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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641405/biotransformation-of-ferulic-acid-to-protocatechuic-acid-by-corynebacterium-glutamicum-atcc-21420-engineered-to-express-vanillate-o-demethylase
#1
Naoko Okai, Takaya Masuda, Yasunobu Takeshima, Kosei Tanaka, Ken-Ichi Yoshida, Masanori Miyamoto, Chiaki Ogino, Akihiko Kondo
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, FA) is a lignin-derived phenolic compound abundant in plant biomass. The utilization of FA and its conversion to valuable compounds is desired. Protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, PCA) is a precursor of polymers and plastics and a constituent of food. A microbial conversion system to produce PCA from FA was developed in this study using a PCA-producing strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum F (ATCC 21420). C. glutamicum strain F grown at 30 °C for 48 h utilized 2 mM each of FA and vanillic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, VA) to produce PCA, which was secreted into the medium...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637316/incorporating-comparative-genomics-into-the-design-test-learn-cycle-of-microbial-strain-engineering
#2
Maria Sardi, Audrey P Gasch
Engineering microbes with new properties is an important goal in industrial engineering, to establish biological factories for production of biofuels, commodity chemicals, and pharmaceutics. But engineering microbes to produce new compounds with high yield remains a major challenge toward economically viable production. Incorporating several modern approaches, including synthetic and systems biology, metabolic modeling, and regulatory rewiring have proven to significantly advance industrial strain engineering...
June 16, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636321/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-induce-lysogenic-bacteriophage-and-metal-resistance-genes-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#3
Jianhua Guo, Shu-Hong Gao, Ji Lu, Philip L Bond, Willy Verstraete, Zhiguo Yuan
The intensive use of metal-based nanoparticles results in their continuous release into the environment, leading to potential risks for human health and microbial ecosystems. Although previous studies have indicated that nanoparticles may be toxic to microorganisms, there is a scarcity of data available to assess the underlying molecular mechanisms of inhibitory and biocidal effects of nanoparticles on microorganisms. This study used physiological experiments, microscopy, Live/Dead staining and the genome-wide RNA sequencing to investigate the multiple responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the exposure of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs)...
June 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634470/the-dark-side-of-the-mushroom-spring-microbial-mat-life-in-the-shadow-of-chlorophototrophs-ii-metabolic-functions-of-abundant-community-members-predicted-from-metagenomic-analyses
#4
Vera Thiel, Michael Hügler, David M Ward, Donald A Bryant
Microbial mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin of Yellowstone National Park have been extensively characterized. Previous studies have focused on the chlorophototrophic organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. However, the diversity and metabolic functions of the other portion of the community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are poorly understood. We recently described the diverse but extremely uneven microbial assemblage in the undermat of Mushroom Spring based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequences, which was dominated by Roseiflexus members, filamentous anoxygenic chlorophototrophs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634080/nong-a-constituent-of-the-nonactin-biosynthetic-gene-cluster-regulates-nocardamine-synthesis-in-streptomyces-albus-j1074
#5
Wanki Park, Jung-Kyun Woo, Jongheon Shin, Ki-Bong Oh
Many factors regulate the expression of specialised secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, which have been recognised as important for the discovery of novel microbial natural products. A cosmid library based on genomic DNA of the marine-derived Streptomyces puniceus Act1085 was constructed and screened to identify a short gene cluster similar to the nonactin biosynthetic cluster. The ORFs of the gene cluster isolated had high amino acid sequence identity, from 82% to 96%, with corresponding ORFs of the nonactin biosynthetic gene cluster from S...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633473/experimental-evolution-and-the-adjustment-of-metabolic-strategies-in-lactic-acid-bacteria
#6
Herwig Bachmann, Douwe Molenaar, Filipe Branco Dos Santos, Bas Teusink
Experimental evolution of microbes has gained lots of interest in recent years, mainly due to the ease of strain characterisation through next-generation sequencing. While evolutionary and systems biologists use experimental evolution to address fundamental questions in their respective fields, studies with lactic acid bacteria are often more directed by applied questions. Insight into population and genome dynamics are valuable for experimental design and data interpretation, and it is becoming increasingly apparent how different constraints limit and govern the outcome of microbial adaptation to a selective environment...
June 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632991/uncovering-the-repertoire-of-fungal-secondary-metabolites-from-fleming-s-lab-to-the-international-space-station
#7
Tomasz Boruta
Fungi produce a variety of secondary metabolites (SMs), low-molecular weight compounds associated with many potentially useful biological activities. The examples of biotechnologically relevant fungal metabolites include penicillin, a beta-lactam antibiotic, and lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug. The discovery of pharmaceutical lead compounds within the microbial metabolic pools relies on the selection and biochemical characterization of promising strains. Not all SMs are produced under standard cultivation conditions, hence the uncovering of chemical potential of investigated strains often requires the use of induction strategies to awake the associated biosynthetic genes...
June 20, 2017: Bioengineered
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632895/genome-mining-reveals-high-incidence-of-putative-lipopeptide-biosynthesis-nrps-pks-clusters-containing-fatty-acyl-amp-ligase-genes-in-biofilm-forming-cyanobacteria
#8
Tomáš Galica, Pavel Hrouzek, Jan Mareš
Cyanobacterial lipopeptides exhibit antimicrobial and antifungal bioactivities with potential for use in pharmaceutical research. However, due to their haemolytic activity and cytotoxic effects against human cells, they may pose a health issue if produced in substantial amounts in the environment. In bacteria, lipopeptides can be synthesized via several well-evidenced mechanisms. In one of them, fatty acyl-AMP ligase (FAAL) initiates the biosynthesis by activation of a fatty acyl residue. We have performed a bioinformatic survey of the cyanobacterial genomic information available in the public databases for the presence of FAAL-containing non-ribosomal peptide synthetase/polyketide synthetase (NRPS/PKS) biosynthetic clusters, as a genetic basis for lipopeptide biosynthesis...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631370/microbial-manganese-iii-reduction-fueled-by-anaerobic-acetate-oxidation
#9
Nadia Szeinbaum, Hui Lin, Jay A Brandes, Martial Taillefert, Jennifer B Glass, Thomas J DiChristina
Soluble manganese in the intermediate +III oxidation state (Mn(3+) ) is a newly identified oxidant in anoxic environments, whereas acetate is a naturally abundant substrate that fuels microbial activity. Microbial populations coupling anaerobic acetate oxidation to Mn(3+) reduction, however, have yet to be identified. We isolated a Shewanella strain capable of oxidizing acetate anaerobically with Mn(3+) as the electron acceptor, and confirmed this phenotype in other strains,. This metabolic connection between acetate and soluble Mn(3+) represents a new biogeochemical link between carbon and manganese cycles...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628637/survival-bacterial-clearance-and-thrombocytopenia-are-improved-in-polymicrobial-sepsis-by-targeting-nuclear-transport-shuttles
#10
Ruth Ann Veach, Yan Liu, Jozef Zienkiewicz, Lukasz S Wylezinski, Kelli L Boyd, James L Wynn, Jacek Hawiger
The rising tide of sepsis, a leading cause of death in the US and globally, is not adequately controlled by current antimicrobial therapies and supportive measures, thereby requiring new adjunctive treatments. Severe microvascular injury and multiple organ failure in sepsis are attributed to a "genomic storm" resulting from changes in microbial and host genomes encoding virulence factors and endogenous inflammatory mediators, respectively. This storm is mediated by stress-responsive transcription factors that are ferried to the nucleus by nuclear transport shuttles importins/karyopherins...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626230/engineering-of-obligate-intracellular-bacteria-progress-challenges-and-paradigms
#11
REVIEW
Erin E McClure, Adela S Oliva Chávez, Dana K Shaw, Jason A Carlyon, Roman R Ganta, Susan M Noh, David O Wood, Patrik M Bavoil, Kelly A Brayton, Juan J Martinez, Jere W McBride, Raphael H Valdivia, Ulrike G Munderloh, Joao H F Pedra
It is estimated that approximately one billion people are at risk of infection with obligate intracellular bacteria, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms that govern their life cycles. The difficulty in studying Chlamydia spp., Coxiella spp., Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp. and Orientia spp. is, in part, due to their genetic intractability. Recently, genetic tools have been developed; however, optimizing the genomic manipulation of obligate intracellular bacteria remains challenging...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625995/novel-antibiotic-resistance-determinants-from-agricultural-soil-exposed-to-antibiotics-widely-used-in-human-medicine-and-animal-farming
#12
Calvin Ho-Fung Lau, Kalene van Engelen, Stephen Gordon, Justin Renaud, Edward Topp
Antibiotic resistance has emerged globally as one of the biggest threats to human and animal health. Although the excessive use of antibiotics is recognized for accelerating the selection for resistance, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that natural environments are "hotspots" for the development of both ancient and contemporary resistance mechanisms. Given that pharmaceuticals can be entrained onto agricultural land through anthropogenic activities, this could be a potential driver for the emergence and dissemination of resistance in soil bacteria...
June 16, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625077/microbiome-and-microbial-biofilm-profiles-of-peri-implantitis-a-systematic-review
#13
Gloria Inés Lafaurie, María Alejandra Sabogal, Diana Marcela Castillo, María Victoria Rincón, Luz Amparo Gómez, Yamil Augusto Lesmes, Leandro Chambrone
BACKGROUND: This systematic review assesses the microbiological profiles of peri-implantitis, periodontitis and healthy implants based on studies that evaluated microbial biofilms and entire microbiomes to establish their similarities and differences. METHODS: The Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, via PubMed, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched without language restrictions through July 30, 2016...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624689/from-complex-gut-communities-to-minimal-microbiomes-via-cultivation
#14
REVIEW
Thomas Clavel, Ilias Lagkouvardos, Bärbel Stecher
The mammalian gut microbiota is dominated by populations of bacteria, mostly strict anaerobes. Because these bacteria can influence the health of their host, it is important to investigate their diversity and functions, which can be done via culture-based or molecular approaches. In recent years, microbiologists have very often preferred the use of molecular techniques, as they do not limit the analysis to the fraction of communities that can be grown in the laboratory. In reality, cultivation and molecular methods are complementary, and we are now witnessing a period of unification...
June 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623719/the-crispr-cas-app-goes-viral
#15
REVIEW
Marie-Laurence Lemay, Philippe Horvath, Sylvain Moineau
If biology laboratories were smartphones, CRISPR-Cas would be the leading app. Nowadays, technology users rely on apps to communicate, get directions, entertain, and more. Likewise, many life scientists now rely on CRISPR-Cas systems to study the interactions between microbes and their viruses, to track strains as well as to modify and modulate genomes. Considering their high level of polymorphism, CRISPR arrays can increase the resolution of a microbial typing scheme. As dynamic systems, they allow the identification and the tracking of specific sequences, which is highly valuable for epidemiological studies...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623337/impact-of-module-x2-and-carbohydrate-binding-module-3-on-the-catalytic-activity-of-associated-glycoside-hydrolases-towards-plant-biomass
#16
Nandita Pasari, Nidhi Adlakha, Mayank Gupta, Zeenat Bashir, Girish H Rajacharya, Garima Verma, Manoj Munde, Rakesh Bhatnagar, Syed Shams Yazdani
Cellulolytic enzymes capable of hydrolyzing plant biomass are secreted by microbial cells specifically in response to the carbon substrate present in the environment. These enzymes consist of a catalytic domain, generally appended to one or more non-catalytic Carbohydrate Binding Module (CBM), which enhances their activity towards recalcitrant biomass. In the present study, the genome of a cellulolytic microbe Paenibacillus polymyxa A18 was annotated for the presence of CBMs and analyzed their expression in response to the plant biomass and model polysaccharides Avicel, CMC and xylan using quantitative PCR...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620688/controlling-microbial-phb-synthesis-via-crispri
#17
Dan Li, Li Lv, Jin-Chun Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen
Microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are a family of biopolyesters with properties similar to petroleum plastics such as polyethylene (PE) or polypropylene (PP). Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most common PHA known so far. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats interference (CRISPRi), a technology recently developed to control gene expression levels in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes, was employed to regulate PHB synthase activity influencing PHB synthesis. Recombinant Escherichia coli harboring an operon of three PHB synthesis genes phaCAB cloned from Ralstonia eutropha, was transformed with various single guided RNA (sgRNA with its guide sequence of 20-23 bases) able to bind to various locations of the PHB synthase PhaC, respectively...
June 15, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620315/you-are-what-you-eat-a-genomic-analysis-of-the-gut-microbiome-of-captive-and-wild-octopus-vulgaris-paralarvae-and-their-zooplankton-prey
#18
Álvaro Roura, Stephen R Doyle, Manuel Nande, Jan M Strugnell
The common octopus (Octopus vulgaris) is an attractive species for aquaculture, however, several challenges inhibit sustainable commercial production. Little is known about the early paralarval stages in the wild, including diet and intestinal microbiota, which likely play a significant role in development and vitality of this important life stage. High throughput sequencing was used to characterize the gastrointestinal microbiome of wild O. vulgaris paralarvae collected from two different upwelling regions off the coast of North West Spain (n = 41) and Morocco (n = 35)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619035/an-evolutionary-optimization-of-a-rhodopsin-based-phototrophic-metabolism-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Hyun Aaron Kim, Hyun Ju Kim, Jihoon Park, Ah Reum Choi, Kyoo Heo, Haeyoung Jeong, Kwang-Hwan Jung, Yeong-Jae Seok, Pil Kim, Sang Jun Lee
BACKGROUND: The expression of the Gloeobacter rhodopsin (GR) in a chemotrophic Escherichia coli enables the light-driven phototrophic energy generation. Adaptive laboratory evolution has been used for acquiring desired phenotype of microbial cells and for the elucidation of basic mechanism of molecular evolution. To develop an optimized strain for the artificially acquired phototrophic metabolism, an ancestral E. coli expressing GR was adaptively evolved in a chemostat reactor with constant illumination and limited glucose conditions...
June 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618661/probabilistic-quantitative-microbial-risk-assessment-model-of-norovirus-from-wastewater-irrigated-vegetables-in-ghana-using-genome-copies-and-fecal-indicator-ratio-conversion-for-estimating-exposure-dose
#20
Emmanuel de-Graft Johnson Owusu-Ansah, Angelina Sampson, Samuel K Amponsah, Robert C Abaidoo, Anders Dalsgaard, Tine Hald
The need to replace the commonly applied fecal indicator conversions ratio (an assumption of 1:10(-5) virus to fecal indicator organism) in Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) with models based on quantitative data on the virus of interest has gained prominence due to the different physical and environmental factors that might influence the reliability of using indicator organisms in microbial risk assessment. The challenges facing analytical studies on virus enumeration (genome copies or particles) have contributed to the already existing lack of data in QMRA modelling...
June 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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