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Optic nerve sheath

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107408/effect-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-on-the-sonographic-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-as-a-surrogate-for-intracranial-pressure-during-robot-assisted-laparoscopic-prostatectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Ji-Hyun Chin, Wook-Jong Kim, Joonho Lee, Yun A Han, Jinwook Lim, Jai-Hyun Hwang, Seong-Sik Cho, Young-Kug Kim
BACKGROUND: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can increase intracranial pressure. Pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg position are associated with an increased intracranial pressure. We investigated whether PEEP ventilation could additionally influence the sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter as a surrogate for intracranial pressure during pneumoperitoneum combined with the Trendelenburg position in patients undergoing robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy. METHODS: After anesthetic induction, 38 patients were randomly allocated to a low tidal volume ventilation (8 ml/kg) without PEEP group (zero end-expiratory pressure [ZEEP] group, n = 19) or low tidal volume ventilation with 8 cmH2O PEEP group (PEEP group, n = 19)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072673/the-use-of-ultrasound-measured-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-to-predict-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-failure-in-children
#2
Sophia D Lin, Kimberly R Kahne, Amira El Sherif, Kevin Mennitt, David Kessler, Mary J Ward, Shari L Platt
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the accuracy of ultrasound-measured optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) as a screen for ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled a convenience sample of children presenting to the ED with suspected shunt failure. The ONSD was measured by ultrasound and compared with computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) and neurosurgical impression. We defined shunt failure on ultrasound as an ONSD greater than 4...
January 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009405/fulminant-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-and-venous-stasis-retinopathy-resulting-in-severe-bilateral-visual-impairment
#3
Alexander Voldman, Breanna Durbin, John Nguyen, Brian Ellis, Monique Leys
PURPOSE: To report a complicated case of fulminant idiopathic intracranial hypertension and concomitant venous stasis retinopathy leading to postpapilledema optic atrophy. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 34-year-old morbidly obese woman with a history of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) presented with a 1-month history of bilateral vision loss, diplopia, and left eye pain after being lost to follow-up for 6 years. Fundus examination revealed florid papilledema with venous tortuosity bilaterally...
December 6, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008696/sub-tenon-s-injection-in-equine-cadaver-eyes-mri-visualization-of-anesthetic-fluid-distribution-and-comparison-of-two-different-volumes
#4
Silvia Stadler, Matthias Dennler, Udo Hetzel, Francesca Del Chicca, Sèamus Hoey, Bernhard M Spiess, Katrin Voelter, Simon A Pot
OBJECTIVE: To compare the localization and distribution of two different anesthetic fluid volumes around equine cadaver eyes to determine an appropriate volume for a single sub-Tenon's injection in horses. PROCEDURE: A single sub-Tenon's injection of 2% lidocaine was performed in 10 equine cadaver heads (20 eyes) using two different volumes (7 mL on one side and 10 mL on the opposite side). The posterior circular distribution of the anesthetic was quantified in sagittal, dorsal, and transverse MRI (T2W-TSE) sequences and evaluated independently by three board-certified radiologists...
December 23, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003733/mmp19-expression-in-the-human-optic-nerve
#5
Kathleen R Chirco, Ralph J Hazlewood, Kathy Miller, Grefachew Workalemahu, Lee M Jampol, G Robert Lesser, Robert F Mullins, Markus H Kuehn, John H Fingert
PURPOSE: The defining feature of glaucoma is excavation of the optic nerve head; however, the mechanism of this loss of tissue is not well understood. We recently discovered a copy number variation upstream of matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) in a large, autosomal dominant pedigree with a congenital malformation of the optic disc called cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA). Patients with CODA have abnormal optic discs that exhibit an excavated shape similar to cupping seen in glaucoma...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999698/necrotizing-retinitis-secondary-to-congenital-cytomegalovirus-infection-associated-with-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#6
Pehmen Yasin Ozcan, Hasan Tolga Celik, Kenan Sonmez, Melda Celik
A 20-day-old male infant who was born at 39 weeks of gestation was admitted to neonatal intensive care unit due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In retinal examination, peripheric retinal white-black color areas that correspond to necrotizing retinitis, moderate vitritis, macular and optic nerve head involvement, vascular leakage, and sheathing indicating perivasculitis were revealed. Despite the fact that CMV specific IgM was undetectable, CMV DNA with high viral load was found in his blood sample by means of real-time polymerase chain reaction assay...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998456/-temporal-and-spatial-characteristics-of-rgc-death-and-axon-degeneration-in-the-rat-model-of-nonarteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy
#7
Y W Wang, T Chen, J Ma, Y Zhong
Objective: To investigate the temporal and spatial characteristics of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death and axon degeneration in the rat model of nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (rNAION). Methods: Experimental study. The model of rNAION was induced by directly illuminating the optic nerve head with laser, after intravenous infusion with the photosensitizing agent rose Bengal. Seventy-one SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1-week (n=14), 2-week (n=14), 4-week (n=15) , 8-week (n=16) model group and the normal control group (n=12)...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998455/-optic-nerve-subarachnoid-space-expansion-in-mr-imaging-a-etiology-study
#8
M Li, Q G Xu, J Q Wang, Y R Wang, J Zhao, S H Wei
Objective: To investigate spectrum of causes in optic nerve subarachnoid space (ONSS) expansion by using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Methods: A retrospective study. Twenty-six patients (46 eyes) with ONSS expansion and 20 healthy adults (40 eyes) were recruited in Neuro-ophthalmology Department of Chinese PLA General Hospital from January, 2014 to December, 2015. The diameters were measured on the optic nerve (OND) and optic nerve sheath (ONSD) 2.4 mm behind the globe. ONSS was calculated by the formula of (ONSD-OND)/2...
December 11, 2016: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981690/measuring-changes-in-the-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-in-patients-with-idiopathic-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus-a-useful-diagnostic-supplement-to-spinal-tap-tests
#9
M Ertl, R Aigner, M Krost, Z Karnasová, K Müller, M Naumann, F Schlachetzki
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal improves clinical symptoms of many patients with idiopathic normal-pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of changes in the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) with patient responses to CSF removal. METHODS: Transorbital ultrasonography was performed to obtain ONSD measurements in 31 patients with iNPH before and after lumbar puncture. Measurements were obtained while patients were supine and upright...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974106/fulminant-bilateral-papilloedema-during-low-dose-steroid-taper-in-a-child-with-systemic-idiopathic-arthritis-treated-with-tocilizumab
#10
Lulu Burstzyn, Simon Levin, Brian Rotenberg, Tamara Van Hooren, Andrew Leung, Roberta Berard, Daniela S Ardelean
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is one of the most severe forms of arthritis that affects children younger than 16 years of age at onset. SJIA often requires corticosteroids to control the inflammation. However, long-term corticosteroid use may have adverse effects, including intracranial hypertension (IH). Biologic therapies have been used as corticosteroid sparing agents. We report the first case of a child with steroid-dependent SJIA treated with tocilizumab, an IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, who developed fulminant IH, bilateral papilloedema and vision loss when oral prednisone was weaned from 2 to 1 mg per day...
December 14, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958595/childhood-neurofibromatosis-type-2-nf2-and-related-disorders-from-bench-to-bedside-and-biologically-targeted-therapies
#11
M Ruggieri, A D Praticò, A Serra, L Maiolino, S Cocuzza, P Di Mauro, L Licciardello, P Milone, G Privitera, G Belfiore, M Di Pietro, F Di Raimondo, A Romano, A Chiarenza, M Muglia, A Polizzi, D G Evans
Neurofibromatosis type 2 [NF2; MIM # 101000] is an autosomal dominant disorder characterised by the occurrence of vestibular schwannomas (VSs), schwannomas of other cranial, spinal and cutaneous nerves, cranial and spinal meningiomas and/or other central nervous system (CNS) tumours (e.g., ependymomas, astrocytomas). Additional features include early onset cataracts, optic nerve sheath meningiomas, retinal hamartomas, dermal schwannomas (i.e., NF2-plaques), and (few) café-au-lait spots. Clinically, NF2 children fall into two main groups: (1) congenital NF2 - with bilateral VSs detected as early as the first days to months of life, which can be stable/asymptomatic for one-two decades and suddenly progress; and (2) severe pre-pubertal (Wishart type) NF2- with multiple (and rapidly progressive) CNS tumours other-than-VS, which usually present first, years before VSs [vs...
October 2016: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956677/effects-of-pneumoperitoneum-and-trendelenburg-position-on-intracranial-pressure-assessed-using-different-non-invasive-methods
#12
C Robba, D Cardim, J Donnelly, A Bertuccio, S Bacigaluppi, N Bragazzi, B Cabella, X Liu, B Matta, M Lattuada, M Czosnyka
BACKGROUND: The laparoscopic approach is becoming increasingly frequent for many different surgical procedures. However, the combination of pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg positioning associated with this approach may increase the patient's risk for elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). Given that the gold standard for the measurement of ICP is invasive, little is known about the effect of these common procedures on ICP. METHODS: We prospectively studied 40 patients without any history of cerebral disease who were undergoing laparoscopic procedures...
December 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940011/pediatric-intracranial-hypertension
#13
REVIEW
Shawn C Aylward, Rachel E Reem
Primary (idiopathic) intracranial hypertension has been considered to be a rare entity, but with no precise estimates of the pediatric incidence in the United States. There have been attempts to revise the criteria over the years and adapt the adult criteria for use in pediatrics. The clinical presentation varies with age, and symptoms tending to be less obvious in younger individuals. In the prepubertal population, incidentally discovered optic disc edema is relatively common. By far the most consistent symptom is headache; other symptoms include nausea, vomiting tinnitus, and diplopia...
January 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928378/sixth-nerve-palsy-in-paediatric-intracranial-hypertension
#14
Julia E Reid, Rachel E Reem, Shawn C Aylward, David L Rogers
The purpose of this study was to report the incidence and describe the characteristics of sixth cranial nerve (CN VI) palsy in paediatric patients with intracranial hypertension (IH). A retrospective chart review of central Ohio children diagnosed with IH over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2013 was conducted. IH without identifiable cause was defined as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), whereas IH with identifiable pathologic aetiology was deemed secondary intracranial hypertension (SIH). A subset of patients with CN VI palsy was identified...
February 2016: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906948/cervical-interlaminar-epidural-injections-at-high-doses-do-not-increase-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-on-a-long-term-basis
#15
Hyunzu Kim, Joo Hyeon O, Sung-Jun Hong, Keun Man Shin, JungChan Park, Sang Soo Kang
BACKGROUND: Cervical epidural injection (CEI) is widely performed on patients with pain originating from the cervical spine. Studies have shown a good relationship between the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) and the intracranial pressure (ICP). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the ONSD as a non-invasive surrogate marker of ICP after CEI. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: Hospital and ambulatory pain clinic...
November 2016: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862614/transorbital-sonography-and-visual-outcome-for-the-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-optic-neuritis
#16
Piergiorgio Lochner, Maurizio A Leone, Klaus Fassbender, Roberto Cantello, Lorenzo Coppo, Raffaele Nardone, Gianni Zorzi, Martin Lesmeister, Cristoforo Comi, Francesco Brigo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Transorbital sonography (TOS) is a promising tool to support the clinical diagnosis of optic neuritis (ON) by showing thickening of optic nerve. In this study, we aimed to define its specific role in follow-up of ON patients. METHODS: We measured ultrasonography parameters and visual acuity (VA) at presentation and after 1 year in 45 patients with newly diagnosed ON. Two vascular sonographers used B-mode TOS to evaluate mean optic nerve diameter (OND) and optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD)...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852525/optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-measurement-a-means-of-detecting-raised-icp-in-adult-traumatic-and-non-traumatic-neurosurgical-patients
#17
Mohd Raffiz, Jafri M Abdullah
INTRODUCTION: Bedside ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is emerging as a non-invasive technique to evaluate and predict raised intracranial pressure (ICP). It has been shown in previous literature that ONSD measurement has good correlation with surrogate findings of raised ICP such as clinical and radiological findings suggestive of raised ICP. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study is to find a correlation between sonographic measurements of ONSD value with ICP value measured via the gold standard invasive intracranial ICP catheter, and to find the cut-off value of ONSD measurement in predicting raised ICP, along with its sensitivity and specificity value...
January 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832503/estimating-the-accuracy-of-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-measurement-using-a-pocket-sized-handheld-ultrasound-on-a-simulation-model
#18
Garrett G R J Johnson, Frederick A Zeiler, Bertram Unger, Gregory Hansen, Dimitrios Karakitsos, Lawrence M Gillman
BACKGROUND: Ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) appears to be a promising, rapid, non-invasive bedside tool for identification of elevated intra-cranial pressure. With improvements in ultrasound technology, machines are becoming smaller; however, it is unclear if these ultra-portable handheld units have the resolution to make these measurements precisely. In this study, we estimate the accuracy of ONSD measurement in a pocket-sized ultrasound unit. METHODS: Utilizing a locally developed, previously validated model of the eye, ONSD was measured by two expert observers, three times with two machines and on five models with different optic nerve sheath sizes...
December 2016: Critical Ultrasound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830325/efficacy-complications-and-cost-of-surgical-interventions-for-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
Aristotelis V Kalyvas, Mark Hughes, Christos Koutsarnakis, Demetrios Moris, Faidon Liakos, Damianos E Sakas, George Stranjalis, Ioannis Fouyas
BACKGROUND: To define the efficacy, complication profile and cost of surgical options for treating idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) with respect to the following endpoints: vision and headache improvement, normal CSF pressure restoration, papilloedema resolution, relapse rate, operative complications, cost of intervention and quality of life. METHODS: A systematic review of the surgical treatment of IIH was carried out. Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from 1985 to 2014 to identify all relevant manuscripts written in English...
January 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826646/diagnostic-value-of-neuro-ophthalmological-signs-in-cases-of-chiari-i-malformation
#20
Inessa Bekerman, Tal Sigal, Itzhak Kimiagar, Zina Evy Almer, Michael Vaiman
INTRODUCTION: Our purpose was to evaluate the diagnostic value of measuring diameters of optic nerve sheath (ONSD), presence/absence of papilledema, tortuosity of the optic nerve, flattening of the posterior sclera, and intraocular protrusion of the prelaminar optic nerve for intracranial pressure assessment in cases of Chiari I malformation. METHODS: In a retrospective study, MRI data of 37 consecutive pediatric patients with Chiari malformation and data of 400 patients without intracranial pathology were compared and analyzed...
December 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
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