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Short-chain fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353414/oral-administration-of-compound-probiotics-ameliorates-hfd-induced-gut-microbe-dysbiosis-and-chronic-metabolic-inflammation-via-the-g-protein-coupled-receptor-43-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-rats
#1
Yinji Liang, Shu Liang, Yupei Zhang, Yuanjun Deng, Yifang He, Yanning Chen, Chan Liu, Chenli Lin, Qinhe Yang
The aim of this study was to investigate how the effects of compound probiotics modulate the gut microbiota, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA), body composition, serum and liver lipids, and inflammatory markers in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) rats. Twenty-four male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: normal control group (standard feed), high-fat diet (HFD) feeding group (83% standard feed + 10% lard oil + 1.5% cholesterol + 0.5% cholate + 5% sucrose), and compound probiotics intervention group (HFD + 0...
January 20, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352879/structural-characterization-and-in-vitro-fermentation-of-a-novel-polysaccharide-from-sargassum-thunbergii-and-its-impact-on-gut-microbiota
#2
Xiong Fu, Changliang Cao, Beibei Ren, Bin Zhang, Qiang Huang, Chao Li
The aim of the present study was to investigate structural characteristic and in vitro fermentation of a novel polysaccharide named ST-P2 from Sargassum thunbergii by human fecal inoculums, and its impact on human colonic microbiota. The results showed that ST-P2 was homogeneous with molecular weight of 48,788 Da, and consisted of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and mannose. The main linkage types were identified as (1 → 5)-α-L-Araf, (1 → 3)-α-L-Manp, (1 → 3,6)-β-D-Galp, (1 → 6)-α-D-Glcp, and (1 → 3)-β-D-Xylp, respectively...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351480/mechanistically-different-effects-of-fat-and-sugar-on-insulin-resistance-hypertension-and-gut-microbiota-in-rats
#3
Sara Ramos-Romero, Mercè Hereu, Lidia Atienza, Josefina Casas, Olga Jáuregui, Susana Amézqueta, Gabriel Dasilva, Isabel Medina, Maria Rosa Nogués, Marta Romeu, Josep Lluís Torres
Insulin resistance (IR) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are the first manifestations of diet-induced metabolic alterations leading to type-2 diabetes, while hypertension is the deadliest risk factor of cardiovascular disease. The roles of dietary fat and fructose in the development of IR, IGT and hypertension are controversial. We tested the long-term effects of an excess of fat or sucrose (fructose/glucose) on healthy male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. Fat affects IR and IGT earlier than fructose through low-grade systemic inflammation evidenced by liver inflammatory infiltration, increased levels of plasma interleukin-6, prostaglandin E2 and reduced levels of protective short-chain fatty acids without triggering hypertension...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349441/association-between-sn-2-fatty-acid-profiles-of-breast-milk-and-development-of-the-infant-intestinal-microbiome
#4
Tiemin Jiang, Bin Liu, Jufang Li, Xueyan Dong, Man Lin, Minghui Zhang, Junying Zhao, Yaohua Dai, Lijun Chen
Increasing evidence shows that host diet and gut microbes are related. Previous studies have shown the effects of specific dietary fatty acids (FAs) on intestinal microbiota, but little is known about the effect of the stereospecifically numbered sn-2 position in triglycerides (TG) of human milk on the gut microbiome of infants. This study aimed at examining possible effects of sn-2 FAs of human milk on the gut microbial development of breastfeeding babies. Sn-2 FAs and intestinal microbiota were assessed by GC-MS and high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing, respectively...
January 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346762/transcriptome-and-dna-methylome-analysis-in-a-mouse-model-of-diet-induced-obesity-predicts-increased-risk-of-colorectal-cancer
#5
Ruifang Li, Sara A Grimm, Deepak Mav, Haiwei Gu, Danijel Djukovic, Ruchir Shah, B Alex Merrick, Daniel Raftery, Paul A Wade
Colorectal cancer (CRC) tends to occur at older age; however, CRC incidence rates have been rising sharply among young age groups. The increasing prevalence of obesity is recognized as a major risk, yet the mechanistic underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using a diet-induced obesity mouse model, we identified obesity-associated molecular changes in the colonic epithelium of young and aged mice, and we further investigated whether the changes were reversed after weight loss. Transcriptome analysis indicated that obesity-related colonic cellular metabolic switch favoring long-chain fatty acid oxidation happened in young mice, while obesity-associated downregulation of negative feedback regulators of pro-proliferative signaling pathways occurred in older mice...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343276/the-antihyperlipidemic-effects-of-fullerenol-nanoparticles-via-adjusting-the-gut-microbiota-in-vivo
#6
Juan Li, Runhong Lei, Xin Li, Fengxia Xiong, Quanyang Zhang, Yue Zhou, Shengmei Yang, Yanan Chang, Kui Chen, Weihong Gu, Chongming Wu, Gengmei Xing
BACKGROUND: Nanoparticles (NPs) administered orally will meet the gut microbiota, but their impacts on microbiota homeostasis and the consequent physiological relevance remain largely unknown. Here, we describe the modulatory effects and the consequent pharmacological outputs of two orally administered fullerenols NPs (Fol1 C60(OH)7(O)8 and Fol113 C60(OH)11(O)6) on gut microbiota. RESULTS: Administration of Fol1 and Fol113 NPs for 4 weeks largely shifted the overall structure of gut microbiota in mice...
January 17, 2018: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342189/the-microbiota-metabolite-indole-inhibits-salmonella-virulence-involvement-of-the-phopq-two-component-system
#7
Nandita Kohli, Zeni Crisp, Rebekah Riordan, Michael Li, Robert C Alaniz, Arul Jayaraman
The microbial community present in the gastrointestinal tract is an important component of the host defense against pathogen infections. We previously demonstrated that indole, a microbial metabolite of tryptophan, reduces enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 attachment to intestinal epithelial cells and biofilm formation, suggesting that indole may be an effector/attenuator of colonization for a number of enteric pathogens. Here, we report that indole attenuates Salmonella Typhimurium (Salmonella) virulence and invasion as well as increases resistance to colonization in host cells...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341260/essential-oils-improved-weight-gain-growth-and-feed-efficiency-of-young-dairy-calves-fed-18-or-20-crude-protein-starter-diets
#8
M Kazemi-Bonchenari, R Falahati, M Poorhamdollah, S R Heidari, A Pezeshki
The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338778/increased-whole-blood-ffa2-gpr43-receptor-expression-is-associated-with-increased-30-day-survival-in-patients-with-sepsis
#9
Zyad J Carr, Andry Van De Louw, Graham Fehr, Jialiu D Li, Allen Kunselman, Victor Ruiz-Velasco
OBJECTIVE: Sepsis is a condition associated with a dysregulated inflammatory response to infection with significant morbidity. Recent advances have elucidated the vital role that the short chain fatty acid glycoprotein receptor 43 (FFA2/GPR43) plays in inflammatory and immunomodulatory pathways. We hypothesized that elevated whole blood GPR43 RNA expression would be associated with increased 30-day survival in patients admitted with sepsis. Patients (n = 93) admitted to the intensive care unit with the diagnosis of sepsis underwent quantitative real time PCR within 48 h of intensive care unit admission...
January 16, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331526/valerate-production-by-megasphaera-elsdenii-isolated-from-pig-feces
#10
Shota Yoshikawa, Ryosuke Araoka, Yu Kajihara, Toshiyuki Ito, Hirokuni Miyamoto, Hiroaki Kodama
Megasphaera elsdenii is able to produce several short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate. These SCFAs serve as an energy source for host animals and play an important role in gut health. In this study, M. elsdenii was isolated from pig feces that had been collected from two farms located in distinct areas of Japan. These M. elsdenii isolates were genotyped, and 7 representative strains were selected. When these 7 strains and M. elsdenii JCM 1772T were cultured with lactate for 24 h, all 7 strains produced valerate as a predominant SCFA...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331466/high-grain-diets-supplemented-with-phytogenic-compounds-or-autolyzed-yeast-modulate-ruminal-bacterial-community-and-fermentation-in-dry-cows
#11
V Neubauer, R Petri, E Humer, I Kröger, E Mann, N Reisinger, M Wagner, Q Zebeli
The feeding of concentrate-rich diets may lead to microbial imbalances and dysfermentation in the rumen. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of supplementing phytogenic compounds (PHY) or autolyzed yeast (AY) on rumen fermentation and microbial abundance in cows intermittently fed concentrate-rich diets. The experiment was carried out as an incomplete 3 × 4 Latin square design, with 8 nonlactating rumen-fistulated Holstein-Friesian cows. The cows were randomly assigned to a concentrate diet that was either not supplemented (CON), or supplemented with PHY or AY...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327435/impact-of-dietary-induced-precocious-gut-maturation-on-cecal-microbiota-and-its-relation-to-the-blood-brain-barrier-during-the-postnatal-period-in-rats
#12
N Marungruang, E Arévalo Sureda, A Lefrançoise, B Weström, M Nyman, O Prykhodko, F Fåk Hållenius
BACKGROUND: Precocious maturation of the gastrointestinal barrier (GIB) in newborn mammals can be induced by dietary provocation, but how this affects the gut microbiota and the gut-brain axis remains unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of induced GIB maturation on gut microbiota composition and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. METHODS: Suckling rats were studied at 72 h after gavage with phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or microbial protease (PT) to induce maturation of GIB...
January 12, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325165/utilization-of-soy-hulls-oat-hulls-and-flax-meal-fiber-in-adult-broiler-breeder-hens
#13
H Leung, A Arrazola, S Torrey, E Kiarie
A total of 72, 65-week-old broiler breeder hens (Ross 308, BW 4,190 ± 45 g) was placed in individual cages to investigate utilization of fiber in soy hulls (SH), oat hulls (OH), and flax meal (FM). Birds were adapted to cages for 10 d prior to allocation (n = 18) to broiler breeder ration (control) or control mixed with either of the 3 fiber sources (wt/wt) added to supply equal amounts of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) ∼21% and TiO2. The daily feed allocation was based on 4% BW. Feed intake (FI) was monitored daily, and grab excreta samples were taken on d 16 and 17...
January 6, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324644/nanocomposite-of-half-fin-anchovy-hydrolysates-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-exhibits-actual-non-toxicity-and-regulates-intestinal-microbiota-short-chain-fatty-acids-production-and-oxidative-status-in-mice
#14
Ru Song, Jianbin Yao, Qingqing Shi, Rongbian Wei
The nanocomposite of half-fin anchovy hydrolysates (HAHp) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (named as HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs) demonstrated increased antibacterial activity compared to either HAHp(3.0) or ZnO NPs as per our previous studies. Also, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation was detected in Escherichia coli cells after treatment with HAHp(3.0)/ZnO NPs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of this nanocomposite and to investigate its effect on intestinal microbiota composition, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production, and oxidative status in healthy mice...
January 11, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323180/low-amounts-of-dietary-fibre-increase-in-vitro-production-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-without-changing-human-colonic-microbiota-structure
#15
Daisuke Sasaki, Kengo Sasaki, Naoko Ikuta, Takahiro Yasuda, Itsuko Fukuda, Akihiko Kondo, Ro Osawa
This study investigated the effect of various prebiotics (indigestible dextrin, α-cyclodextrin, and dextran) on human colonic microbiota at a dosage corresponding to a daily intake of 6 g of prebiotics per person (0.2% of dietary intake). We used an in vitro human colonic microbiota model based on batch fermentation starting from a faecal inoculum. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that addition of 0.2% prebiotics did not change the diversity and composition of colonic microbiota. This finding coincided with results from a clinical study showing that the microbiota composition of human faecal samples remained unchanged following administration of 6 g of prebiotics over seven days...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322139/effects-of-polysaccharides-from-purple-sweet-potatoes-on-immune-response-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-normal-and-cyclophosphamide-treated-mice
#16
Chao Tang, Jian Sun, Bo Zhou, Changhai Jin, Jun Liu, Juan Kan, Chunlu Qian, Nianfeng Zhang
In this study, three polysaccharides including water-soluble polysaccharide (WSP), dilute alkali-soluble polysaccharide (DASP) and concentrated alkali-soluble polysaccharide (CASP) were extracted from purple sweet potatoes and then administered to normal and cyclophosphamide (CTX) treated mice by gavage. The results showed that WSP and CASP could restore the spleen index and immune cytokine (IL-2 and IL-6) levels in CTX treated mice, while DASP could enhance the levels of TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-6. As compared to the normal control group, WSP and CASP treatment groups exhibited increased levels of Bacteroidetes, Lachnospiraceae and Oscillospira, but decreased levels of Firmicutes, Alcaligenaceae and Sutterella in normal mice...
January 11, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321189/gut-brain-signaling-in-energy-homeostasis-the-unexpected-role-of-microbiota-derived-succinate
#17
REVIEW
Filipe de Vadder, Gilles Mithieux
In the context of the obesity epidemic, dietary fibers that are found essentially in fruit and vegetables attract more and more attention, since they exert numerous metabolic benefits resulting in the moderation of body weight. Short-chain fatty acids, such as propionate and butyrate, produced through their fermentation by the intestinal microbiota, have long been thought to be the mediators of these benefits. In fact, propionate and butyrate were recently shown to activate intestinal gluconeogenesis, a function exerting metabolic benefits via its capacity of signaling to the brain by gastrointestinal nerves...
February 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317660/microbiota-derived-short-chain-fatty-acids-promote-histone-crotonylation-in-the-colon-through-histone-deacetylases
#18
Rachel Fellows, Jérémy Denizot, Claudia Stellato, Alessandro Cuomo, Payal Jain, Elena Stoyanova, Szabina Balázsi, Zoltán Hajnády, Anke Liebert, Juri Kazakevych, Hector Blackburn, Renan Oliveira Corrêa, José Luís Fachi, Fabio Takeo Sato, Willian R Ribeiro, Caroline Marcantonio Ferreira, Hélène Perée, Mariangela Spagnuolo, Raphaël Mattiuz, Csaba Matolcsi, Joana Guedes, Jonathan Clark, Marc Veldhoen, Tiziana Bonaldi, Marco Aurélio Ramirez Vinolo, Patrick Varga-Weisz
The recently discovered histone post-translational modification crotonylation connects cellular metabolism to gene regulation. Its regulation and tissue-specific functions are poorly understood. We characterize histone crotonylation in intestinal epithelia and find that histone H3 crotonylation at lysine 18 is a surprisingly abundant modification in the small intestine crypt and colon, and is linked to gene regulation. We show that this modification is highly dynamic and regulated during the cell cycle. We identify class I histone deacetylases, HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3, as major executors of histone decrotonylation...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313353/simulated-digestion-and-fermentation-in-vitro-by-human-gut-microbiota-of-polysaccharides-from-bee-collected-pollen-of-chinese-wolfberry
#19
Wangting Zhou, Yamei Yan, Jia Mi, Hongcheng Zhang, Lu Lu, Qing Luo, Xiaoying Li, Xiaoxiong Zeng, Youlong Cao
Digestion and fermentation in vitro of polysaccharides from bee collected pollen of Chinese wolfberry (WBPPS) were investigated in the present study. It was found that WBPPS was mainly consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 0.38: 0.09: 0.17: 0.64: 0.22: 0.67: 0.08: 1.03, respectively. WBPPS was not affected by human saliva. The fraction A (molecular weight 1340 kDa) of WBPPS was not broken down in simulated gastric and small intestinal juices, while the small fraction B (molecular weight 523 kDa) of WBPPS was degraded...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313275/microbiome-immunomodulation-and-the-neuronal-system
#20
REVIEW
Eric Marietta, Irina Horwath, Veena Taneja
Vertebrates harbor both symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria on the body and various mucosal surfaces. Of these surfaces, the intestine has the most diverse composition. This composition is dependent upon various environmental and genetic factors, with diet exerting the maximum influence. Significant roles of the intestinal bacteria are to stimulate the development of a competent mucosal immune system and to maintain tolerance within the intestine. One manner in which this is achieved is by the establishment of epithelial integrity by microbiota found in healthy individuals (healthy microbiota); however, in the case of a disrupted intestinal microbiome (dysbiosis), which can be caused by various conditions, the epithelial integrity is compromised...
January 8, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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