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second stage of labor

Kathleen Rice Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Renaud de Tayrac, Vincent Letouzey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Over the past 20 years, several randomized studies have compared Valsalva and spontaneous pushing techniques during vaginal delivery. This review summarizes current medical knowledge concerning their maternal and fetal consequences, focusing on pelvic and perineal outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: We selected nine randomized controlled trials comparing Valsalva and spontaneous pushing, and a secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial comparing different methods of perineal protection...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Lynn M Yee, Grecio Sandoval, Jennifer Bailit, Uma M Reddy, Ronald J Wapner, Michael W Varner, Steve N Caritis, Mona Prasad, Alan T N Tita, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin, Dwight J Rouse, Sean C Blackwell, Jorge E Tolosa
OBJECTIVE: To describe factors associated with delayed pushing and evaluate the relationship between delayed pushing and perinatal outcomes in nulliparous women with singleton term gestations. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Assessment of Perinatal Excellence cohort of 115,502 women and their neonates born in 25 U.S. hospitals from 2008 to 2011. Nulliparous women with singleton, cephalic, nonanomalous term births who achieved 10-cm cervical dilation were included...
October 6, 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Loïc Sentilhes, Benjamin Merlot, Hugo Madar, François Sztark, Stéphanie Brun, Catherine Deneux-Tharaux
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is one of the leading causes of maternal death and severe maternal morbidity worldwide and strategies to prevent and treat PPH vary among international authorities. Areas covered: This review seeks to provide a global overview of PPH (incidence, causes, risk factors), prevention (active management of the third stage of labor and prohemostatic agents), treatment (first, second and third-line measures to control PPH), by also underlining recommendations elaborated by international authorities and using algorithms...
October 5, 2016: Expert Review of Hematology
Liran Hiersch, Riki Bergel-Bson, Dorit Asher, Amir Aviram, Rinat Gabby-Benziv, Yariv Yogev, Eran Ashwal
OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) following vacuum assisted vaginal delivery (VAVD). STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study of all women with singleton pregnancies who underwent VAVD in a tertiary hospital (2012-2014). PPH was defined as any of the following: ≥500 ml estimated blood loss, hemoglobin drop ≥3 g/dl (difference between pre- and post-VAVD hemoglobin levels) or the need for blood products transfusion. Characteristics of women with PPH following VAVD were compared to those of women with no PPH following VAVD...
September 29, 2016: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Lily Lee, Jessica Dy, Hussam Azzam
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this guideline is to provide guidance for the intrapartum management of spontaneous labour, whether normal or abnormal, in term, healthy women, and to provide guidance in the management of first and second stage dystocia to increase the likelihood of a vaginal birth and optimize birth outcomes. EVIDENCE: Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library in October 2011 using appropriate, controlled vocabulary (e...
September 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Manana Khachidze, Magda Tsintsadze, Maia Archuadze
According to the Ministry of Labor, Health and Social Affairs of Georgia a new health management system has to be introduced in the nearest future. In this context arises the problem of structuring and classifying documents containing all the history of medical services provided. The present work introduces the instrument for classification of medical records based on the Georgian language. It is the first attempt of such classification of the Georgian language based medical records. On the whole 24.855 examination records have been studied...
2016: BioMed Research International
Michele J Grimm
Childbirth is a complicated biomechanical process that many take for granted. However, the delivery forces generated by a mother (uterine contractions and maternal pushing) are strong and have a significant effect on the body and tissues of the fetus, especially during the second stage of labor. Although most infants are born without negative, force-related outcomes, in some infants the normal forces of labor cause an injury that can have either temporary or permanent sequelae. The biomechanical situation is further complicated when an infant's shoulder impacts the maternal pelvis, which provides increased resistance and creates added stresses within the neonatal body and tissues...
September 21, 2016: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology
Amit Meshi, Sharon Armarnik, Michael Mimouni, Fani Segev, Ori Segal, Hagai Kaneti, Ehud I Assia, Noa Geffen
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of modern vaginal labor using epidural anesthesia on the intraocular pressure (IOP) and on the mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) in healthy women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective observational study, eligible candidates were healthy pregnant women for vaginal delivery with epidural anesthesia, with a singleton pregnancy, who were admitted to the delivery room in the first phase of the first stage of labor. Demographic data as well as medical and obstetric history were obtained at baseline, followed by performance of a biomicroscopic examination...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Glaucoma
Michal Pomorski, Tomasz Fuchs, Anna Rosner-Tenerowicz, Mariusz Zimmer
OBJECTIVE: To identify factors related to the healing of a Cesarean uterine incision using the standardized ultrasonographic approach of scar assessment in the non-pregnant uterus. STUDY DESIGN: Measurements of the uterine scar were taken from 409 women with a history of at least one low transverse cesarean section (CS) with a single layer uterine closure. Residual myometrial thickness (RMT), width (W) and depth (D) of the triangular hypoechoic scar niche, D/RMT ratio and clinical characteristics were analyzed...
October 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Liangcheng Wang, Kenichi Kuromaki, Ayaka Kawabe, Atsuko Kikugawa, Shigetaka Matsunaga, Akiyoshi Takagi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether a nuchal cord increases the risk of perinatal complications during labor, and whether fetal growth and sex affect the risk of fetal distress. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 1749 women with singleton pregnancies planning a vaginal delivery were enrolled. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of a nuchal cord at birth. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to determine whether the risks of perinatal complications increased in the nuchal cord group...
August 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
Somayeh Makvandi, Khadigeh Mirzaiinajmabadi, Ramin Sadeghi, Mitra Mahdavian, Leila Karimi
BACKGROUND: Acupressure is increasing in popularity as an alternative treatment in obstetrics and gynecology. OBJECTIVES: To summarize and assess evidence regarding the effects of acupressure on duration of labor and mode of delivery. SEARCH STRATEGY: Four major databases and Google Scholar were searched using terms related to labor and acupressure, without language restrictions, up to November 2015. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized controlled trials were included if they examined the effect of acupressure at any acupoint during childbirth on duration of labor and/or mode of delivery...
October 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Mahboubeh Valiani, Mehri Rezaie, Zahra Shahshahan
BACKGROUND: Labor is a physiologic process, and consideration of labor pain and relieving that is among the major components of maternal care. Application of some labor position can lay the fetus better in pelvic canal direction. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of laying the mother in three labor positions on the pain severity in the second, third, and fourth stages of labor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a clinical trial conducted on 96 primiparous pregnant women randomly selected through convenient sampling from those who were hospitalized in the hospitals of Isfahan and Jahrom...
July 2016: Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research
Xiani Yan, Jennifer A Kruger, Xinshan Li, Poul M F Nielsen, Martyn P Nash
Vaginal delivery is the primary cause of levator ani muscle injury, which is in turn the leading factor contributing to pelvic floor disorders including pelvic organ prolapse and urinary stress incontinence. Existing biomechanical models of childbirth have provided some understanding of pelvic floor function during delivery and have helped in the investigation of preventative strategies. The modeling frameworks for childbirth simulation are described with emphasis on (1) the recent advances in medical imaging quality and computational power; (2) improvements in the anatomical representation of the pelvic floor and fetal head; (3) more realistic boundary conditions for delivery; and (4) mechanical properties determined from experiments...
November 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
I Hendler, M Kirshenbaum, M Barg, S Kees, S Mazaki-Tovi, O Moran, A Kalter, E Schiff
OBJECTIVE: To determine the preferred mode of delivery (vacuum, forceps or cesarean delivery) for second stage dystocia. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of women delivered by forceps, vacuum or cesarean delivery due to abnormalities of the second stage of labor. Primary outcome included neonatal and maternal composite adverse effects. RESULTS: 547 women were included: 150 (27.4%) had forceps delivery, 200 (36.5%) had vacuum extraction and 197 (36...
August 23, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ha Yan Kwon, Hyun Soo Park
PURPOSE: We examined the frequency of severe perineal injuries according to the use of episiotomy in vaginal deliveries of Korean women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study in which 358 consecutive parturients were included. Women were divided into episiotomy (n = 115) and no episiotomy (n = 243) groups. The main outcome was the occurrence of severe (third- or fourth-degree) perineal injuries. Delivery records and medical documents were reviewed to collect the data...
August 22, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kathleen Rice Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: MCN. the American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing
Yang Zhao, Yan Xin, Yongbo Liu, Xuanlong Yi, Yingzhi Liu
BACKGROUD: The purpose of our study is to evaluate the effect of adding dexmedetomidine to epidural ropivacaine in patients undergoing labor epidural analgesia. METHODS: Eighty healthy women were randomly assigned to two groups: control group(R; n=40) received epidural 0.125% ropivacaine for labor analgesia, whereas the study group (D; n=40) received epidural 0.125% ropivacaine with dexmedetomidine in addition. The blood pressure, heart rate, and the severity of pain of the parturient was assessed, the duration of the first stage and the second stage of labor time, the rate of instrumental delivery and the rate of cesarean section were recorded...
August 10, 2016: Clinical Journal of Pain
Gary A Dildy, Michael A Belfort, Steven L Clark
Both resident training in the use of obstetric forceps and forceps deliveries are experiencing precipitous declines in the United States. Current minimum training requirements are insufficient to ensure competency in this skill. These trends bear striking similarities to observations regarding the decline and ultimate extinction of biologic species and portend the inevitable disappearance of this valuable skill from the obstetric armamentarium. Attempts by experienced teaching faculty to provide residents with experience in a few forceps deliveries are of little value and may do more harm than good...
September 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Ching-Hsing Hsieh
Women who undergo vaginal birth apply uterine fundal pressure during the second stage of labor. Uterine fundal pressure is done manually with the practitioner's forearms, elbows, or palms pressed on the uterine fundus at a 30° to 45° angle to the maternal spine in the direction of the pelvis. The pressure is applied in the longitudinal direction. Gentle, firm, and steady pressure is recommended. The various side effects of applying uterine fundal pressure include: uterine rupture, postpartum urinary retention, severe perineal trauma and pain, rib fracture, postpartum dyspareunia, and potential neonatal distress or trauma...
August 2016: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
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