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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906502/using-our-hands-to-change-our-minds
#1
REVIEW
Susan Goldin-Meadow
Jean Piaget was a master at observing the routine behaviors children produce as they go from knowing less to knowing more about at a task, and making inferences not only about how children understand the task at each point, but also about how they progress from one point to the next. This article examines a routine behavior that Piaget overlooked-the spontaneous gestures speakers produce as they explain their solutions to a problem. These gestures are not mere hand waving. They reflect ideas that the speaker has about the problem, often ideas that are not found in that speaker's talk...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873096/-experience-in-measuring-the-quality-of-treatment-in-interventional-pain-therapy-the-activity-index-on-a%C3%A2-touchscreen-pc
#2
A R Kirrstetter, C Brenig, M Gengenbacher, B Meier, A Ott, R Theiler
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in patient-related outcome measurement. In this field questionnaires on touch screens are becoming more common. This study was designed to identify problems in usability and feasibility of a web-based questionnaire. STUDY PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent a lumbar infiltration were recruited in 5 centers and 50 patients participated of which half were older than 62 years. One third of the patients had basically no former experience with computers or touch screens...
November 21, 2016: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863104/joint-l2-1-norm-and-fisher-discrimination-constrained-feature-selection-for-rational-synthesis-of-microporous-aluminophosphates
#3
Miao Qi, Ting Wang, Yugen Yi, Na Gao, Jun Kong, Jianzhong Wang
Feature selection has been regarded as an effective tool to help researchers understand the generating process of data. For mining the synthesis mechanism of microporous AlPOs, this paper proposes a novel feature selection method by joint l2,1 norm and Fisher discrimination constraints (JNFDC). In order to obtain more effective feature subset, the proposed method can be achieved in two steps. The first step is to rank the features according to sparse and discriminative constraints. The second step is to establish predictive model with the ranked features, and select the most significant features in the light of the contribution of improving the predictive accuracy...
November 9, 2016: Molecular Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857695/information-compression-multiple-alignment-and-the-representation-and-processing-of-knowledge-in-the-brain
#4
J Gerard Wolff
The SP theory of intelligence, with its realization in the SP computer model, aims to simplify and integrate observations and concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, mathematics, and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. This paper describes how abstract structures and processes in the theory may be realized in terms of neurons, their interconnections, and the transmission of signals between neurons. This part of the SP theory-SP-neural-is a tentative and partial model for the representation and processing of knowledge in the brain...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856726/when-slights-beget-slights-attachment-anxiety-subjective-time-and-intrusion-of-the-relational-past-in-the-present
#5
Kassandra Cortes, Anne E Wilson
Every close relationship has a history, but how people manage their relational past varies and can have important implications in the present. The current research investigated the role of subjective representation of time: How feeling subjectively close (vs. distant) to a past relational transgression (vs. kind act) predicted "kitchen thinking"-the tendency to bring to mind relational past memories in new, unrelated contexts. We explored the role of attachment anxiety as a predictor of subjective time perception and kitchen thinking...
December 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852205/generalized-molecular-descriptors-derived-from-event-based-discrete-derivative
#6
Oscar Martínez-Santiago, Reisel Millán Cabrera, Yovani Marrero-Ponce, Stephen J Barigye, Huong Le-Thi-Thu, F Javier Torres, Cesar H Zambrano, Ivan Yaber-Goenaga, Maykel Cruz-Monteagudo, Yoan Martínez López, Facundo Pérez Giménez, Francisco Torrens
In the present study, a generalized approach for molecular structure characterization is introduced, based on the relation frequency matrix (F) representation of the molecular graph and the subsequent calculation of the corresponding discrete derivative (finite difference) over a pair of elements (atoms). In earlier publications (22- 24), an unique event, named connected subgraphs, (based on the Kier-Hall's subgraphs) was systematically employed for the computation of the matrix F. The present report is a generalization of this notion, in which eleven additional events are introduced, classified in three categories, namely, topological (terminal paths, vertex path incidence, quantum subgraphs, walks of length k, Sach's subgraphs), fingerprints (MACCs, E-state and substructure fingerprints) and atomic contributions (Ghose and Crippen atom-types for hydrophobicity and refractivity) for F generation...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797141/perceptual-pragmatism-and-the-naturalized-ontology-of-color
#7
Mazviita Chirimuuta
This paper considers whether there can be any such thing as a naturalized metaphysics of color-any distillation of the commitments of perceptual science with regard to color ontology. I first make some observations about the kinds of philosophical commitments that sometimes bubble to the surface in the psychology and neuroscience of color. Unsurprisingly, because of the range of opinions expressed, an ontology of color cannot simply be read off from scientists' definitions and theoretical statements. I next consider two alternative routes...
October 31, 2016: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764098/the-spatial-dynamics-of-predators-and-the-benefits-and-costs-of-sharing-information
#8
Matthieu Barbier, James R Watson
Predators of all kinds, be they lions hunting in the Serengeti or fishermen searching for their catch, display various collective strategies. A common strategy is to share information about the location of prey. However, depending on the spatial characteristics and mobility of predators and prey, information sharing can either improve or hinder individual success. Here, our goal is to investigate the interacting effects of space and information sharing on predation efficiency, represented by the expected rate at which prey are found and consumed...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750400/introducing-the-big-knowledge-to-use-bk2u-challenge
#9
Yehoshua Perl, James Geller, Michael Halper, Christopher Ochs, Ling Zheng, Joan Kapusnik-Uner
The purpose of the Big Data to Knowledge initiative is to develop methods for discovering new knowledge from large amounts of data. However, if the resulting knowledge is so large that it resists comprehension, referred to here as Big Knowledge (BK), how can it be used properly and creatively? We call this secondary challenge, Big Knowledge to Use. Without a high-level mental representation of the kinds of knowledge in a BK knowledgebase, effective or innovative use of the knowledge may be limited. We describe summarization and visualization techniques that capture the big picture of a BK knowledgebase, possibly created from Big Data...
October 17, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27740483/adaptive-subspace-based-inverse-projections-via-division-into-multiple-sub-problems-for-missing-image-data-restoration
#10
Takahiro Ogawa, Miki Haseyama
This paper presents adaptive subspace-based inverse projections via division into multiple sub-problems (ASIP-DIMS) for missing image data restoration. In the proposed method, a target problem for estimating missing image data is divided into multiple sub-problems, and each sub-problem is iteratively solved with constraints of other known image data. By projection into a subspace model of image patches, the solution of each subproblem is calculated, where we call this procedure "subspacebased inverse projection" for simplicity...
October 10, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737720/dione-an-owl-representation-of-icd-10-cm-for-classifying-patients-diseases
#11
María Del Mar Roldán-García, María Jesús García-Godoy, José F Aldana-Montes
BACKGROUND: Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine - Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT) has been designed as standard clinical terminology for annotating Electronic Health Records (EHRs). EHRs textual information is used to classify patients' diseases into an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) category (usually by an expert). Improving the accuracy of classification is the main purpose of using ontologies and OWL representations at the core of classification systems...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737373/stem-cell-research-in-brazil-the-production-of-a-new-field-of-science
#12
Rafaela Teixeira Zorzanelli, Angela Vasconi Speroni, Rachel Aisengart Menezes, Annette Leibing
Based on a review of the literature published in the early twenty-first century by Brazilian researchers, the article offers an overview of stem cell research in Brazil. Three central topics were detected in these papers: (1) the funding of stem cell research in Brazil; (2) preclinical and clinical trials in Brazil; and (3) social anthropological analysis focused on ethical and legal matters. Our review identifies controversial questions in the construction of this scientific field, especially issues involving the media as a disseminator of values and of certain social representations, where new kinds of hope figure large...
October 10, 2016: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723578/interferences-in-match-kernels
#13
Naila Murray, Herve Jegou, Florent Perronnin, Andrew Zisserman
We consider the design of an image representation that embeds and aggregates a set of local descriptors into a single vector. Popular representations of this kind include the bag-of-visual-words, the Fisher vector and the VLAD. When two such image representations are compared with the dot-product, the image-to-image similarity can be interpreted as a match kernel. In match kernels, one has to deal with interference, i.e. with the fact that even if two descriptors are unrelated, their matching score may contribute to the overall similarity...
October 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711110/stoichiometric-representation-of-gene-protein-reaction-associations-leverages-constraint-based-analysis-from-reaction-to-gene-level-phenotype-prediction
#14
Daniel Machado, Markus J Herrgård, Isabel Rocha
Genome-scale metabolic reconstructions are currently available for hundreds of organisms. Constraint-based modeling enables the analysis of the phenotypic landscape of these organisms, predicting the response to genetic and environmental perturbations. However, since constraint-based models can only describe the metabolic phenotype at the reaction level, understanding the mechanistic link between genotype and phenotype is still hampered by the complexity of gene-protein-reaction associations. We implement a model transformation that enables constraint-based methods to be applied at the gene level by explicitly accounting for the individual fluxes of enzymes (and subunits) encoded by each gene...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692217/the-ontology-of-quantum-field-theory-structural-realism-vindicated
#15
David Glick
In this paper I elicit a prediction from structural realism and compare it, not to a historical case, but to a contemporary scientific theory. If structural realism is correct, then we should expect physics to develop theories that fail to provide an ontology of the sort sought by traditional realists. If structure alone is responsible for instrumental success, we should expect surplus ontology to be eliminated. Quantum field theory (QFT) provides the framework for some of the best confirmed theories in science, but debates over its ontology are vexed...
October 2016: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686998/spatiotopic-updating-facilitates-perception-immediately-after-saccades
#16
Jasper H Fabius, Alessio Fracasso, Stefan Van der Stigchel
As the neural representation of visual information is initially coded in retinotopic coordinates, eye movements (saccades) pose a major problem for visual stability. If no visual information were maintained across saccades, retinotopic representations would have to be rebuilt after each saccade. It is currently strongly debated what kind of information (if any at all) is accumulated across saccades, and when this information becomes available after a saccade. Here, we use a motion illusion to examine the accumulation of visual information across saccades...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686713/cardiac-arrhythmia-beat-classification-using-dost-and-pso-tuned-svm
#17
Sandeep Raj, Kailash Chandra Ray, Om Shankar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The increase in the number of deaths due to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) has gained significant attention from the study of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. These ECG signals are studied by the experienced cardiologist for accurate and proper diagnosis, but it becomes difficult and time-consuming for long-term recordings. Various signal processing techniques are studied to analyze the ECG signal, but they bear limitations due to the non-stationary behavior of ECG signals...
November 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685022/looking-inward-and-back-real-time-monitoring-of-visual-working-memories
#18
Jordan W Suchow, Daryl Fougnie, George A Alvarez
Confidence in our memories is influenced by many factors, including beliefs about the perceptibility or memorability of certain kinds of objects and events, as well as knowledge about our skill sets, habits, and experiences. Notoriously, our knowledge and beliefs about memory can lead us astray, causing us to be overly confident in eyewitness testimony or to overestimate the frequency of recent experiences. Here, using visual working memory as a case study, we stripped away all these potentially misleading cues, requiring observers to make confidence judgments by directly assessing the quality of their memory representations...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679592/intuition-and-insight-two-processes-that-build-on-each-other-or-fundamentally-differ
#19
Thea Zander, Michael Öllinger, Kirsten G Volz
Intuition and insight are intriguing phenomena of non-analytical mental functioning: whereas intuition denotes ideas that have been reached by sensing the solution without any explicit representation of it, insight has been understood as the sudden and unexpected apprehension of the solution by recombining the single elements of a problem. By face validity, the two processes appear similar; according to a lay perspective, it is assumed that intuition precedes insight. Yet, predominant scientific conceptualizations of intuition and insight consider the two processes to differ with regard to their (dis-)continuous unfolding...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27670663/emotions-in-black-and-white-or-shades-of-gray-how-we-think-about-emotion-shapes-our-perception-and-neural-representation-of-emotion
#20
Ajay B Satpute, Erik C Nook, Sandhya Narayanan, Jocelyn Shu, Jochen Weber, Kevin N Ochsner
The demands of social life often require categorically judging whether someone's continuously varying facial movements express "calm" or "fear," or whether one's fluctuating internal states mean one feels "good" or "bad." In two studies, we asked whether this kind of categorical, "black and white," thinking can shape the perception and neural representation of emotion. Using psychometric and neuroimaging methods, we found that (a) across participants, judging emotions using a categorical, "black and white" scale relative to judging emotions using a continuous, "shades of gray," scale shifted subjective emotion perception thresholds; (b) these shifts corresponded with activity in brain regions previously associated with affective responding (i...
November 2016: Psychological Science
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