keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Short-chain fatty acids

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140465/short-chain-arabinoxylans-prepared-from-enzymatically-treated-wheat-grain-exert-prebiotic-effects-during-the-broiler-starter-period
#1
N Yacoubi, L Saulnier, E Bonnin, E Devillard, V Eeckhaut, L Rhayat, R Ducatelle, F Van Immerseel
Carbohydrate-degrading multi-enzyme preparations (MEP) are used to improve broiler performances. Their mode of action is complex and not fully understood. In this study, we compared the effect of water-soluble fractions isolated at the pilot scale from wheat grain incubated with (WE) and without (WC) MEP. The fractions were incorporated in a wheat-based diet (0.1% w/w) to feed Ross PM3 broilers and compared with a non-supplemented control group (NC). The body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) until d 14 were determined...
November 10, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137890/exposure-to-the-fungicide-propamocarb-causes-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-and-metabolic-disorder-in-mice
#2
Sisheng Wu, Cuiyuan Jin, Yueyi Wang, Zhengwei Fu, Yuanxiang Jin
Propamocarb (PM) is a widely used fungicide with property of affecting fatty acid and phospholipid biosynthesis in funguses. In this study, we explored its effects on mice gut microbiota and metabolism by exposing mice to 3, 30, and 300 mg/L PM through drinking water for a duration of 28 days. We observed that the transcription of hepatic genes related to regulate lipid metabolism were perturbed by PM exposure. The microbiota in the cecal contents and feces changed during or after PM exposure at phylum or genus levels...
November 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137150/in-vitro-fermentation-patterns-of-rice-bran-components-by-human-gut-microbiota
#3
Tung Pham, Keat Thomas Teoh, Brett J Savary, Ming-Hsuan Chen, Anna McClung, Sun-Ok Lee
Whole grain rice is a rich source of fiber, nutrients, and phytochemicals that may promote gastrointestinal health, but such beneficial components are typically removed with the bran during polishing. Soluble feruloylated arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (FAXO) and polyphenols (RBPP) isolated from rice bran are hypothesized to have positive impacts on human gut microbiota through a prebiotic function. Using an in vitro human fecal fermentation bioassay, FAXO and RBPP treatments were assessed for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) production patterns and by evaluating their impacts on the phylogentic composition of human gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137145/dietary-pea-fiber-supplementation-improves-glycemia-and-induces-changes-in-the-composition-of-gut-microbiota-serum-short-chain-fatty-acid-profile-and-expression-of-mucins-in-glucose-intolerant-rats
#4
Zohre Hashemi, Janelle Fouhse, Hyun Seun Im, Catherine B Chan, Benjamin P Willing
Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial impact of dried peas and their components on glucose tolerance; however, the role of gut microbiota as a potential mediator is not fully examined. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary supplementation with raw and cooked pea seed coats (PSC) on glucose tolerance, microbial composition of the gut, select markers of intestinal barrier function, and short chain fatty acid profile in glucose intolerant rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed high fat diet (HFD) for six weeks to induce glucose intolerance, followed by four weeks of feeding PSC-supplemented diets...
November 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135456/probiotics-and-their-use-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#5
Muhammad Amer, Muhammad Nadeem, Saeed Ur Rashid Nazir, Maira Fakhar, Fatima Abid, Qurat-Ul Ain, Elliyah Asif
Context • Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis result in similar gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, including pain, diarrhea, stools with mucus or blood, and ulceration or tissue damage within the alimentary canal. Gut microbiota play a crucial role in triggering, maintaining, and exacerbating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Probiotics might help to rebalance the gut flora in a positive way, shifting from pro- to anti-inflammatory. Objectives • The study intended to investigate the safety and use of probiotics and the biological effects of probiotic bacteria on IBD...
November 14, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134744/acute-oral-sodium-propionate-supplementation-raises-resting-energy-expenditure-and-lipid-oxidation-in-fasted-humans
#6
Edward S Chambers, Claire S Byrne, Karen Aspey, Yanjie Chen, Saadiyah Khan, Douglas J Morrison, Gary Frost
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced from fermentation of dietary fibre by the gut microbiota, have been suggested to modulate energy metabolism. Previous work using rodent models have demonstrated that oral supplementation of the SCFA propionate raises resting energy expenditure (REE) by promoting lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of oral sodium propionate on REE and substrate metabolism in humans. Eighteen healthy volunteers (9 females and 9 males; Age: 25±1 y; Body Mass Index: 24...
November 13, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131106/gut-microbiota-dependent-modulation-of-energy-metabolism
#7
Christina N Heiss, Louise E Olofsson
The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the host's energy balance. It increases the host's ability to harvest energy from the digested food, and produces metabolites and microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolites and microbial products act as signaling molecules that modulate appetite, gut motility, energy uptake and storage, and energy expenditure. Several findings suggest that the gut microbiota can affect the development of obesity...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130306/evaluating-in-vitro-culture-medium-of-gut-microbiome-with-orthogonal-experimental-design-and-metaproteomics-approach
#8
Leyuan Li, Xu Zhang, Zhibin Ning, Janice Mayne, Jasmine I Moore, James Butcher, Cheng-Kang Chiang, David R Mack, Alain Stintzi, Daniel Figeys
In vitro culture-based approaches are time- and cost-effective solutions for rapidly evaluating the effects of drugs or natural compounds against microbiomes. The nutritional composition of the culture medium is an important determinant for effectively maintaining the gut microbiome in vitro. This study combines orthogonal experimental design and a metaproteomics approach to obtain functional insights into the effects of different medium components on the microbiome. Our results show that the metaproteomic profile respond differently to medium components, including inorganic salts, bile salts, mucin and short chain fatty acids...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129243/enteral-feeding-with-low-methoxyl-pectin-accelerates-colonic-anastomosis-healing-in-rats
#9
Fumiyo Yamada, Naoyuki Endo, Sho Miyatake, Goro Ebisu, Kazuo Hino
OBJECTIVE: Enteral feeding with pectin has proven beneficial for anastomosis healing in rats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-methoxyl pectin (LMP) or high-methoxyl pectin (HMP), on colonic anastomosis healing in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (age 7 wk) were fed liquid diets containing LMP, HMP, or no pectin (pectin-free [PF]) for 14 d (n = 10/group). The rats underwent colonic anastomosis surgery on day 7 and were sacrificed on day 14...
January 2018: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127476/co-supplementation-of-isomalto-oligosaccharides-potentiates-metabolic-health-benefits-of-polyphenol-rich-cranberry-extract-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-via-enhanced-gut-butyrate-production
#10
Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Shashank Singh, Vandana Bijalwan, Vijay Kumar, Pragyanshu Khare, Ritesh Kumar Baboota, Paramdeep Singh, Ravneet Kaur Boparai, Jagdeep Singh, Kanthi Kiran Kondepudi, Kanwaljit Chopra, Mahendra Bishnoi
PURPOSE: Cranberries are a rich source of polyphenolic antioxidants. Purified sugars or artificial sweeteners are being added to cranberry-based food products to mask tartness. Refined sugar and artificial sweeteners intake modulate gut microbiota and result in metabolic complications. We evaluated effects of isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOs; sweet tasting non-digestible oligosaccharides) with cranberry extract (CRX) on high fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic alterations in mice. METHODS: Male Swiss albino mice were fed normal chow or HFD (58% fat kcal), and were administered either CRX (200 mg/kg) alone or in combination with IMOs (1 g/kg)...
November 10, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126478/optimization-of-gc-tof-ms-analysis-conditions-for-assessing-host-gut-microbiota-metabolic-interactions-chinese-rhubarb-alters-fecal-aromatic-amino-acids-and-phenol-metabolism
#11
Shan Yin, Pan Guo, Dafu Hai, Li Xu, Jiale Shu, Wenjin Zhang, Muhammad Idrees Khan, Irwin J Kurland, Yunping Qiu, Yumin Liu
In this paper, an optimized method based on gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS) platform has been developed for the analysis of gut microbial-host related co-metabolites in fecal samples. The optimization was performed with proportion of chloroform (C), methanol (M) and water (W) for the extraction of specific metabolic pathways of interest. Loading Bi-plots from the PLS regression model revealed that high concentration of chloroform emphasized the extraction of short chain fatty acids and TCA intermediates, while the higher concentration of methanol emphasized indole and phenyl derivatives...
December 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121639/a-subset-of-sweet-sensing-neurons-identified-by-ir56d-are-necessary-and-sufficient-for-fatty-acid-taste
#12
John M Tauber, Elizabeth B Brown, Yuanyuan Li, Maria E Yurgel, Pavel Masek, Alex C Keene
Fat represents a calorically potent food source that yields approximately twice the amount of energy as carbohydrates or proteins per unit of mass. The highly palatable taste of free fatty acids (FAs), one of the building blocks of fat, promotes food consumption, activates reward circuitry, and is thought to contribute to hedonic feeding underlying many metabolism-related disorders. Despite a role in the etiology of metabolic diseases, little is known about how dietary fats are detected by the gustatory system to promote feeding...
November 9, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120790/digestion-under-saliva-simulated-gastric-and-small-intestinal-conditions-and-fermentation-in-vitro-by-human-intestinal-microbiota-of-polysaccharides-from-fuzhuan-brick-tea
#13
Guijie Chen, Minhao Xie, Peng Wan, Dan Chen, Hong Ye, Ligen Chen, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Zhonghua Liu
The aim of present study was to examine whether the digestivesystem (saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal conditions) could break down and large intestinal microbiota could utilize the polysaccharides from Fuzhuan brick tea (FBTPS). The results showed that there was no change in molecular weight, monosaccharide content and content of reducing sugars before and after saliva, simulated gastric and small intestinal digestion, indicating that FBTPS could pass through the digestive system without being broken down and reach the large intestine safely...
April 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114246/variation-of-carbohydrate-active-enzyme-patterns-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-italian-healthy-subjects-and-type-2-diabetes-patients
#14
Matteo Soverini, Silvia Turroni, Elena Biagi, Sara Quercia, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Simone Rampelli
The human gut microbiota (GM) has been associated, to date, with various complex functions, essentials for the host health. Among these, it is certainly worth noting the degradation of the so-called microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs), which the GM breaks down through specific enzymes, referred to as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). This degradation constitutes the first step in the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), key microbial small molecules having multiple health-promoting effects for the host organism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113654/the-role-of-intestinal-bacteria-in-the-development-and-progression-of-gastrointestinal-tract-neoplasms
#15
REVIEW
Kosuke Mima, Shuji Ogino, Shigeki Nakagawa, Hiroshi Sawayama, Koichi Kinoshita, Ryuichi Krashima, Takatsugu Ishimoto, Katsunori Imai, Masaaki Iwatsuki, Daisuke Hashimoto, Yoshifumi Baba, Yasuo Sakamoto, Yo-Ichi Yamashita, Naoya Yoshida, Akira Chikamoto, Takatoshi Ishiko, Hideo Baba
More than 100 trillion microorganisms inhabit the human intestinal tract and play important roles in health conditions and diseases, including cancer. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that specific bacteria and bacterial dysbiosis in the gastrointestinal tract can potentiate the development and progression of gastrointestinal tract neoplasms by damaging DNA, activating oncogenic signaling pathways, producing tumor-promoting metabolites such as secondary bile acids, and suppressing antitumor immunity. Other bacterial species have been shown to produce short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which can suppress inflammation and carcinogenesis in the gastrointestinal tract...
December 2017: Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112792/biochanin-a-improves-fiber-fermentation-by-cellulolytic-bacteria
#16
Brittany E Harlow, Michael D Flythe, Glen E Aiken
AIMS: The objective was to determine the effect of the isoflavone biochanin A (BCA) on rumen cellulolytic bacteria and consequent fermentative activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: When bovine microbial rumen cell suspensions (n = 3) were incubated (24 h, 39 °C) with ground hay, cellulolytic bacteria proliferated, short chain fatty acids were produced and pH declined. Biochanin A (30 μg mL(-1) ) had no effect on the number of cellulolyic bacteria or pH, but increased acetate, propionate and total SCFA production...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112748/intermittent-lighting-improves-resilience-of-broilers-during-the-peak-phase-of-sub-clinical-necrotic-enteritis-infection
#17
I Rodrigues, B Svihus, M R Bedford, R Gous, M Choct
Necrotic enteritis, either in its clinical or sub-clinical form is known to cause massive economic losses in the broiler chicken industry. Currently, the use of in-feed antibiotics as growth promoters is discouraged. Therefore, mechanisms to control NE through diet include reduction of digesta viscosity, promotion of lower pH in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) through acidification of feed, production of short-chain fatty acids and overall stimulation of beneficial bacteria growth. Intermittent lighting programs increase feed retention in the crop and reduce pH in the foregut compartments in comparison with standard commercial lighting programs and therefore may be a valuable, yet underexploited, barrier to prevent the invasion of the GIT by pathogens...
November 3, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109552/butyrate-and-propionate-inhibit-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cell-activation-by-suppressing-il-12-production-by-antigen-presenting-cells
#18
Claudia Nastasi, Simon Fredholm, Andreas Willerslev-Olsen, Morten Hansen, Charlotte Menné Bonefeld, Carsten Geisler, Mads Hald Andersen, Niels Ødum, Anders Woetmann
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, butyrate and propionate, are products of microbial macronutrients fermentation that distribute systemically and are believed to modulate host immune responses. Recent data have indicated that certain SCFAs, such as butyrate and propionate, directly modulate human dendritic cell (DC) function. Given the role of DCs in initiating and shaping the adaptive immune response, we now explore how SCFAs affect the activation of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells stimulated with autologous, MART1 peptide-pulsed DC...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109040/chronic-chlorpyrifos-exposure-elicits-diet-specific-effects-on-metabolism-and-the-gut-microbiome-in-rats
#19
Bing Fang, Jin Wang Li, Ming Zhang, Fa Zheng Ren, Guo Fang Pang
Chlorpyrifos is a commonly-used pesticide which was reported to interfere with hormone signaling and metabolism, however, little is known about its effect on gut microbiota. In this study, adult male rats fed a normal (NF) or high fat (HF) diet were exposed to 0.3 or 3.0 mg chlorpyrifos/kg bodyweight/day or vehicle alone for 9 weeks. Effects on bodyweight, serum levels of glucose, lipid, cytokines, and gut microbiome community structure were measured. The effects of chlorpyrifos on metabolism were dose- and diet-dependent, with NF-fed rats administered the low dose showing the largest metabolic changes...
November 3, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105186/dietary-fibre-alleviates-hepatic-fat-deposition-via-inhibiting-lipogenic-gene-expression-in-meat-ducks
#20
S Qin, H Han, K Zhang, X Ding, S Bai, J Wang, Q Zeng
This study investigated the effect of dietary fibre (DF) supplementation on hepatic fat deposition of Cherry Valley meat ducks. A total of 600 1-d-old ducks were randomly allotted to five dietary fibre diets (1.46 (basal diet), 3.09, 4.15, 6.18 and 7.52% (analysed)) for 14 days. Growth performance decreased with increasing DF concentrations, when the DF level more than 6.18% the average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (F/G) markedly decreased in meat ducks. Meat ducks supplemented over 4.15% DF had lower percentage of liver reported to live weight, liver lipid contents, hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations as well as decreased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations at 14 days...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
keyword
keyword
84884
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"