ion concentration of other GBCAs, resulting in a narrower bolus and consequently, improved dynamic image enhancement...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
Bijan Esmaeilnejad, Mousa Tavassoli, Awat Samiei, Nasser Hajipour
Ovine and caprine malignant theileriosis (OCMT), a critical condition in small ruminant production, causes lethal infections. In September 2016, a total number of 400 goats of Marghoz breed (the largest population of goat breed in Iran), in northwest of Iran, were examined for approximately 25 pre-partum abortions and 7 goats' mortality for a period of 3 days. A dead goat and her aborted fetus were brought into the Urmia Veterinary Hospital for further diagnostic investigations. The microbiological assessments including direct microscopical examination of the vaginal discharges and placentome with respect to the differential staining (Gram's staining method), conventional pure culturing, fetal abomasal contents, and the liver were negative...
July 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Alexandru Tatomir, Cosmin A Tegla, Alvaro Martin, Dallas Boodhoo, Vinh Nguyen, Adam J Sugarman, Armugam Mekala, Freidrich Anselmo, Anamaria Talpos-Caia, Cornelia Cudrici, Tudor C Badea, Violeta Rus, Horea Rus
Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in active demyelinating multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions may impede axonal regeneration and can modify immune reactions. Response gene to complement (RGC)-32 plays an important role in the mediation of TGF-β downstream effects, but its role in gliosis has not been investigated. To gain more insight into the role played by RGC-32 in gliosis, we investigated its involvement in TGF-β-induced ECM expression and the upregulation of the reactive astrocyte markers α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and nestin...
July 13, 2018: Immunologic Research
Hui-Fang Chiu, Michael W Y Chan, Chiung-Yin Cheng, Jian-Liang Chou, Jora Meng-Ju Lin, Yi-Ling Yang, Kwok-Tung Lu
Previous studies showed that neonatal dexamethasone treatment (NDT) transiently impaired hippocampal function in male rats. Hippocampal estrogen receptors (ERs) participate in avoidance learning. As previous studies focused on males only, this study was aimed to investigate the NDT effects on the hippocampal function of female rats. Newborn Wistar female rats were subjected to a tapering dose of dexamethasone (0.5 mg, 0.3 mg, and 0.1 mg/kg, subcutaneously) from postnatal days 1 to 3 and were subjected to experiments at the age of 6 weeks (adolescence)...
July 13, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Maria Victoria Sánchez-Gómez, Mari Paz Serrano, Elena Alberdi, Fernando Pérez-Cerdá, Carlos Matute
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-forming cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and their loss or dysfunction is a hallmark of CNS demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), hypoxic-ischemic demyelination, or spinal cord injury. In the rodent CNS, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) arise in multiple ventral and dorsal locations of the forebrain during late embryogenesis and early postnatal periods. OPCs migrate out from these germinal zones and disperse throughout the CNS, to populate the developing white and gray matter...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Daisy Lin, Jinyang Liu, Zihua Hu, James E Cottrell, Ira S Kass
MicroRNAs (miRNAs), when subjected to environmental stimuli, can exhibit differential expression. As critical regulators of gene expression, differential miRNA expression has been implicated in numerous disorders of the nervous system. In this study, we focused on the effect of a general anesthetic, as an environmental stimulus, on miRNA expression of the developing brain. General anesthetics have potential long-lasting neurotoxic effects on the developing brain, resulting in behavioral changes in adulthood...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mary O'Connell Motherway, Frances O'Brien, Tara O'Driscoll, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Douwe van Sinderen
The non-digestible oligosaccharide fraction of maternal milk represents an important of carbohydrate and energy source for saccharolytic bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal tract during early life. However, not all neonatal bifidobacteria isolates can directly metabolise the complex sialylated, fucosylated, sulphated and/or N-acetylglucosamine-containing oligosaccharide structures present in mothers milk. For some bifidobacterial strains, efficient carbohydrate syntrophy or crossfeeding is key to their establishment in the gut...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lamia Soghier, Billie Lou Short
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
Preterm birth continues to be the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidities that can extend into adult life. Few treatment options stem from our incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of human labor and delivery. Activation of the inflammatory response in gestational tissues by inflammation and/or infection leads to the production of pro-inflammatory and pro-labor mediators, thus preterm birth. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has recently emerged as an important pro-inflammatory transcription factor involved in acute and chronic inflammation...
July 13, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Xiaohua You, Zhi-Fu Guo, Fang Cheng, Bing Yi, Fan Yang, Xinzhu Liu, Ni Zhu, Xianxian Zhao, Guijun Yan, Xin-Liang Ma, Jianxin Sun
The relaxin family peptides have been shown to exert several beneficial effects on the heart, including anti-apoptosis, anti-fibrosis, and anti-hypertrophy activity. Understanding their regulation might provide new opportunities for therapeutic interventions, but the molecular mechanism(s) coordinating relaxin expression in the heart remain largely obscured. Previous work demonstrated a role for the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 in regulating cardiomyocyte apoptosis. We therefore investigated Nur77 in the hopes of identifying novel relaxin regulators...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Greilys Morejón García, Iria García de la Rosa, Ernesto C González Reyes, Anett Rubio Torres, Joel M Quintana Guerra, Milenén Hernández Marín, Pedro L Pérez Mora, Sadys Feal Carballo, Yesdiley Lafita Delfino, Maylín Pupo Infante, Elisa M Castells Martínez, Alik Rosabal Poloshkov, Liliana Hernández Pérez
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the deficiency of one of the five enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of corticosteroids. The most common form of the disease is the lack of 21-hydroxylase which provokes an accumulation of high levels of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), the main biochemical marker for illness detection. Given the significance of neonatal diagnosis for ensuring a timely treatment to patients suffering from CAH, newborn screening is worldwide performed for the determination of 17-OHP from dried blood spots on filter paper...
July 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Cristian M Moreira, Sirley V Pereira, Julio Raba, Franco A Bertolino, Germán A Messina
INTRODUCTION: The PKU is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, in which phenylalanine (Phe) accumulated in the blood causing alterations at the central nervous system. We report a novel paper-based enzymatic platform coupled to screen printed graphene-modified electrode for the neonatal screening of phenylketonuria (PKU0. METHODS: The paper-based analytical device coupled to electrochemical detection (EPAD) is based on the use of paper microzones modified with phenylalanine dehydrogenase enzyme (PheDH)...
July 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Jens Van Den Abeele, Maissa Rayyan, Ilse Hoffman, Els Van de Vijver, Wei Zhu, Patrick Augustijns
This work aimed to (i) expand the dataset on gastric fluid composition in the paediatric population (0-18 years old) and (ii) improve our understanding of age-dependent changes in gastric fluid characteristics involved in gastrointestinal drug disposition. For this purpose, gastric fluids from preterm neonates, term neonates, infants, children and adolescents were collected during routine medical procedures. Gastric fluid constituents relevant for gastrointestinal drug disposition were characterized i.e., pH, osmolality and bile salts (concentration + composition)...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Irene Toldo, Claudia Maria Bonardi, Elisa Bettella, Roberta Polli, Giacomo Talenti, Alberto Burlina, Stefano Sartori, Alessandra Murgia
BACKGROUND: The ALDH7A1 gene is known to be responsible for autosomal recessive pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy (OMIM 266100). The phenotypic spectrum of ALDH7A1 mutations is very heterogeneous ranging from refractory epilepsy and neurodevelopmental delay, to multisystem neonatal disorder. AIM: The present study aims at describing the phenotype associated with a novel homozygous ALDH7A1 mutation and the spectrum of brain malformations associated with pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy...
July 3, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Rita F Tamambang, Tsi Njim, Albertine E Njie, Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Agnès Mafuta, Mesack Tchana, Simeon-Pierre Choukem
OBJECTIVE: Adolescent deliveries remain a public health problem in most developing countries. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence, trends and outcome of adolescent deliveries in an urban setting in Cameroon. We carried out a retrospective register analysis over a 6-year period (January 2010-December 2015) at the Saint Albert Le Grand hospital Douala. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of adolescent deliveries was 8.2% (662 out of 8056). There was a significant decrease over the 6-year period (p-trend: < 0...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Barbara A Jack, Tracy K Mitchell, Mary R O'Brien, Sergio A Silverio, Katherine Knighting
BACKGROUND: Good end-of-life care planning is vital to ensure optimal care is provided for patients and their families. Two key factors are open and honest advance care planning conversations between the patient (where possible), family, and health care professionals, focusing on exploring what their future wishes are; and the development of an advance care plan document. However, in paediatric and neonatal settings, there has been little research to demonstrate how advance care planning conversations take place...
July 13, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Michele Losurdo, Giulia Dowgier, Maria Stella Lucente, Mario Cinone, Michele Camero, Maria Loredana Colaianni, Giuseppe Passantino, Gianluca Ventriglia, Domenico Buonavoglia, Nicola Decaro
The long-term shedding of Canine alphaherpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1) by neonatal pups with natural infection is reported. The pups belonged to a litter of 11 pointers of a breeding kennel in southern Italy, 9 of which developed a fatal form of systemic infection, as resulted by the detection of CaHV-1 in internal organs (kidney, liver, lung and brain) of one of this dogs and in the vaginal swab of their mother. The two remaining animals displayed a milder form of disease, with one pup showing ocular involvement, and underwent a progressive recovery...
July 6, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
John E Krzeczkowski, Louis A Schmidt, Calan Savoy, Saroj Saigal, Ryan J Van Lieshout
OBJECTIVE: Extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) survivors are exposed to significant perinatal adversity. In many cases, mothers of these infants receive antenatal corticosteroids (ACS), which reduce offspring neonatal mortality but may have lasting neuropsychiatric effects. However, the long-term neurophysiological effects of being born at ELBW and exposed to ACS are unknown. METHODS: We compared resting frontal electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha asymmetry in ELBW survivors (n = 51), some of whom were exposed to antenatal corticosteroids (ELBW-S; n = 23) versus non-exposed (ELBW-NS; n = 28), and normal birth weight controls (NBW; n = 66) in adulthood (mage  = 32...
June 22, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Mineshi Sakamoto, Nozomi Tatsuta, Hing Man Chan, José L Domingo, Katsuyuki Murata, Kunihiko Nakai
Fetuses and neonates are known to be highly susceptible to methylmercury (MeHg) toxicity, but little is known about the relative uptake of MeHg from blood to the developing brain. We measured time-course changes in mercury (Hg) concentrations in the brain of fetal, neonate, weanling, and adult rats after an injection of 0.08 μg (0.4 nmol) Hg/g MeHg. In the prenatal experiment, MeHg was subcutaneously injected to pregnant dams on embryonic days 17, 18, 18.5, 19, 19.5, or 20, and Hg concentrations in tissues were measured in both mothers and fetuses on embryonic day 21 (1 day before parturition)...
July 5, 2018: Environmental Research
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