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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542091/normative-data-for-critical-speed-and-d-for-high-level-male-rugby-players
#1
Mark Kramer, Ida E Clark, Nick Jamnick, Cody Strom, Robert W Pettitt
The critical speed (CS) concept helps characterize the aerobic and anaerobic fitness of an athlete. Rugby players should hypothetically have modest CS values but extremely high curvature constant (D') values, yet, normative data are currently unavailable. To develop normative data of CS and D' for high-level male rugby players, a total of 30 male rugby players, were recruited from the Eastern Cape of South Africa. All subjects performed the running 3-min all-out exercise test (3 MT) using global positioning system (GPS) technology to determine CS and D'...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533758/fit-to-forgive-effect-of-mode-of-exercise-on-capacity-to-override-grudges-and-forgiveness
#2
C Ward Struthers, Elizabeth van Monsjou, Mariam Ayoub, Joshua R Guilfoyle
Forgiveness is important for repairing relationships that have been damaged by transgressions. In this research we explored the notion that the mode of physical exercise that victims of transgressions engage in and their capacity to override grudges are important in the process of forgiveness. Two exploratory studies that varied in samples (community non-student adults, undergraduate students) and research methods (non-experimental, experimental) were used to test these predictions. Findings showed that, compared to anaerobic or no exercise, aerobic and flexibility exercise facilitated self-control over grudges and forgiveness (Studies 1 and 2), and self-control over grudges explained the relation between exercise and forgiveness (Study 2)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530517/contributions-of-body-composition-characteristics-to-critical-power-and-anaerobic-work-capacity
#3
M Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E Eastman, Brian J Wallace, Jody L Clasey, Haley C Bergstrom
Critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC) from the CP test represent distinct parameters related to metabolic characteristics of the whole body and active muscle tissue, respectively. PURPOSE: This study examined the contribution of whole body composition characteristics and local lean mass to further elucidate the differences in metabolic characteristics between CP and AWC as they relate to whole body and local factors. METHODS: Fifteen, anaerobically trained males were assessed for whole body (% body fat [%BF] and mineral-free, lean mass [LBM]) and local mineral-free thigh lean mass (TLM) composition characteristic...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528994/clinical-significance-of-the-overshoot-phenomena-of-respiratory-gas-indices-during-recovery-from-maximal-exercise-testing
#4
Yuta Takayanagi, Akira Koike, Osamu Nagayama, Arisa Nagamine, Rujie Qin, Jo Kato, Isao Nishi, Tomoko Himi, Yuko Kato, Akira Sato, Takeshi Yamashita, Kazutaka Aonuma
BACKGROUND: Overshoot phenomena of the gas exchange ratio (R:VCO2/VO2), ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE/VO2), and end-tidal O2 pressure (PETO2) are commonly observed during recovery from maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). We investigated the clinical significance of the overshoots of these indices by comparing their magnitudes between healthy subjects and cardiac patients with left ventricular dysfunction. METHODS: In total, 121 subjects (73 healthy subjects and 48 cardiac patients with left ventricular ejection fraction<40%) who underwent CPX and achieved peak R≥1...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527013/central-activation-metabolites-and-calcium-handling-during-fatigue-with-repeated-maximal-isometric-contractions-in-human-muscle
#5
Simeon P Cairns, Luke A G Inman, Caroline P MacManus, Ingrid G L van de Port, Patricia A Ruell, Jeanette M Thom, Martin W Thompson
PURPOSE: To determine the roles of calcium (Ca(2+)) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and central activation impairment (i.e., central fatigue) during fatigue with repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) in human muscles. METHODS: Contractile performance was assessed during 3 min of repeated MVCs (7-s contraction, 3-s rest, n = 17). In ten participants, in vitro SR Ca(2+)-handling, metabolites, and fibre-type composition were quantified in biopsy samples from quadriceps muscle, along with plasma venous [K(+)]...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527012/effect-of-voluntary-hypocapnic-hyperventilation-or-moderate-hypoxia-on-metabolic-and-heart-rate-responses-during-high-intensity-intermittent-exercise
#6
Kohei Dobashi, Naoto Fujii, Kazuhito Watanabe, Bun Tsuji, Yosuke Sasaki, Tomomi Fujimoto, Satoru Tanigawa, Takeshi Nishiyasu
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of voluntary hypocapnic hyperventilation or moderate hypoxia on metabolic and heart rate responses during high-intensity intermittent exercise. METHODS: Ten males performed three 30-s bouts of high-intensity cycling [Ex1 and Ex2: constant-workload at 80% of the power output in the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), Ex3: WAnT] interspaced with 4-min recovery periods under normoxic (Control), hypocapnic or hypoxic (2500 m) conditions...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522658/effect-of-fontan-geometry-on-exercise-haemodynamics-and-its-potential-implications
#7
Elaine Tang, Zhenglun Alan Wei, Kevin K Whitehead, Reza H Khiabani, Maria Restrepo, Lucia Mirabella, James Bethel, Stephen M Paridon, Bradley S Marino, Mark A Fogel, Ajit P Yoganathan
OBJECTIVE: Exercise intolerance afflicts Fontan patients with total cavopulmonary connections (TCPCs) causing a reduction in quality of life. Optimising TCPC design is hypothesised to have a beneficial effect on exercise capacity. This study investigates relationships between TCPC geometries and exercise haemodynamics and performance. METHODS: This study included 47 patients who completed metabolic exercise stress test with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Phase-contrast CMR images were acquired immediately following supine lower limb exercise...
May 18, 2017: Heart: Official Journal of the British Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521272/impact-of-prematurity-on-exercise-capacity-and-agility-of-children-and-youth-aged-8-to-18
#8
Tatjana Robič Pikel, Gregor Starc, Janko Strel, Marjeta Kovač, Janez Babnik, Petra Golja
BACKGROUND: Preterm (PT) birth and low birth mass (LBW) can impair growth and development of children and may therefore affect their physical performance up to adulthood. AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate long-term consequences of prematurity, especially (an)aerobic exercise capacity and agility up to adulthood, by comparing premature and full-term (FT) individuals. STUDY DESIGN, SUBJECTS: From 474 subjects born in 1987, who were enrolled into a longitudinal study, 396 (178 PT and 218 FT (with 127 of them LBW)) were followed-up into their early adulthood...
May 15, 2017: Early Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515794/influence-of-a-home-based-exercise-program-on-the-urine-ph-in-elderly-female-subjects-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yuichiro Nishida, Keitaro Tanaka, Megumi Hara, Noriko Hirao, Hiroaki Tanaka, Takuro Tobina, Masaharu Ikeda, Hiroshi Yamato, Masanori Ohta
BACKGROUND: A low urine pH is a characteristic metabolic feature of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week home-based bench step exercise on the urine pH status of elderly female subjects. METHODS: The current study is a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in which 59 postmenopausal female subjects were randomized to either the exercise group (n = 29) or the control group (n = 30)...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514721/impact-of-gh-administration-on-athletic-performance-in-healthy-young-adults-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-placebo-controlled-trials
#10
REVIEW
Kasper Hermansen, Mads Bengtsen, Michael Kjær, Peter Vestergaard, Jens Otto Lunde Jørgensen
OBJECTIVE: Illicit use of growth hormone (GH) as a performance-enhancing drug among athletes is prevalent, although the evidence of such effects in healthy, young subjects is sparse. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of published studies on the effect of GH administration on body composition, substrate metabolism, and athletic performance in healthy, young subjects. DESIGN: The English-language based databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched, and eligible articles were reviewed in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines...
May 10, 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511689/harnessing-interactive-technologies-to-improve-health-outcomes-in-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Coda, Dean Sculley, Derek Santos, Xavier Girones, Lucie Brosseau, Derek R Smith, Joshua Burns, Keith Rome, Jane Munro, Davinder Singh-Grewal
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) typically have reduced physical activity level and impaired aerobic and anaerobic exercise capacity when compared to their non-JIA counterparts. Low intensity exercise regimens appear to be safe in children with JIA and may results in improvements in overall physical function. Poor adherence to paediatric rheumatology treatment may lead to negative clinical outcomes and possibly increased disease activity. This includes symptoms such as pain, fatigue, quality of life, longer term outcomes including joint damage, as well as increase of healthcare associated costs...
May 16, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511024/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-and-surgery
#12
Paul O Older, Denny Zh Levett
The surgical patient population is increasingly elderly and comorbid and poses challenges to perioperative physicians. Accurate pre-operative risk stratification is important to direct perioperative care. Reduced aerobic fitness is associated with increased post-operative morbidity and mortality. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is an integrated and dynamic test that gives an objective measure of aerobic fitness or functional capacity and identifies the cause of exercise intolerance. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides an individualized estimate of patient risk that can be used to predict post-operative morbidity and mortality...
May 16, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510737/total-haemoglobin-mass-but-not-haemoglobin-concentration-is-associated-with-preoperative-cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-derived-oxygen-consumption-variables
#13
J M Otto, J O M Plumb, D Wakeham, E Clissold, L Loughney, W Schmidt, H E Montgomery, M P W Grocott, T Richards
Background: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) measures peak exertional oxygen consumption ( V˙O2peak ) and that at the anaerobic threshold ( V˙O2 at AT, i.e. the point at which anaerobic metabolism contributes substantially to overall metabolism). Lower values are associated with excess postoperative morbidity and mortality. A reduced haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) results from a reduction in total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) or an increase in plasma volume. Thus, tHb-mass might be a more useful measure of oxygen-carrying capacity and might correlate better with CPET-derived fitness measures in preoperative patients than does circulating [Hb]...
May 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492999/physical-activity-improves-cognition-possible-explanations
#14
REVIEW
Blanka Koščak Tivadar
Good cognitive abilities (CA) enable autonomy, improve social inclusion and act preventively. Regular physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and, at the same time, it reduces the decline of CA and stimulates neurogenesis. So PA in connection with cognitive training, nutrition and social interaction has a positive effect on general CA and the central nervous system, the central executor, memory and attention, and reduces the likelihood of developing dementia. Our objective was to examine which sort and intensity of PA is preferred...
May 10, 2017: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492701/short-term-intensive-training-attenuates-the-exercise-induced-interaction-of-mono-1-2-cells-and-platelets-after-coronary-bypass-in-cardiac-patients
#15
Shu-Chun Huang, Mei-Kuen Wong, Pyng-Jing Lin, Feng-Chun Tsai, Jaw-Ji Chu, Meng-Yu Wu, Tieh-Cheng Fu, Jong-Shyan Wang
The interaction between platelets and monocytes plays a critical role in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated how short-term intensive training (SIT) influences monocyte subset characteristics and exercise-induced monocyte and platelet aggregates (MPAs) following elective coronary bypass (CABG) in cardiac patients. Forty-nine patients hospitalised for CABG were randomised into SIT (N=26) and conventional training (CT, N=23) groups. The SIT subjects underwent supervised aerobic training at 80~120 % of the ventilatory anaerobic threshold based on sub-maximal exercise tests performed 7 days post-CABG for 20 sessions with two sessions/day and 30 min/session, which were completed within four weeks after surgery...
May 11, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488921/sex-differences-in-world-record-performance-the-influence-of-sport-discipline-and-competition-duration
#16
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, we discuss how physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990's, sex differences between the world's best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 15%, and ultra-endurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488137/acute-effects-of-high-intensity-interval-training-and-moderate-intensity-continuous-training-sessions-on-cardiorespiratory-parameters-in-healthy-young-men
#17
Gustavo Zaccaria Schaun, Cristine Lima Alberton, Diego Oliveira Ribeiro, Stephanie Santana Pinto
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after two treadmill protocols, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate continuous training (CONT), in young adult men. METHODS: The sample was comprised by 26 physically active men aged between 18 and 35 years engaged in aerobic training programs. They were divided into two groups: HIIT (n = 14) which performed eight 20 s bouts at 130% of the velocity associated with the maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill with 10 s of passive rest, or CONT (n = 12) which performed 30 min running on a treadmill at a submaximal velocity equivalent to 90-95% of the heart rate associated with the anaerobic threshold...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487241/influence-of-anaerobic-and-aerobic-exercise-on-age-related-pathways-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
Ignacio Navas-Enamorado, Michel Bernier, Gloria Brea-Calvo, Rafael de Cabo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 6, 2017: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486734/relationships-among-the-tethered-3-min-all-out-test-maod-and-swimming-performance
#19
Carlos Augusto Kalva-Filho, Alessandro Moura Zagatto, Adelino S R da Silva, Monique Yndawe Castanho, Ronaldo Bucken Gobbi, Claudio Alexandre Gobatto, Marcelo Papoti
To allow the use of the 3-min all-out parameters for anaerobic evaluation, the aim of the present study was to test its relationships to maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and short/middle distance performances. 9 swimmers (age 19±1 years, height 176.7±6.1 cm and body mass 68.7±6.1 kg) underwent a 3-min all-out test and MAOD procedures (10 submaximal efforts and one exhaustive effort at maximal force attained during a graded exercise test); both were applied using tethered swimming conditions...
May 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479950/the-effects-of-a-10-day-altitude-training-camp-at-1828-meters-on-varsity-cross-country-runners
#20
Sebastian R Diebel, Ian Newhouse, David S Thompson, Vineet B K Johnson
Altitude training has been shown to alter blood lactate (BL) levels due to alterations resulting from acclimatization. This study aims to estimate the impact of altitude training on BL changes immediately following an incremental treadmill test and during recovery before and after 10-day altitude training at approximately 1828 meters. Eight varsity cross-country runners performed an incremental treadmill test (ITT), pre and post-altitude training. Resting and post-warm-up BL values were recorded. During ITT, heart rate (HR), oxygen saturation (SpO2), and time to exhaustion were monitored...
2017: International Journal of Exercise Science
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