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Optic nerve sheath

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188622/the-optic-nerve-superior-colliculus-visual-thalamus-and-primary-visual-cortex-of-the-northern-elephant-seal-mirounga-angustirostris-and-california-sea-lion-zalophus-californianus
#1
Emily C Turner, Eva K Sawyer, Jon H Kaas
The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) are members of a diverse clade of carnivorous mammals known as pinnipeds. Pinnipeds are notable for their large, ape-sized brains, yet little is known about their central nervous system. Both the northern elephant seal and California sea lion spend most of their lives at sea, but each also spends time on land to breed and give birth. These unique coastal niches may be reflected in specific evolutionary adaptations to their sensory systems...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181232/does-iih-alter-brain-microstructures-a-dti-based-approach
#2
Christoph Schmidt, Edzard Wiener, Lutz Lüdemann, Hagen Kunte, Katharina Maria Kreutz, Nils Becker, Lutz Harms, Randolf Klingebiel, Jan Hoffmann
INTRODUCTION: To investigate the correlation of microstructural parameters with CSF pressure and macroscopic changes assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). METHODS: Twenty-three patients with IIH as well as age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls underwent high resolution MR imaging of the optic nerve sheaths (ONS), pituitary gland, and ventricles. For DTI data a voxelwise permutation analysis was performed for the whole brain and ROI analysis was performed for the optic nerve and optic radiation...
February 9, 2017: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177116/effects-of-acute-controlled-changes-in-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-on-the-diameter-of-the-optic-nerve-sheath-a-transorbital-ultrasonographic-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#3
M Dinsmore, J S Han, J A Fisher, V W S Chan, L Venkatraghavan
Transorbital ultrasonographic measurement of the diameter of the optic nerve sheath is a non-invasive, bed-side examination for detecting raised intracranial pressure. However, the ability of the optic nerve sheath diameter to predict acute changes in intracranial pressures remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamic changes of the optic nerve sheath diameter in response to mild fluctuations in cerebral blood volume induced by changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide. We studied 11 healthy volunteers...
February 8, 2017: Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169341/noninvasive-and-quantitative-intracranial-pressure-estimation-using-ultrasonographic-measurement-of-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter
#4
Li-Juan Wang, Yan Yao, Liang-Shu Feng, Yu-Zhi Wang, Nan-Nan Zheng, Jia-Chun Feng, Ying-Qi Xing
We aimed to quantitatively assess intracranial pressure (ICP) using optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurements. We recruited 316 neurology patients in whom ultrasonographic ONSD was measured before lumbar puncture. They were randomly divided into a modeling and a test group at a ratio of 7:3. In the modeling group, we conducted univariate and multivariate analyses to assess associations between ICP and ONSD, age, sex, BMI, mean arterial blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure. We derived the mathematical function "Xing &Wang" from the modelling group to predict ICP and evaluated the function in the test group...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159969/targeted-metabolomics-reveals-early-dominant-optic-atrophy-signature-in-optic-nerves-of-opa1delttag-mice
#5
Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Gilles Simard, Emmanuelle Sarzi, Tanguy Chaumette, Guillaume Rousseau, Stéphanie Chupin, Cédric Gadras, Lydie Tessier, Marc Ferré, Arnaud Chevrollier, Valérie Desquiret-Dumas, Naïg Gueguen, Stéphanie Leruez, Christophe Verny, Dan Miléa, Dominique Bonneau, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Vincent Procaccio, Christian Hamel, Guy Lenaers, Pascal Reynier, Delphine Prunier-Mirebeau
Purpose: Dominant optic atrophy (MIM No. 165500) is a blinding condition related to mutations in OPA1, a gene encoding a large GTPase involved in mitochondrial inner membrane dynamics. Although several mouse models mimicking the disease have been developed, the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for retinal ganglion cell degeneration remain poorly understood. Methods: Using a targeted metabolomic approach, we measured the concentrations of 188 metabolites in nine tissues, that is, brain, three types of skeletal muscle, heart, liver, retina, optic nerve, and plasma in symptomatic 11-month-old Opa1delTTAG/+ mice...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156180/diagnosis-of-optic-nerve-sheath-meningioma-during-optic-nerve-sheath-decompression
#6
Austin R Meeker, Melissa W Ko, Bryant P Carruth, Kenneth B Strumpf, Thomas A Bersani
Optic nerve sheath meningioma (ONSM) is typically diagnosed based on clinical suspicion and imaging characteristics and is most often treated with radiation. Historically, biopsy, optic nerve sheath decompression, and debulking surgeries have been avoided for fear of optic nerve vascular disruption and tumor spread into the orbit. This is a case of a 48-year-old man who presented with unilateral optic disc edema, declining visual acuity, and a visual field defect. Despite an initial improvement with acetazolamide, his vision subsequently worsened...
February 3, 2017: Orbit
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146012/identification-of-optic-nerve-swelling-using-point-of-care-ocular-ultrasound-in-children
#7
Ronald F Marchese, Rakesh D Mistry, Gil Binenbaum, Grant T Liu, Richard J Scarfone, Ashley L Woodford, Aaron E Chen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and accuracy of point-of-care (POC) ocular ultrasound (US) when performed by a pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physician to detect optic nerve abnormalities concerning for swelling, as compared with the fundus examination performed by an ophthalmologist. METHODS: This was a single-center, prospective cohort pilot study of children aged 12 months to 18 years who required optic disc evaluation by an ophthalmologist...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144922/current-concepts-and-strategies-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-in-adults
#8
REVIEW
Jane W Chan
Since obesity has become an epidemic in industrialized nations, idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is now a more common neuro-ophthalmic disorder that causes visual loss and headaches. This review highlights the new diagnostic criteria for IIH and the new insights into the pathophysiologic mechanisms of IIH. Key diagnostic and monitoring techniques for papilledema include not only neuroimaging and the measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, but also perimetry, optical coherence tomography, and ocular sonography...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135565/dissecting-clinical-heterogeneity-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#9
Courtney L Monroe, Sonika Dahiya, David H Gutmann
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common neurogenetic disorder in which affected children and adults are predisposed to the development of benign and malignant nervous system tumors. Caused by a germline mutation in the NF1 tumor suppressor gene, individuals with NF1 are prone to optic gliomas, malignant gliomas, neurofibromas, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, as well as behavioral, cognitive, motor, bone, cardiac, and pigmentary abnormalities. Although NF1 is a classic monogenic syndrome, the clinical features of the disorder and their impact on patient morbidity are variable, even within individuals who bear the same germline NF1 gene mutation...
January 24, 2017: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131870/waiting-to-deliver-a-final-diagnosis
#10
Ali Mokhtarzadeh, Amanda Maltry, Collin McClelland
We report a patient with left eye positional transient visual obscurations, diplopia, a left afferent pupillary defect, and optic disc edema--all occurring during pregnancy. Non-contrast MRI revealed an orbital mass encasing the optic nerve and extending through the superior orbital fissure into the cavernous sinus. An MRI with gadolinium following parturition and strongly positive somatostatin receptor scintigraphy suggested the diagnosis of meningioma. Biopsy confirmed the diagnosis, and she was treated with CyberKnife stereotactic radiosurgery...
January 25, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130923/node-of-ranvier-length-as-a-potential-regulator-of-myelinated-axon-conduction-speed
#11
I Lorena Arancibia-Cárcamo, Marc C Ford, Lee Cossell, Kinji Ishida, Koujiro Tohyama, David Attwell
Myelination speeds conduction of the nerve impulse, enhancing cognitive power. Changes of white matter structure contribute to learning, and are often assumed to reflect an altered number of myelin wraps. We now show that, in rat optic nerve and cerebral cortical axons, the node of Ranvier length varies over a 4.4-fold and 8.7-fold range respectively and that variation of the node length is much less along axons than between axons. Modelling predicts that these node length differences will alter conduction speed by ~20%, similar to the changes produced by altering the number of myelin wraps or the internode length...
January 28, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118848/the-association-of-findings-on-brain-computed-tomography-with-neurologic-outcomes-following-extracorporeal-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation
#12
Jeong-Am Ryu, Chi Ryang Chung, Yang Hyun Cho, Kiick Sung, Gee Young Suh, Taek Kyu Park, Young Bin Song, Joo-Yong Hahn, Jin-Ho Choi, Hyeon-Cheol Gwon, Seung-Hyuk Choi, Jeong Hoon Yang
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available on imaging predictors of neurological outcomes after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR). We investigated the association of initial brain computed tomography (CT) findings with neurological outcomes following ECPR. METHODS: Between February 2005 and December 2015, a total of 42 patients who underwent brain CT scans within 48 h after ECPR were analyzed. Loss of the boundary between gray matter and white matter (LOB) or cortical sulcal effacement (SE), gray-to-white matter ratio (GWR), and optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) were measured on initial brain CT...
January 25, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112137/orbital-melanoma-with-calcification-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#13
Sukhdeep Bains, Usha Kim, R Shanti
Primary orbital melanoma is rare and has varied initial presentation. A 28-year-old female presented with proptosis and decreased vision in the left eye. Computed tomography scan showed an orbital mass with contrast enhancement and calcification around the optic nerve leading to a diagnosis of meningioma. The patient chose to be on observation. Loss of vision with an increase in proptosis was seen at 6 months follow-up. On surgical exploration, a well-defined pigmented mass was seen encasing the optic nerve...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107408/effect-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-on-the-sonographic-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-as-a-surrogate-for-intracranial-pressure-during-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Ji-Hyun Chin, Wook-Jong Kim, Joonho Lee, Yun A Han, Jinwook Lim, Jai-Hyun Hwang, Seong-Sik Cho, Young-Kug Kim
BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can increase intracranial pressure. Pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position are associated with an increased intracranial pressure. We investigated whether PEEP ventilation could additionally influence the sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter as a surrogate for intracranial pressure during pneumoperitoneum combined with the Trendelenburg position in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. METHODS: After anesthetic induction, 38 patients were randomly allocated to a low tidal volume ventilation (8 ml/kg) without PEEP group (zero end-expiratory pressure [ZEEP] group, n = 19) or low tidal volume ventilation with 8 cmH2O PEEP group (PEEP group, n = 19)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072673/the-use-of-ultrasound-measured-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-to-predict-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-failure-in-children
#15
Sophia D Lin, Kimberly R Kahne, Amira El Sherif, Kevin Mennitt, David Kessler, Mary J Ward, Shari L Platt
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of ultrasound-measured optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as a screen for ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of children presenting to the ED with suspected shunt failure. The ONSD was measured by ultrasound and compared with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) and neurosurgical impression. We defined shunt failure on ultrasound as an ONSD greater than 4...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009405/fulminant-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-and-venous-stasis-retinopathy-resulting-in-severe-bilateral-visual-impairment
#16
Alexander Voldman, Breanna Durbin, John Nguyen, Brian Ellis, Monique Leys
PURPOSE: To report a complicated case of fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension and concomitant venous stasis retinopathy leading to postpapilledema optic atrophy. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 34-year-old morbidly obese woman with a history of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) presented with a 1-month history of bilateral vision loss, diplopia, and left eye pain after being lost to follow-up for 6 years. Fundus examination revealed florid papilledema with venous tortuosity bilaterally...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008696/sub-tenon-s-injection-in-equine-cadaver-eyes-mri-visualization-of-anesthetic-fluid-distribution-and-comparison-of-two-different-volumes
#17
Silvia Stadler, Matthias Dennler, Udo Hetzel, Francesca Del Chicca, Sèamus Hoey, Bernhard M Spiess, Katrin Voelter, Simon A Pot
OBJECTIVE: To compare the localization and distribution of two different anesthetic fluid volumes around equine cadaver eyes to determine an appropriate volume for a single sub-Tenon's injection in horses. PROCEDURE: A single sub-Tenon's injection of 2% lidocaine was performed in 10 equine cadaver heads (20 eyes) using two different volumes (7 mL on one side and 10 mL on the opposite side). The posterior circular distribution of the anesthetic was quantified in sagittal, dorsal, and transverse MRI (T2W-TSE) sequences and evaluated independently by three board-certified radiologists...
December 23, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003733/mmp19-expression-in-the-human-optic-nerve
#18
Kathleen R Chirco, Ralph J Hazlewood, Kathy Miller, Grefachew Workalemahu, Lee M Jampol, G Robert Lesser, Robert F Mullins, Markus H Kuehn, John H Fingert
PURPOSE: The defining feature of glaucoma is excavation of the optic nerve head; however, the mechanism of this loss of tissue is not well understood. We recently discovered a copy number variation upstream of matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) in a large, autosomal dominant pedigree with a congenital malformation of the optic disc called cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA). Patients with CODA have abnormal optic discs that exhibit an excavated shape similar to cupping seen in glaucoma...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999698/necrotizing-retinitis-secondary-to-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-associated-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#19
Pehmen Yasin Ozcan, Hasan Tolga Celik, Kenan Sonmez, Melda Celik
A 20-day-old male infant who was born at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In retinal examination, peripheric retinal white-black color areas that correspond to necrotizing retinitis, moderate vitritis, macular and optic nerve head involvement, vascular leakage, and sheathing indicating perivasculitis were revealed. Despite the fact that CMV specific IgM was undetectable, CMV DNA with high viral load was found in his blood sample by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998456/-temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-rgc-death-and-axon-degeneration-in-the-rat-model-of-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#20
Y W Wang, T Chen, J Ma, Y Zhong
Objective: To investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and axon degeneration in the rat model of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION). Methods: Experimental study. The model of rNAION was induced by directly illuminating the optic nerve head with laser, after intravenous infusion with the photosensitizing agent rose Bengal. Seventy-one SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1-week (n=14), 2-week (n=14), 4-week (n=15) , 8-week (n=16) model group and the normal control group (n=12)...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
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