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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514909/what-can-action-learning-offer-a-beleaguered-system-a-narrative-representing-the-relationship
#1
James Traeger
Purpose This is an attempt to write an account of action learning that is as close to the ground on which it was practised as the author can make it. In that sense, the reader can read what follows below as a kind of autoethnography, a "representation as relationship" as Gergen and Gergen (2002, p. 11) call it. This is because in the opportunity of telling a story about his practice as an action learning facilitator, the author hopes to evoke that which is more akin to the contactful environment of quality action learning than any amount of abstract theorising...
May 2, 2017: Leadership in Health Services
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512359/the-perceived-stability-of-scenes-serial-dependence-in-ensemble-representations
#2
Mauro Manassi, Alina Liberman, Wesley Chaney, David Whitney
We are continuously surrounded by a noisy and ever-changing environment. Instead of analyzing all the elements in a scene, our visual system has the ability to compress an enormous amount of visual information into ensemble representations, such as perceiving a forest instead of every single tree. Still, it is unclear why such complex scenes appear to be the same from moment to moment despite fluctuations, noise, and discontinuities in retinal images. The general effects of change blindness are usually thought to stabilize scene perception, making us unaware of minor inconsistencies between scenes...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504410/unpacking-the-ontogeny-of-gesture-understanding-how-movement-becomes-meaningful-across-development
#3
Elizabeth M Wakefield, Miriam A Novack, Susan Goldin-Meadow
Gestures, hand movements that accompany speech, affect children's learning, memory, and thinking (e.g., Goldin-Meadow, 2003). However, it remains unknown how children distinguish gestures from other kinds of actions. In this study, 4- to 9-year-olds (n = 339) and adults (n = 50) described one of three scenes: (a) an actor moving objects, (b) an actor moving her hands in the presence of objects (but not touching them), or (c) an actor moving her hands in the absence of objects. Participants across all ages were equally able to identify actions on objects as goal directed, but the ability to identify empty-handed movements as representational actions (i...
May 15, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502632/two-years-later-revisiting-autobiographical-memory-representations-in-vmpfc-and-hippocampus
#4
Heidi M Bonnici, Eleanor A Maguire
A long-standing question in memory neuroscience concerns how and where autobiographical memories of personal experiences are represented in the brain. In a previous high resolution multivoxel pattern analysis fMRI study, we examined two week old (recent) and ten year old (remote) autobiographical memories (Bonnici et al., 2012, J. Neurosci. 32:16982-16991). We found that remote memories were particularly well represented in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) compared to recent memories. Moreover, while both types of memory were represented within anterior and posterior hippocampus, remote memories were more easily distinguished in the posterior portion...
May 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484376/information-and-the-origin-of-qualia
#5
Roger Orpwood
This article argues that qualia are a likely outcome of the processing of information in local cortical networks. It uses an information-based approach and makes a distinction between information structures (the physical embodiment of information in the brain, primarily patterns of action potentials), and information messages (the meaning of those structures to the brain, and the basis of qualia). It develops formal relationships between these two kinds of information, showing how information structures can represent messages, and how information messages can be identified from structures...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480333/a-unified-model-of-human-semantic-knowledge-and-its-disorders
#6
Lang Chen, Matthew A Lambon Ralph, Timothy T Rogers
How is knowledge about the meanings of words and objects represented in the human brain? Current theories embrace two radically different proposals: either distinct cortical systems have evolved to represent different kinds of things, or knowledge for all kinds is encoded within a single domain-general network. Neither view explains the full scope of relevant evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Here we propose that graded category-specificity emerges in some components of the semantic network through joint effects of learning and network connectivity...
March 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463721/-how-can-anybody-be-representative-for-those-kind-of-people-forms-of-patient-representation-in-health-research-and-why-it-is-always-contestable
#7
Kath Maguire, Nicky Britten
Different discourses that co-exist within the world of patient and public involvement in health and social care mirror a tangle of historical, social, political and theoretical roots. These range from the radical activism, born of civil rights movements, to a more passive model in which patients are the recipients of information. This paper explores the concept of 'representation' and the ways the concept is used by people serving as 'patient' or 'lay' representatives in a range of roles within research projects, funding bodies and academic institutions...
June 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458635/analysis-and-modeling-of-subthreshold-neural-multi-electrode-array-data-by-statistical-field-theory
#8
Måns Henningson, Sebastian Illes
Multi-electrode arrays (MEA) are increasingly used to investigate spontaneous neuronal network activity. The recorded signals comprise several distinct components: Apart from artifacts without biological significance, one can distinguish between spikes (action potentials) and subthreshold fluctuations (local fields potentials). Here we aim to develop a theoretical model that allows for a compact and robust characterization of subthreshold fluctuations in terms of a Gaussian statistical field theory in two spatial and one temporal dimension...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458050/comparing-different-kinds-of-words-and-word-word-relations-to-test-an-habituation-model-of-priming
#9
Cory A Rieth, David E Huber
Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer...
June 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455637/optical-and-electronic-structure-description-of-metal-doped-phthalocyanines
#10
Luciano Almeida Leal, Wiliam Ferreira da Cunha, Luiz Antonio Ribeiro Junior, Tamires Lima Pereira, Stefan Michael Blawid, Rafael Timóteo de Sousa Junior, Demétrio Antonio da Silva Filho
Phthalocyanines represent a crucial class of organic compounds with high technological appeal. By doping the center of these systems with metals, one obtains the so-called metal-phthalocyanines, whose property of being an effective electron donor allows for potentially interesting uses in organic electronics. In this sense, investigating optical and electronic structure changes in the phthalocyanine profiles in the presence of different metals is of fundamental importance for evaluating the appropriateness of the resulting system as far as these uses are concerned...
May 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452370/observability-of-boolean-multiplex-control-networks
#11
Yuhu Wu, Jingxue Xu, Xi-Ming Sun, Wei Wang
Boolean multiplex (multilevel) networks (BMNs) are currently receiving considerable attention as theoretical arguments for modeling of biological systems and system level analysis. Studying control-related problems in BMNs may not only provide new views into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems, but also enable us to develop a method for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. In this article, the observability of the Boolean multiplex control networks (BMCNs) are studied. First, the dynamical model and structure of BMCNs with control inputs and outputs are constructed...
April 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437486/prediction-of-crime-occurrence-from-multi-modal-data-using-deep-learning
#12
Hyeon-Woo Kang, Hang-Bong Kang
In recent years, various studies have been conducted on the prediction of crime occurrences. This predictive capability is intended to assist in crime prevention by facilitating effective implementation of police patrols. Previous studies have used data from multiple domains such as demographics, economics, and education. Their prediction models treat data from different domains equally. These methods have problems in crime occurrence prediction, such as difficulty in discovering highly nonlinear relationships, redundancies, and dependencies between multiple datasets...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424394/-brodmann-areas-17-18-and-19-in-the-human-brain-an-overview
#13
Juro Kawachi
Brodmann areas 17, 18, and 19 in the human brain are visual cortices of the occipital lobe. Each area has its own retinotopic representations, particulary area 19, which has many small retinotopic areas representing half or all of the contralateral visual field, several functional areas, and nine cytoarchitectonic areas. Several fasciculi are known as occipital fiber connections, but their precise endpoints are not clear. Lesions in the visual cortices cause several visual disorders including visual field defect, visual hallucinations, metamorphopsia, and different kinds of visual agnosia...
April 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423745/reasoning-and-data-representation-in-a-health-and-lifestyle-support-system
#14
Sten Hanke, Karl Kreiner, Johannes Kropf, Marc Scase, Christian Gossy
Case-based reasoning and data interpretation is an artificial intelligence approach that capitalizes on past experience to solve current problems and this can be used as a method for practical intelligent systems. Case-based data reasoning is able to provide decision support for experts and clinicians in health systems as well as lifestyle systems. In this project we were focusing on developing a solution for healthy ageing considering daily activities, nutrition as well as cognitive activities. The data analysis of the reasoner followed state of the art guidelines from clinical practice...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420792/morality-constrains-the-default-representation-of-what-is-possible
#15
Jonathan Phillips, Fiery Cushman
The capacity for representing and reasoning over sets of possibilities, or modal cognition, supports diverse kinds of high-level judgments: causal reasoning, moral judgment, language comprehension, and more. Prior research on modal cognition asks how humans explicitly and deliberatively reason about what is possible but has not investigated whether or how people have a default, implicit representation of which events are possible. We present three studies that characterize the role of implicit representations of possibility in cognition...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391135/the-residual-protective-effects-of-enactment
#16
Jeffrey D Wammes, Myra A Fernandes
Research has demonstrated the importance of the quality of initial retrieval events (Test 1) for performance on later memory tests (Test 2). We explored whether enacting words at encoding, relative to simply reading them, provided protection against the detrimental effects of a degraded retrieval experience, through the addition of motor processing to the extant memory representation. Participants encoded a mixed list of enacted and read words, then completed Test 1, and a later Test 2. Encoding and Test 2 were always completed under full attention (FA)...
July 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388134/set-free-markov-state-model-building
#17
Marcus Weber, Konstantin Fackeldey, Christof Schütte
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations face challenging problems since the time scales of interest often are much longer than what is possible to simulate; and even if sufficiently long simulations are possible the complex nature of the resulting simulation data makes interpretation difficult. Markov State Models (MSMs) help to overcome these problems by making experimentally relevant time scales accessible via coarse grained representations that also allow for convenient interpretation. However, standard set-based MSMs exhibit some caveats limiting their approximation quality and statistical significance...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378036/engaging-with-dementia-moral-experiments-in-art-and-friendship
#18
Janelle S Taylor
The box-office as well as critical success of the 2014 major motion picture Still Alice, starring Julianne Moore in the title role and based on the bestselling novel of the same name by the Harvard-trained neuroscientist Lisa Genova (Still Alice. Simon & Schuster, New York, 2009), marked an important moment in public cultural representations of people with dementia. Still Alice tells the story of Alice Howland, an eminent scientist whose increasing memory lapses are eventually diagnosed as early-onset Alzheimer's, and chronicles the transformations in her family relationships as her husband and three children respond to her decline in different ways...
April 4, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374284/the-scope-of-formal-explanation
#19
Sandeep Prasada
The existence of multiple modes of explanation means that a crucial step in the process of generating explanations has to be selecting a particular mode. The present article identifies the key conceptual, as well as some pragmatic and epistemological, considerations that license the use of the formal mode of explanation, and thus that enter into the process of selecting and generating a formal explanation. Formal explanations explain the presence of certain properties in an instance of a kind by reference to the kind of thing it is (e...
April 3, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371430/the-cognitive-science-of-sketch-worksheets
#20
Kenneth D Forbus, Maria Chang, Matthew McLure, Madeline Usher
Computational modeling of sketch understanding is interesting both scientifically and for creating systems that interact with people more naturally. Scientifically, understanding sketches requires modeling aspects of visual processing, spatial representations, and conceptual knowledge in an integrated way. Software that can understand sketches is starting to be used in classrooms, and it could have a potentially revolutionary impact as the models and technologies become more advanced. This paper looks at one such effort, Sketch Worksheets, which have been used in multiple classroom experiments already, with students ranging from elementary school to college...
March 29, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
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