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Kind representations

Nathan L Hendel, Matthew Thomson, Wallace F Marshall
An important question in cell biology is whether cells are able to measure size, either whole cell size or organelle size. Perhaps cells have an internal chemical representation of size that can be used to precisely regulate growth, or perhaps size is just an accident that emerges due to constraint of nutrients. The eukaryotic flagellum is an ideal model for studying size sensing and control because its linear geometry makes it essentially one-dimensional, greatly simplifying mathematical modeling. The assembly of flagella is regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), in which kinesin motors carry cargo adaptors for flagellar proteins along the flagellum and then deposit them at the tip, lengthening the flagellum...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
María Juliana Leone, Alejo Salles, Alejandro Pulver, Diego Andrés Golombek, Mariano Sigman
Time representation is a fundamental property of human cognition. Ample evidence shows that time (and numbers) are represented in space. However, how the conceptual mapping varies across individuals, scales, and temporal structures remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we conducted a large online study consisting in five experiments that addressed different time scales and topology: Zones of time, Seasons, Days of the week, Parts of the day and Timeline. Participants were asked to map different kinds of time events to a location in space and to determine their size and color...
February 4, 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
Koji Tamai, Akinobu Suzuki, Shinji Takahashi, Masatoshi Hoshino, Hiromitsu Toyoda, Kazunori Hayashi, Shoichiro Ohyama, Yuichi Kishimura, Ema Onode, Masayuki Umano, Hidetomi Terai, Hiroaki Nakamura
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best indicator for reproducible representation of craniocervical sagittal balance (CCSB). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal sagittal balance is considered one of the most critical factors affecting the health-related quality of life. Although standard indicators of spinopelvic balance have been established, these do not include the craniocervical balance and there is no standard parameter for evaluating the CCSB...
February 2, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
Laila van Ments, Peter Roelofsma, Jan Treur
Background: Religion is a central aspect of many individuals' lives around the world, and its influence on human behaviour has been extensively studied from many different perspectives. Methods: The current study integrates a number of these perspectives into one adaptive temporal-causal network model describing the mental states involved, their mutual relations, and the adaptation of some of these relations over time due to learning. Results: By first developing a conceptual representation of a network model based on the literature, and then formalizing this model into a numerical representation, simulations can be done for almost any kind of religion and person, showing different behaviours for persons with different religious backgrounds and characters...
2018: Comput Soc Netw
Zhi-Yong Wang, Pengli Zhang, Zengwei Ma
The conventional paradigm for characterizing surface overcharging and charge reversal is based on the so-called Stern layer, in which surface dissociation reaction and specific chemical adsorption are assumed to take place. In this article, a series of Monte Carlo simulations have been applied to obtain useful insights into the underlying physics responsible for these two kinds of anomalous phenomena at the interface of two dielectrics, with special emphasis on the case of divalent counterions that are more relevant in natural and biological environments...
January 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Yi Tian, Yu Kong, Qiuqi Ruan, Gaoyun An, Yun Fu
In this paper, we present a novel two-layer video representation for human action recognition employing hierarchical group sparse encoding technique and spatio-temporal structure. In the first layer, a new sparse encoding method named locally consistent group sparse coding (LCGSC) is proposed to make full use of motion and appearance information of local features. LCGSC method not only encodes global layouts of features within the same video-level groups, but also captures local correlations between them, which obtains expressive sparse representations of video sequences...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Qing Mao, Shugui Liu, Sen Wang, Xinhui Ma
Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface fitting from data points is wildly used in the fields of computer aided design (CAD), medical imaging, cultural relic representation and object-shape detection. Usually, the measured data acquired from coordinate measuring systems is neither gridded nor completely scattered. The distribution of this kind of data is scattered in physical space, but the data points are stored in a way consistent with the order of measurement, so it is named quasi scattered data in this paper...
January 13, 2018: Sensors
Ke Ma, Bernhard Hommel
The virtual hand illusion (VHI) paradigm demonstrates that people tend to perceive agency and bodily ownership for a virtual hand that moves in synchrony with their own movements. Given that this kind of effect can be taken to reflect self-other integration (i.e., the integration of some external, novel event into the representation of oneself), and given that self-other integration has been previously shown to be affected by metacontrol states (biases of information processing towards persistence/selectivity or flexibility/integration), we tested whether the VHI varies in size depending on the metacontrol bias...
January 10, 2018: Psychological Research
Patricia Canning
Cognitive stylistics offers a range of frameworks for understanding (amongst other things) what producers of literary texts 'do' with language and how they 'do' it. Less prevalent, however, is an understanding of the ways in which these same frameworks offer insights into what readers 'do' (and how they 'do' it). Text World Theory (Werth, 1999; Gavins, 2007; Whiteley, 2011) has proved useful for understanding how and why readers construct mental representations engendered by the act of reading. However, research on readers' responses to literature has largely focused on an 'idealised' reader or an 'experimental' subject-reader often derived from within the academy and conducted using contrived or amended literary fiction...
May 2017: Lang Lit (Harlow)
Monika Stachowiak, Tatiana Flisikowska, Stefan Bauersachs, Carolin Perleberg, Hubert Pausch, Marek Switonski, Alexander Kind, Dieter Saur, Angelika Schnieke, Krzysztof Flisikowski
MicroRNAs are dysregulated in various cancers including colorectal cancer, and are potential useful biomarkers of disease development. We used next generation sequencing to investigate miRNA expression profiles in low- and high-grade intraepithelial dysplastic polyps from pigs carrying a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor (APC1311 , orthologous to human APC1309 ) that model an inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis. We identified several miRNAs and their isomiRs significantly (P < 0...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Yong Zheng, Igor Shikhov, Louis Kpamsar Gbayan, Ji-Youn Arns, Christoph H Arns
The characterisation of heterogeneous porous media at multiple length scales typically requires the classification of structure at some scale to allow the calculation of effective transport properties at a scale relevant for macroscopic description. While such a classification may be derived from various imaging methods, a shortcoming is often the simultaneous characterisation of the connectivity between regions representing different micro-structure. In this work we combine NMR based flow propagators with the simulations performed on corresponding reconstructed structure, and relate the NMR measurements to their simulated global and local representations to study fluid transport locally and the exchange between micro- and macro-porous regions...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
André G Henriques
We answer the questions, "What does Chern-Simons theory assign to a point?" and "What kind of mathematical object does Chern-Simons theory assign to a point?" Our answer to the first question is representations of the based loop group. More precisely, we identify a certain class of projective unitary representations of the based loop group [Formula: see text] We define the fusion product of such representations, and we prove that, modulo certain conjectures, the Drinfel'd center of that representation category of [Formula: see text] is equivalent to the category of positive energy representations of the free loop group [Formula: see text]† The abovementioned conjectures are known to hold when the gauge group is abelian or of type [Formula: see text] Our answer to the second question is bicommutant categories...
December 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Li Wang, Siyuan Chen, Yiming Ding, Qiang Zhu, Nijia Zhang, Shuqing Yu
The present work determines the anticancer activity of bio-mediated synthesized cadmium sulfide nanoparticles using the ionic liquid and bacterial cells (Shewanella oneidensis). Bacterial cells have been exposed to be important resources that hold huge potential as ecofriendly, cost-effective, evading toxic of dangerous chemicals and the alternative of conventional physiochemical synthesis. The Shewanella oneidensis is an important kind of metal reducing bacterium, known as its special anaerobic respiratory and sulfate reducing capacity...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Weifeng Zhou, Hua Xiang
Frame-based regularization method as one kind of sparsity representation method has been developed in recent years and has been proved to be an efficient method for CT image reconstruction. However, most of the developed CT image reconstruction methods are analysis-based frame methods. This paper proposes a novel frame-based balanced hybrid model with two sparse regularization terms for CT image reconstruction. We generalize the fast alternating direction method to solve the proposed model so that every subproblem can be easily solved...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Yongzhen Wang, Xiaozhong Liu, Yan Chen
The ability to predict what courses a student may enroll in the coming semester plays a pivotal role in the allocation of learning resources, which is a hot topic in the domain of educational data mining. In this study, we propose an innovative approach to characterize students' cross-college course enrollments by leveraging a novel contextual graph. Specifically, different kinds of variables, such as students, courses, colleges and diplomas, as well as various types of variable relations, are utilized to depict the context of each variable, and then a representation learning algorithm node2vec is applied to extracting sophisticated graph-based features for the enrollment analysis...
2017: PloS One
Félix Gontier, Mathieu Lagrange, Pierre Aumond, Arnaud Can, Catherine Lavandier
The spreading of urban areas and the growth of human population worldwide raise societal and environmental concerns. To better address these concerns, the monitoring of the acoustic environment in urban as well as rural or wilderness areas is an important matter. Building on the recent development of low cost hardware acoustic sensors, we propose in this paper to consider a sensor grid approach to tackle this issue. In this kind of approach, the crucial question is the nature of the data that are transmitted from the sensors to the processing and archival servers...
November 29, 2017: Sensors
Cong Shen, Yijie Ding, Jijun Tang, Jian Song, Fei Guo
DNA-protein interactions appear as pivotal roles in diverse biological procedures and are paramount for cell metabolism, while identifying them with computational means is a kind of prudent scenario in depleting in vitro and in vivo experimental charging. A variety of state-of-the-art investigations have been elucidated to improve the accuracy of the DNA-protein binding sites prediction. Nevertheless, structure-based approaches are limited under the condition without 3D information, and the predictive validity is still refinable...
November 28, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
David M Williams, Toby Nicholson, Catherine Grainger
Memory for (and perception of) information about the self is superior to memory for (and perception of) other kinds of information. This self-reference effect (SRE) in memory appears diminished in ASD and related to the number of ASD traits manifested by neurotypical individuals (fewer traits = larger SRE). Here, we report the first experiments exploring the relation between ASD and the SRE in perception. Using a "Shapes" Task (Sui et al., Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105, 2012), participants learned to associate three different shapes (triangle, circle, square) with three different labels representing self, a familiar other, or an unfamiliar other (e...
November 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
Raheleh Saryazdi, Craig G Chambers
Studies of real-time spoken language comprehension have shown that listeners rapidly map unfolding speech to available referents in the immediate visual environment. This has been explored using various kinds of 2-dimensional (2D) stimuli, with convenience or availability typically motivating the choice of a particular image type. However, work in other areas has suggested that certain cognitive processes are sensitive to the level of realism in 2D representations. The present study examined the process of mapping language to depictions of objects that are more or less realistic, namely photographs versus clipart images...
November 15, 2017: Acta Psychologica
Pu-Feng Du, Wei Zhao, Yang-Yang Miao, Le-Yi Wei, Likun Wang
With the avalanche of biological sequences in public databases, one of the most challenging problems in computational biology is to predict their biological functions and cellular attributes. Most of the existing prediction algorithms can only handle fixed-length numerical vectors. Therefore, it is important to be able to represent biological sequences with various lengths using fixed-length numerical vectors. Although several algorithms, as well as software implementations, have been developed to address this problem, these existing programs can only provide a fixed number of representation modes...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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