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Short-chain fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937612/houttuynia-cordata-facilitates-metformin-on-ameliorating-insulin-resistance-associated-with-gut-microbiota-alteration-in-oletf-rats
#1
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Soo-Kyoung Lim, AbuZar Ansari, Young-Won Chin, Han Seok Choi, Hojun Kim
Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutics in western and oriental medicine, respectively. The current study examined the synergistic anti-diabetic effect of Houttuynia cordata extraction (HCE) and metformin combination in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Fecal microbiota were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Combining HCE + metformin resulted in significantly ameliorated glucose tolerance (oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT))-the same as metformin alone...
September 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936406/gut-microbiome-based-therapeutics-in-liver-cirrhosis-basic-consideration-for-the-next-step
#2
REVIEW
Hiroshi Fukui
Infections account for significant morbidity and mortality in liver cirrhosis and most are related to the gut microbiome. Fecal dysbiosis, characterized by an overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria and a decrease in autochthonous non-pathogenic bacteria, becomes prominent with the progression of liver cirrhosis. In cirrhotic patients, disruption of the intestinal barrier causes intestinal hyperpermeability (i.e. leaky gut), which is closely related to gut dysmotility, dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and may induce pathological bacterial translocation...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936206/an-in-vitro-fermentation-study-on-the-effects-of-gluten-friendly-tm-bread-on-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acids-of-fecal-samples-from-healthy-and-celiac-subjects
#3
Adele Costabile, Triana Bergillos-Meca, Loretta Landriscina, Antonio Bevilacqua, Isidro Gonzalez-Salvador, Maria R Corbo, Leonardo Petruzzi, Milena Sinigaglia, Carmela Lamacchia
Recently, an innovative gluten detoxification method called Gluten Friendly(TM) (GF) has been developed. It induces structural modifications, which abolish the antigenic capacity of gluten and reduce the in vitro immunogenicity of the most common epitopes involved in celiac disease, without compromising the nutritional and technological properties. This study investigated the in vitro effects of GF bread (GFB) on the fecal microbiota from healthy and celiac individuals by a three-stage continuous fermentative system, which simulates the colon (vessel 1, proximal colon; vessel 2, transverse colon; and vessel 3, distal colon), as well as on the production of short chain fatty acids (SCFA, acetate, propionate, butyrate)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932113/cationic-lipid-based-nanoparticles-mediate-functional-delivery-of-acetate-to-tumor-cells-in-vivo-leading-to-significant-anticancer-effects
#4
Leigh P Brody, Meliz Sahuri-Arisoylu, James R Parkinson, Harry G Parkes, Po Wah So, Nabil Hajji, E Louise Thomas, Gary S Frost, Andrew D Miller, Jimmy D Bell
Metabolic reengineering using nanoparticle delivery represents an innovative therapeutic approach to normalizing the deregulation of cellular metabolism underlying many diseases, including cancer. Here, we demonstrated a unique and novel application to the treatment of malignancy using a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-encapsulated lipid-based delivery system - liposome-encapsulated acetate nanoparticles for cancer applications (LITA-CAN). We assessed chronic in vivo administration of our nanoparticle in three separate murine models of colorectal cancer...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929776/lactulose-enemas-in-the-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-do-we-help-or-harm
#5
Ana de Lorenzo-Pinto, Raquel García-Sánchez, Almudena Lorenzo-Salinas
The administration of lactulose enemas instead of or in combination with oral lactulose is common practice in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Lactulose is a non-absorbable disaccharide that is catabolized by the bacterial flora to short chain fatty acids (e.g., lactic acid and acetic acid) which lower the colonic pH. This pH favors the formation of non-absorbable NH4+ from NH3, trapping NH4+ in the colon and thus reducing plasma ammonia concentrations. Lactulose therapy is considered as a first-line treatment and can be administered both orally and rectally...
September 18, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927828/fatty-acid-oxidation-defects-presenting-as-primary-myopathy-and-prominent-dropped-head-syndrome
#6
Seena Vengalil, Veeramani Preethish-Kumar, Kiran Polavarapu, Rita Christopher, Narayanappa Gayathri, Archana Natarajan, Mahadevappa Manjunath, Saraswati Nashi, Chandrajit Prasad, Atchayaram Nalini
Fatty acid oxidation disorders presenting as primary myopathy is relatively rare and also diagnostically challenging. Its association with "dropped head syndrome" is reported till date in single cases of carnitine deficiency and multiple acyl CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD).We studied nineteen cases of primary progressive myopathy confirmed to have fatty acid oxidation defects by Tandem Mass Spectrometry. The detailed clinical, muscle histopathology, tandem mass spectrometry and muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings are presented here...
August 24, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927467/associations-among-dietary-non-fiber-carbohydrate-ruminal-microbiota-and-epithelium-g-protein-coupled-receptor-and-histone-deacetylase-regulations-in-goats
#7
Hong Shen, Zhongyan Lu, Zhihui Xu, Zhan Chen, Zanming Shen
BACKGROUND: Diet-derived short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the rumen have broad effects on the health and growth of ruminants. The microbe-G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR) and microbe-histone deacetylase (HDAC) axes might be the major pathway mediating these effects. Here, an integrated approach of transcriptome sequencing and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was applied to investigate the synergetic responses of rumen epithelium and rumen microbiota to the increased intake of dietary non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) from 15 to 30% in the goat model...
September 19, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924494/genomic-and-functional-analysis-of-romboutsia-ilealis-crib-t-reveals-adaptation-to-the-small-intestine
#8
Jacoline Gerritsen, Bastian Hornung, Bernadette Renckens, Sacha A F T van Hijum, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Ger T Rijkers, Peter J Schaap, Willem M de Vos, Hauke Smidt
BACKGROUND: The microbiota in the small intestine relies on their capacity to rapidly import and ferment available carbohydrates to survive in a complex and highly competitive ecosystem. Understanding how these communities function requires elucidating the role of its key players, the interactions among them and with their environment/host. METHODS: The genome of the gut bacterium Romboutsia ilealis CRIB(T) was sequenced with multiple technologies (Illumina paired-end, mate-pair and PacBio)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924192/short-chain-fatty-acids-ameliorate-immune-mediated-uveitis-partially-by-altering-migration-of-lymphocytes-from-the-intestine
#9
Yukiko K Nakamura, Cathleen Janowitz, Christina Metea, Mark Asquith, Lisa Karstens, James T Rosenbaum, Phoebe Lin
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are metabolites of intestinal bacteria resulting from fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFA are protective in various animal models of inflammatory disease. We investigated the effects of exogenous administration of SFCAs, particularly propionate, on uveitis using an inducible model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Oral SCFA administration attenuated uveitis severity in a mouse strain-dependent manner through regulatory T cell induction among lymphocytes in the intestinal lamina propria (LPL) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923170/prebiotics-in-the-management-of-components-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#10
REVIEW
Sarah O'Connor, Sarah Chouinard-Castonguay, Claudia Gagnon, Iwona Rudkowska
Components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), including abdominal obesity, low-grade chronic systemic inflammation, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure, are major threats to healthy aging in modern societies. The connection between MetS components and gut microflora is now acknowledged and multiple therapeutic strategies have been proposed to change the composition of the gut microbiota in order to promote optimal metabolic health. Prebiotics have the ability to favour growth of beneficial bacteria, especially short-chain fatty-acids (SCFA) producers...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916564/modulation-of-the-gut-microbiome-a-systematic-review-of-the-effect-of-bariatric-surgery
#11
Yan Guo, Zhi-Ping Huang, Chao-Qian Liu, Lin Qi, Yuan Sheng, Da-Jin Zou
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery is recommended for patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recent evidence suggested a strong connection between gut microbiota and bariatric surgery. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: The PubMed and OVID Embase were used and articles concerning bariatric surgery and gut microbiota were screened. The main outcome measures were alterations of gut microbiota after bariatric surgery and correlations between gut microbiota and host metabolism...
September 15, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915953/syntrophic-imbalance-and-the-etiology-of-bacterial-endoparasitism-diseases
#12
James F White
This article outlines the proposed 'syntrophic imbalance hypothesis' for etiology of bacterial endoparasitism diseases. This hypothesis involves microbes (archaea and bacteria) that exist in human body biofilms in syntrophic associations, where bacteria ferment nutrients to produce short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) that are used by methanogenic archaeons to produce methane. Overgrowth of archaea on human tissues (e.g., in association with intestines, teeth or lungs) results in excessive removal of SCFAs from the biofilms and this triggers bacteria in the free-living biofilm state to convert to the endoparasitic state and become intracellular in host cells where they incite inflammation and disease...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915484/spontaneous-vesicle-formation-and-vesicle-to-micelle-transition-of-sodium-2-ketooctanate-in-water
#13
Huifang Xu, Na Du, Yawen Song, Shue Song, Wanguo Hou
Single-tailed short-chain alkyl keto-acids/salts, a class of fatty acid/salt derivatives, such as sodium 2-ketooctanate (KOCOONa), are a kind of weakly acid/salt type amphiphiles and plausible prebiotic molecules, and the current understanding of their aggregation behavior in aqueous solutions is still limited. Herein, the aggregation behavior of KOCOONa in aqueous solution was studied by changing its concentration (C), using equilibrium surface tension, conductivity, and fluorescence measurements. The aggregates formed were characterized using freeze-fracture and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915390/navy-and-black-bean-supplementation-primes-the-colonic-mucosal-microenvironment-to-improve-gut-health
#14
Jennifer M Monk, Dion Lepp, Wenqing Wu, K Peter Pauls, Lindsay E Robinson, Krista A Power
Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are enriched in non-digestible fermentable carbohydrates and phenolic compounds that can modulate the colonic microenvironment (microbiota and host epithelial barrier) to improve gut health. In a comprehensive assessment of the impact of two commonly consumed bean varieties (differing in levels and types of phenolic compounds) within the colonic microenvironment, C57Bl/6 mice were fed diets supplemented with 20% cooked navy bean (NB) or black bean (BB) flours or an isocaloric basal diet control (BD) for 3 weeks...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912861/phascolarctobacterium-faecium-abundant-colonization-in-human-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Feifan Wu, Xianfeng Guo, Jiachun Zhang, Min Zhang, Zihao Ou, Yongzheng Peng
Phascolarctobacterium can produce short-chain fatty acids, including acetate and propionate, and can be associated with the metabolic state and mood of the host. The present study investigated the colonization characteristics of Phascolarctobacterium faecium in healthy individuals <1-80 years old in Southern China. A total of 150 fresh fecal samples were collected, and bacterial DNA was isolated from these samples for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. Phascolarctobacterium faecium demonstrated a high colonization rate and abundant colonization in the human gastrointestinal tract...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904372/butyrate-producing-bacteria-supplemented-in-vitro-to-crohn-s-disease-patient-microbiota-increased-butyrate-production-and-enhanced-intestinal-epithelial-barrier-integrity
#16
Annelies Geirnaert, Marta Calatayud, Charlotte Grootaert, Debby Laukens, Sarah Devriese, Guy Smagghe, Martine De Vos, Nico Boon, Tom Van de Wiele
The management of the dysbiosed gut microbiota in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) is gaining more attention as a novel target to control this disease. Probiotic treatment with butyrate-producing bacteria has therapeutic potential since these bacteria are depleted in IBD patients and butyrate has beneficial effects on epithelial barrier function and overall gut health. However, studies assessing the effect of probiotic supplementation on microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions are rare. In this study, butyrate-producing bacteria (three mono-species and one multispecies mix) were supplemented to the fecal microbial communities of ten Crohn's disease (CD) patients in an in vitro system simulating the mucus- and lumen-associated microbiota...
September 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904330/analysis-of-mucosa-associated-microbiota-in-colorectal-cancer
#17
Kehan Xu, Bo Jiang
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to compare the microbiota community structure, assess differences in intestinal bacterial types, and identify metagenomic biomarkers for disparate stages of colorectal cancer formation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 160 individuals were recruited: 61 cases with non-tumor colon were regarded as the normal group, 47 cases with histology-substantiated colorectal adenomas were regarded as the adenoma group, and 52 cases with invasive adenocarcinomas were regarded as the cancer group...
September 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904265/changes-in-gut-microbial-ecology-and-immunological-responses-of-mice-fed-the-insoluble-fraction-of-brassica-rapa-l-that-was-fermented-or-not
#18
Sachi Tanaka, Kana Yamamoto, Chisato Hamajima, Fuka Takahashi, Kazuki Yamada, Kanon Furuya, Yutaka Uyeno
We aimed to investigate the effects of feeding fermented Brassica rapa L. on ecological and immunological changes in the mouse gut using in vitro cultivation tests and in vivo experiments in normal mice. In the preliminary in vitro study, two B. rapa L. products from different fermentation periods (one d [SF] or six months [LF]) were evaluated along with non-fermented vegetables (NF). Among the components of each product, the insoluble fraction resulted in the most prominent change such as a relative increase in butyrate production during a cultivation inoculated with mouse cecum contents...
September 12, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894447/the-microbial-metabolite-butyrate-induces-expression-of-th1-associated-factors-in-cd4-t-cells
#19
Meike Kespohl, Niyati Vachharajani, Maik Luu, Hani Harb, Sabine Pautz, Svenja Wolff, Nina Sillner, Alesia Walker, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Thomas Boettger, Harald Renz, Stefan Offermanns, Ulrich Steinhoff, Alexander Visekruna
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are generated by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fibers, promote expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). Potential therapeutic value of SCFAs has been recently highlighted in the experimental models of T cell-mediated autoimmunity and allergic inflammation. These studies suggest that physiological intestinal concentrations of SCFAs within the millimolar range are crucial for dampening inflammation-mediated processes. Here, we describe opposing effects of SCFAs on T cell-mediated immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893958/microbial-derived-butyrate-promotes-epithelial-barrier-function-through-il-10-receptor-dependent-repression-of-claudin-2
#20
Leon Zheng, Caleb J Kelly, Kayla D Battista, Rachel Schaefer, Jordi M Lanis, Erica E Alexeev, Ruth X Wang, Joseph C Onyiah, Douglas J Kominsky, Sean P Colgan
Commensal interactions between the enteric microbiota and distal intestine play important roles in regulating human health. Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced through anaerobic microbial metabolism represent a major energy source for the host colonic epithelium and enhance epithelial barrier function through unclear mechanisms. Separate studies revealed that the epithelial anti-inflammatory IL-10 receptor α subunit (IL-10RA) is also important for barrier formation. Based on these findings, we examined if SCFAs promote epithelial barrier through IL-10RA-dependent mechanisms...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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