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Short-chain fatty acids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342836/membrane-fatty-acid-composition-as-a-determinant-of-listeria-monocytogenes-sensitivity-to-trans-cinnamaldehyde
#1
Gil Rogiers, Biniam T Kebede, Ann Van Loey, Chris W Michiels
Trans-cinnamaldehyde, the major compound of cinnamon essential oil, is a potentially interesting natural antimicrobial food preservative. Although a number of studies have addressed its mode of action, the factors that determine bacterial sensitivity or tolerance to trans-cinnamaldehyde are poorly understood. We report the detailed characterization of a Listeria monocytogenes Scott A trans-cinnamaldehyde hypersensitive mutant defective in IlvE, which catalyzes the reversible transamination of branched-chain amino acids to the corresponding short-chain α-ketoacids...
March 23, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342734/integration-of-microbiome-and-epigenome-to-decipher-the-pathogenesis-of-autoimmune-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Beidi Chen, Luxi Sun, Xuan Zhang
The interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental factors are of great significance in the pathogenesis and development of autoimmune diseases (AIDs). The human mucosa is the most frequent site that interacts with the exterior environment, and commensal microbiota at the gut and other human mucosal cavities play a crucial role in the regulation of immune system. Growing evidence has shown that the compositional and functional changes of mucosal microbiota are closely related to AIDs. Gut dysbiosis not only influence the expression level of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) of antigen presenting cells, but also contribute to Th17/Treg imbalance...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342614/genetic-analysis-of-groups-of-mid-infrared-predicted-fatty-acids-in-milk
#3
S G Narayana, F S Schenkel, A Fleming, A Koeck, F Malchiodi, J Jamrozik, J Johnston, M Sargolzaei, F Miglior
The objective of this study was to investigate genetic variability of mid-infrared predicted fatty acid groups in Canadian Holstein cattle. Genetic parameters were estimated for 5 groups of fatty acids: short-chain (4 to 10 carbons), medium-chain (11 to 16 carbons), long-chain (17 to 22 carbons), saturated, and unsaturated fatty acids. The data set included 49,127 test-day records from 10,029 first-lactation Holstein cows in 810 herds. The random regression animal test-day model included days in milk, herd-test date, and age-season of calving (polynomial regression) as fixed effects, herd-year of calving, animal additive genetic effect, and permanent environment effects as random polynomial regressions, and random residual effect...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342600/temporal-changes-in-milk-fatty-acid-distribution-due-to-feeding-different-levels-of-rolled-safflower-seeds-to-lactating-holstein-cows
#4
Amir Ahmadpour, Hassan Aliarabi, Mohammad Ghelich Khan, Robert A Patton, Rupert M Bruckmaier
The objective of this experiment was to follow the time-course changes of the milk fatty acids (FA) and particularly conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), n-3, and n-6 FA in response to feeding whole rolled safflower seed (SS). Eighteen cows were blocked by milk production, days in milk, and parity, and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 diets by replacing whole cottonseed with SS. The control diet contained no SS (SS0), whereas the other diets contained 3% of dry matter as SS (SS3) or 6% SS (SS6). The study was conducted for 8 wk...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337185/food-like-growth-conditions-support-production-of-active-vitamin-b12-by-propionibacterium-freudenreichii-2067-without-dmbi-the-lower-ligand-base-or-cobalt-supplementation
#5
Paulina Deptula, Bhawani Chamlagain, Minnamari Edelmann, Panchanit Sangsuwan, Tuula A Nyman, Kirsi Savijoki, Vieno Piironen, Pekka Varmanen
Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a traditional dairy bacterium and a producer of short chain fatty acids (propionic and acetic acids) as well as vitamin B12. In food applications, it is a promising organism for in situ fortification with B12 vitamin since it is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and it is able to synthesize biologically active form of the vitamin. In the present study, vitamin B12 and pseudovitamin biosynthesis by P. freudenreichii was monitored by UHPLC as a function of growth in food-like conditions using a medium mimicking cheese environment, without cobalt or 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) supplementation...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335773/oral-administration-of-propionic-acid-during-lactation-enhances-the-colonic-barrier-function
#6
Zhaobo Xia, Yijiang Han, Ke Wang, Shikun Guo, Dazhou Wu, Xiaozhong Huang, Zhongrong Li, Libin Zhu
BACKGROUND: Propionic acid is a three-carbon short chain fatty acid (SCFA) that has various effects on colonic functions. Although several studies have shown the effects of propionic acid on intestinal mucosal barrier function, studies of the promotion effect during pre-weaning are rare in the literature as far as we know. METHODS: Pre-weaning male Sprague-Dawley rats 7 days after birth were given an oral 0.2 mL/10 g of 200 mM propionic acid solution in the propionic acid group or normal saline solution in the control group by gavage twice a day for ten days...
March 23, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335448/a-community-multi-omics-approach-towards-the-assessment-of-surface-water-quality-in-an-urban-river-system
#7
David J Beale, Avinash V Karpe, Warish Ahmed, Stephen Cook, Paul D Morrison, Christopher Staley, Michael J Sadowsky, Enzo A Palombo
A multi-omics approach was applied to an urban river system (the Brisbane River (BR), Queensland, Australia) in order to investigate surface water quality and characterize the bacterial population with respect to water contaminants. To do this, bacterial metagenomic amplicon-sequencing using Illumina next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V5-V6 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and untargeted community metabolomics using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were utilized. The multi-omics data, in combination with fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) counts, trace metal concentrations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)) and in-situ water quality measurements collected from various locations along the BR were then used to assess the health of the river ecosystem...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333262/selection-in-europeans-on-fatty-acid-desaturases-associated-with-dietary-changes
#8
Matthew T Buckley, Fernando Racimo, Morten E Allentoft, Majken K Jensen, Anna Jonsson, Hongyan Huang, Farhad Hormozdiari, Martin Sikora, Davide Marnetto, Eleazar Eskin, Marit E Jørgensen, Niels Grarup, Oluf Pedersen, Torben Hansen, Peter Kraft, Eske Willerslev, Rasmus Nielsen
FADS genes encode fatty acid desaturases that are important for the conversion of short chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to long chain fatty acids. Prior studies indicate that the FADS genes have been subjected to strong positive selection in Africa, South Asia, Greenland, and Europe. By comparing FADS sequencing data from present-day and Bronze Age (5-3k years ago) Europeans, we identify possible targets of selection in the European population, which suggest that selection has targeted different alleles in the FADS genes in Europe than it has in South Asia or Greenland...
March 16, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333199/effect-of-butyrate-and-lactobacillus-gg-on-a-butyrate-receptor-and-transporter-during-campylobacter-jejuni-exposure
#9
Gail A M Cresci, Paul C Mayer, Stuart A Thompson
Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni) frequently infects humans causing many gastrointestinal symptoms, fever, fatigue and several long-term debilitating diseases. Current treatment for campylobacteriosis includes rehydration and in some cases, antibiotic therapy. Probiotics are used to treat several gastrointestinal diseases. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid known to promote intestinal health. Interaction of butyrate with its respective receptor (HCAR2) and transporter (SLC5A8), both expressed in the intestine, is associated with water and electrolyte absorption as well as providing defense against colon cancer and inflammation...
February 23, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332901/regulation-of-humoral-immunity-by-gut-microbial-products
#10
Myunghoo Kim, Chang H Kim
The intestinal tract provides ideal niches for several different microbial species, which are collectively called the gut microbiota. A key host immune effector that controls the microbiota and prevents mucosal infection is IgA. Gut microbiota-derived factors are largely classified into molecular pattern recognition receptor ligands and nutrient-derived metabolites including short-chain fatty acids and adenosine triphosphate. Along with host-derived factors such as retinoic acid, various cytokines and cytokine-like molecules, gut microbial products profoundly shape B cell responses...
February 28, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332163/fermentation-of-dietetic-fiber-from-green-bean-and-prickly-pear-shell-by-pure-and-mixture-culture-of-lactobacillus-acidophilus-la-5-and-bifidobacterium-bifidum-450b
#11
Y N Mora-Cura, N P Meléndez-Rentería, M Delgado-García, J C Contreras-Esquivel, J A Morlett-Chávez, C N Aguilar, R Rodríguez-Herrera
The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation of dietary fiber from green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and prickly pear shell (Opuntia ficus-indica) by Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium bifidum 450B growing as mono-culture and co-culture, the fermentation products, and proteins expressed during this process. The analysis of the fermentation profile showed a major growth of bacteria in the culture media of each dietary fiber supplemented with glucose, and particularly B. bifidum 450B at 48 h showed the highest growth...
March 23, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331053/acetate-dose-dependently-stimulates-milk-fat-synthesis-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#12
Natalie L Urrutia, Kevin J Harvatine
Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325897/energy-use-and-carbon-footprints-differ-dramatically-for-diverse-wastewater-derived-carbonaceous-substrates-an-integrated-exploration-of-biokinetics-and-life-cycle-assessment
#13
Yanbo Li, Xu Wang, David Butler, Junxin Liu, Jiuhui Qu
Energy neutrality and reduction of carbon emissions are significant challenges to the enhanced sustainability of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Harvesting energy from wastewater carbonaceous substrates can offset energy demands and enable net power generation; yet, there is limited research about how carbonaceous substrates influence energy and carbon implications of WWTPs with integrated energy recovery at systems-level. Consequently, this research uses biokinetics modelling and life cycle assessment philology to explore this notion, by tracing and assessing the quantitative flows of energy embodied or captured, and by exploring the carbon footprint throughout an energy-intensive activated sludge process with integrated energy recovery facilities...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322790/short-chain-fatty-acids-gpr41-and-gpr43-ligands-inhibit-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-mcp-1-expression-by-modulating-p38-and-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-human-renal-cortical-epithelial-cells
#14
Mamiko Kobayashi, Daisuke Mikami, Hideki Kimura, Kazuko Kamiyama, Yukie Morikawa, Seiji Yokoi, Kenji Kasuno, Naoki Takahashi, Takanobu Taniguchi, Masayuki Iwano
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are produced predominantly by gut microbiota fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFAs are newly identified as endogenous ligands of two orphan G protein-coupled receptors, GPR41 and GPR43, which have the potential to modulate inflammation. Therefore, GPR41 and GPR43 may mediate the link between the gut microbiome status and various disease conditions including renal inflammation. This study aimed at investigating whether SCFAs activate GPR41 and GPR43, and thereby exert anti-inflammatory effects in human renal cortical epithelial cells (HRCEs) as a main component of kidney tissue...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320893/regional-differences-in-nutrient-induced-secretion-of-gut-serotonin
#15
Alyce M Martin, Amanda L Lumsden, Richard L Young, Claire F Jessup, Nick J Spencer, Damien J Keating
Enterochromaffin (EC) cells located in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide the vast majority of serotonin (5-HT) in the body and constitute half of all enteroendocrine cells. EC cells respond to an array of stimuli, including various ingested nutrients. Ensuing 5-HT release from these cells plays a diverse role in regulating gut motility as well as other important responses to nutrient ingestion such as glucose absorption and fluid balance. Recent data also highlight the role of peripheral 5-HT in various pathways related to metabolic control...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318400/new-frontiers-in-fibers-innovative-and-emerging-research-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-bone-health
#16
Taylor C Wallace, Massimo Marzorati, Lisa Spence, Connie M Weaver, Patricia S Williamson
The complex interactions between the diet, gut microbiome, and host characteristics that provide a functional benefit to the host are an area of great interest and current exploration in the nutrition and health science community. New technologies are available to assess mechanisms that may explain these functional benefits to the host. One emerging functional benefit from changes in the gut microbiome is increased calcium absorption, increased calcium retention, and improved indices of bone health. Prebiotic fibers enhance microbial fermentation in the gut, providing an ecological advantage to specific nonpathogenic bacteria that have the ability to modify an individual's metabolic potential...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315048/microbial-short-chain-fatty-acids-and-blood-pressure-regulation
#17
REVIEW
Jennifer L Pluznick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbial short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are byproducts of microbial metabolism which can be absorbed into the bloodstream of the host, where they exert effects on host physiology. SCFAs have been known to influence several aspects of host physiology, including the regulation of blood pressure. In this review, we will consider recent studies linking SCFAs to blood pressure regulation. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have found that changes in blood pressure often coordinate with expected changes in SCFAS...
April 2017: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301146/effect-of-whole-grain-qingke-tibetan-hordeum-vulgare-l-zangqing-320-on-the-serum-lipid-levels-and-intestinal-microbiota-of-rats-under-high-fat-diet
#18
Xuejuan Xia, Guannan Li, Yongbo Ding, Tingyuan Ren, Jiong Zheng, Jianquan Kan
This study investigated the hypolipidemic effect of whole grain Qingke (WGQ) and its influence on intestinal microbiota. Changes in the serum lipid, intestinal environment, and microbiota of Sprague-Dawley rats fed high-fat diets supplemented with different doses of WGQ were determined. Results showed that high doses of WGQ significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the Lee's index, serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels whereas they increased the body weight of the rats...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300535/analysis-of-short-chain-fatty-acids-in-human-feces-a-scoping-review
#19
REVIEW
Maša Primec, Dušanka Mičetić-Turk, Tomaž Langerholc
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis in humans, therefore the importance of a good and reliable SCFAs analytical detection has raised a lot in the past few years. The aim of this scoping review is to show the trends in the development of different methods of SCFAs analysis in feces, based on the literature published in the last eleven years in all major indexing databases. The search criteria included analytical quantification techniques of SCFAs in different human clinical and in vivo studies...
March 12, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300407/dynamic-succession-of-groundwater-sulfate-reducing-communities-during-prolonged-reduction-of-uranium-in-a-contaminated-aquifer
#20
Ping Zhang, Zhili He, Joy D Van Nostrand, Yujia Qin, Ye Deng, Liyou Wu, Qichao Tu, Jianjun Wang, Christopher W Schadt, Matthew W Fields, Terry C Hazen, Adam P Arkin, David A Stahl, Jizhong Zhou
To further understand the diversity and dynamics of SRB in response to substrate amendment, we sequenced genes coding for the dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA) in groundwater samples collected after an emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) amendment, which sustained U(VI)-reducing conditions for one year in a fast-flowing aquifer. EVO amendment significantly altered the composition of groundwater SRB communities. Sequences having no closely related-described species dominated (80%) the indigenous SRB communities in nonamended wells...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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