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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901314/effects-of-hypoxia-and-hypercapnic-hypoxia-on-oxygen-transport-and-acid-base-status-in-the-atlantic-blue-crab-callinectes-sapidus-during-exercise
#1
Mark P Lehtonen, Louis E Burnett
The responses of estuarine invertebrates to hypoxic conditions are well established. However, many studies have investigated hypoxia as an isolated condition despite its frequent co-occurrence with hypercapnia (elevated CO2 ). Although many studies suggest deleterious effects, hypercapnia has been observed to improve blue crab walking performance in hypoxia. To investigate the physiological effects of combined hypercapnic hypoxia, we measured Po2 , pH, [l-lactate], Pco2 , and total O2 in pre- and postbranchial hemolymph sampled from blue crabs during walking exercise...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872595/redox-mechanism-of-reactive-oxygen-species-in-exercise
#2
REVIEW
Feng He, Juan Li, Zewen Liu, Chia-Chen Chuang, Wenge Yang, Li Zuo
It is well known that regular exercise can benefit health by enhancing antioxidant defenses in the body. However, unaccustomed and/or exhaustive exercise can generate excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to oxidative stress-related tissue damages and impaired muscle contractility. ROS are produced in both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Mitochondria, NADPH oxidases and xanthine oxidases have all been identified as potential contributors to ROS production, yet the exact redox mechanisms underlying exercise-induced oxidative stress remain elusive...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871205/the-effects-of-two-different-swimming-training-periodization-on-physiological-parameters-at-various-exercise-intensities
#3
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, Athanasios Dalamitros, João Ribeiro, Ana Sousa, Ricardo J Fernandes, J Paulo Vilas-Boas
This study analysed the effects of two different periodization strategies on physiological parameters at various exercise intensities in competitive swimmers. Seventeen athletes of both sexes were divided to two groups, the traditional periodization (TPG, n = 7) and the reverse periodization group (RPG, n = 10). Each group followed a 10-week training period based on the two different periodization strategies. Before and after training, swimming velocity (SV), energy expenditure (EE), energy cost (EC) and percentage of aerobic (%Aer) and anaerobic (%An) energy contribution to the swimming intensities corresponding to the aerobic threshold (AerT), the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and the velocity at maximal oxygen uptake (vVO2max) were measured...
November 21, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865723/mechanisms-of-effort-intolerance-in-patients-with-rheumatic-mitral-stenosis-combined-echocardiography-and-cardiopulmonary-stress%C3%A2-protocol
#4
Michal Laufer-Perl, Yaniv Gura, Jason Shimiaie, Jack Sherez, Gregg S Pressman, Galit Aviram, Simon Maltais, Ricki Megidish, Amir Halkin, Meirav Ingbir, Simon Biner, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate mechanisms of effort intolerance in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS). BACKGROUND: Combined stress echocardiography and cardiopulmonary testing allows assessment of cardiac function, hemodynamics, and oxygen extraction (A-Vo2 difference). METHODS: Using semirecumbent bicycle exercise, 20 patients with rheumatic MS (valve area 1.36 ± 0.4 cm(2)) were compared to 20 control subjects at 4 pre-defined activity stages (rest, unloaded, anaerobic threshold, and peak)...
November 10, 2016: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856712/rates-of-performance-loss-and-neuromuscular-activity-in-men-and-women-during-cycling-evidence-for-a-common-metabolic-basis-of-muscle-fatigue
#5
Christopher W Sundberg, Sandra K Hunter, Matthew W Bundle
The durations that muscular force and power outputs can be sustained until failure fall predictably on an exponential decline between an individual's 3-s burst maximum to the maximum performance they can sustain aerobically. The exponential time constants describing these rates of performance loss are similar across individuals suggesting that a common metabolically-based mechanism governs muscle fatigue; however, these conclusions come from studies mainly on men. To test whether the same physiological understanding can be applied to women, we compared the performance-duration relationships and neuromuscular activity between 7 men (23...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849116/reliability-of-salivary-cortisol-and-immunoglobulin-a-measurements-from-the-ipro%C3%A2-before-and-after-sprint-cycling-exercise
#6
Luke A Macdonald, Phillip M Bellinger, Clare L Minahan
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter-day reliability of the IPRO method for determining resting and post-exercise salivary cortisol (sCort) and rate of salivary Immunoglobulin-A (sIgA) secretion. METHODS: Fourteen males (32±11 years) performed two trials (T1 and T2) separated by 7 d, comprising saliva sampling before and 15 min after completion of two, 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Tests separated by 3.5 min (2 x WAnT). sCort increased after the 2 x WAnT in both trials (T1: p<0...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843418/effects-of-acute-carbohydrate-ingestion-on-anaerobic-exercise-performance
#7
Ben M Krings, Jaden A Rountree, Matthew J McAllister, Patrick M Cummings, Timothy J Peterson, Brent J Fountain, JohnEric W Smith
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during endurance exercises has been shown to increase performance, but there is limited research with CHO supplementation during strength and conditioning exercises. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of various levels of CHO ingestion during acute testing sessions requiring participants to complete a strength and conditioning program designed for collegiate athletes. METHODS: Participants (n = 7) performed a series of exercises while ingesting an amino-acid electrolyte control (CON) or CON plus varying levels of CHO...
2016: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832671/exercise-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-in-coronary-disease-training-impulse-or-modalities
#8
P-M Leprêtre, M Ghannem, M Bulvestre, S Ahmaidi, S Delanaud, T Weissland, P Lopes
To compare the effects of 2 short programs with similar training load (TL), based on combined aerobic - resistance training (CT) or aerobic training (AT) on cardiorespiratory responses, 32 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD: 63.8±8.0y, 1.73±0.06 m, 84.8±15.9 kg, Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction: 0.53±0.8) performed 4 weeks of exercise rehabilitation based on CT (n=16) or AT (n=16). Maximal tolerated power (MTP), peak values of oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and heart rate (HRpeak), anaerobic threshold (VT1) were determined during an incremental cycling exercise test before and after training periods...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832062/cardiovascular-fitness-and-energy-expenditure-response-during-a-combined-aerobic-and-circuit-weight-training-protocol
#9
Pedro J Benito, María Alvarez-Sánchez, Víctor Díaz, Esther Morencos, Ana B Peinado, Rocio Cupeiro, Nicola Maffulli
OBJECTIVES: The present study describes the oxygen uptake and total energy expenditure (including both aerobic and anaerobic contribution) response during three different circuit weight training (CWT) protocols of equivalent duration composed of free weight exercises, machine exercises, and a combination of free weight exercises intercalating aerobic exercise. DESIGN: Controlled, randomized crossover designs. METHODS: Subjects completed in a randomized order three circuit weight training protocols of the same duration (3 sets of 8 exercises, 45min 15s) and intensity (70% of 15 repetitions maximum)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810297/small-unrepaired-ventricular-septal-defects-reveal-poor-exercise-capacity-compared-with-healthy-peers-a-prospective-cohort-study
#10
Marie Maagaard, Johan Heiberg, Vibeke E Hjortdal
BACKGROUND: Small ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are considered to be without hemodynamic influence and most remain unrepaired. However, studies recently described late cardiac adverse consequences that could potentially affect functional capacity. Yet, this has never been assessed in adulthood. Therefore, the aim was to determine peak exercise capacity in adults with small VSDs compared with healthy, matched controls. METHODS: In a prospective, cohort study we included patients with unrepaired VSDs and healthy controls, (age 18 to 40years)...
October 29, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806005/effect-of-1-rm-80-rm-and-50-rm-strength-exercise-in-trained-individuals-on-variations-in-plasma-redox-biomarkers
#11
Tatiana G Polotow, Tácito P Souza-Junior, Ricardo C Sampaio, Alexandre R Okuyama, Douglas Ganini, Cristina V Vardaris, Ragami C Alves, Steven R McAnulty, Marcelo P Barros
For decades, scientists have examined the participation of oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in anaerobic-like exercises, especially weight lifting and resistance exercises. The balance between the production of oxyradicals and antioxidant responses during anaerobic-like exercises is essential to assure adaptation to the physiological benefits of strength training and to prevent chronic harmful effects. The aim of this study is to examine the hypothesis that different weight loads (1-RM, 80%RM, and 50%RM) lifted until exhaustion could impose distinct oxidative insults and elicit diverse antioxidant responses in plasma of young trained subjects...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792217/recreational-football-training-improved-health-related-physical-fitness-in-9-to-10-year-old-boys
#12
Jin Wang, Liquan Cao, Pengfei Xie, Jianxiong Wang
BACKGROUND: Recreational football is an aerobic/anaerobic intermittent sport with altering exercise periods at high or low intensity. Various football drills and body movement in this exercise may easily attract children to take part in. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that recreational football training would improve the health-related physical fitness in healthy 9- to 10-year-old boys, compared to the outcome from non-exercise boys. METHODS: Forty boys were randomly allocated into the football and control groups...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777059/metabolic-mechanisms-of-vocal-fatigue
#13
Chayadevie Nanjundeswaran, Jessie VanSwearingen, Katherine Verdolini Abbott
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify potential metabolic mechanisms including (1) neuromuscular inefficiency, (2) cardiovascular recovery deficits, or (3) both, in individuals with complaints of vocal fatigue. STUDY DESIGN: Within- and between-subjects group design was used in this study. METHODS: Three groups of women participated in the study, including (1) individuals with complaints of vocal fatigue; (2) vocally healthy sedentary individuals; and (3) vocally healthy, cardiovascularly conditioned individuals...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773696/circadian-clock-interaction-with-hif1%C3%AE-mediates-oxygenic-metabolism-and-anaerobic-glycolysis-in-skeletal-muscle
#14
Clara Bien Peek, Daniel C Levine, Jonathan Cedernaes, Akihiko Taguchi, Yumiko Kobayashi, Stacy J Tsai, Nicolle A Bonar, Maureen R McNulty, Kathryn Moynihan Ramsey, Joseph Bass
Circadian clocks are encoded by a transcription-translation feedback loop that aligns energetic processes with the solar cycle. We show that genetic disruption of the clock activator BMAL1 in skeletal myotubes and fibroblasts increased levels of the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) under hypoxic conditions. Bmal1(-/-) myotubes displayed reduced anaerobic glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration with glycolytic fuel, and transcription of HIF1α targets Phd3, Vegfa, Mct4, Pk-m, and Ldha, whereas abrogation of the clock repressors CRY1/2 stabilized HIF1α in response to hypoxia...
October 19, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765184/effect-of-aldosterone-antagonism-on%C3%A2-exercise-tolerance-in-heart-failure-with%C3%A2-preserved-ejection-fraction
#15
Wojciech Kosmala, Aleksandra Rojek, Monika Przewlocka-Kosmala, Leah Wright, Andrzej Mysiak, Thomas H Marwick
BACKGROUND: Impaired functional capacity is a hallmark of patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Despite the association of HFpEF with reduced myocardial compliance attributed to fibrosis, spironolactone has not been shown to alter outcomes-perhaps reflecting the heterogeneity of underlying pathological mechanisms. OBJECTIVES: The authors sought to identify improvement in exercise capacity with spironolactone in the subset of patients with HFpEF with exercise-induced increase in ratio between early mitral inflow velocity and mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e') reflecting elevation of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure...
October 25, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763581/match-analysis-of-an-elite-beach-soccer-team
#16
Rosario Scarfone, Antonio Ammendolia
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological demands and technical-tactical performances of field players in Italian elite beach soccer team. METHODS: Three official matches of the Italian First Division beach soccer tournament were analyzed to evaluate the heart rate (HR) and time-motion analysis considering: standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting, and technical-tactical aspects. Repeated-measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of time on the physiological measures and time motion analysis...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753997/ed-07-2-to-lift-walk-or-run-what-is-the-optimal-mode-of-exercise-to-reduce-hypertension-and-prevent-cardiovascular-disease
#17
Peter Kokkinos
A plethora of evidence exists supporting that structured aerobic exercise or activities that increase cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) lower resting blood pressure (BP) in patients with hypertension (HTN). Relatively few studies have assessed the effects of anaerobic or resistance exercise on BP. Thus, its role in managing HTN is not defined. Also, possible risks related with exercise in hypertensive patients have not been adequately addressed.In addition to lowering BP, CRF attenuates the incidence of HTN. A substantial part of the age-related progression to HTN is not an inevitable outcome of aging as once thought, but a consequence of lifestyle characterized by high-fat/salt diets and physical inactivity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747843/-aerobic-and-anaerobic-terms-used-in-exercise-physiology-a-critical-terminology-reflection
#18
Karim Chamari, Johnny Padulo
The purpose of this Current Opinion article is to focus on the appropriate use of the terms 'aerobic'- and 'anaerobic'-exercise in sports medicine, in order to try to unify their use across coaches/athletes and sport scientists. Despite the high quality of most of the investigations, the terms aerobic/anaerobic continue to be used inappropriately by some researchers in exercise science. Until late 2014, for instance, 14,883 and 6,136 articles were cited in PubMed, in the field of 'exercise science', using the words 'aerobic' or 'anaerobic', respectively...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747790/fat-utilization-during-high-intensity-exercise-when-does-it-end
#19
Ratko Peric, Marco Meucci, Zoran Nikolovski
BACKGROUND: This study examined substrate oxidation at high-intensity exercise and aimed to determine when fat oxidation ends (FATmin). We hypothesized the existence of a connection between the anaerobic threshold (AnT) and FATmin point. METHODS: Breath-by-breath data obtained from indirect calorimetry during a graded treadmill test were used to measure substrate oxidation and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) on 47 males (30 athletes (ATL) and 17 non-athletes (NATL))...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742182/discriminating-circulatory-problems-from-deconditioning-echocardiogram-and-cardio-pulmonary-exercise-test-analysis
#20
Zach Rozenbaum, Shafik Khoury, Galit Aviram, Yaniv Gura, Jack Sherez, Avi Man, Jason Shimiaie, Thierry Le Tourneau, Amir Halkin, Simon Biner, Gad Keren, Yan Topilsky
BACKGROUND: Discriminating circulatory problems with reduced stroke volume from de-conditioning in which the muscles cannot consume O2 normally by gas exchange parameters is difficult. METHODS: We performed combined stress echo and cardio-pulmonary (CPET) tests in 110 patients (20 normal effort capacity, 54 attenuated stroke volume response, 36 de-conditioning) to evaluate multiple hemodynamic parameters and oxygen content difference (A-VO2 Difference) in four predefined activity levels to assess which of the gas measures may help in the discrimination...
October 11, 2016: Chest
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