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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317874/predicting-sirna-efficacy-based-on-multiple-selective-sirna-representations-and-their-combination-at-score-level
#1
Fei He, Ye Han, Jianting Gong, Jiazhi Song, Han Wang, Yanwen Li
Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) may induce to targeted gene knockdown, and the gene silencing effectiveness relies on the efficacy of the siRNA. Therefore, the task of this paper is to construct an effective siRNA prediction method. In our work, we try to describe siRNA from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. For quantitative analyses, we form four groups of effective features, including nucleotide frequencies, thermodynamic stability profile, thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction, and mRNA related features, as a new mixed representation, in which thermodynamic of siRNA-mRNA interaction is introduced to siRNA efficacy prediction for the first time to our best knowledge...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284109/distorted-body-representations-in-anorexia-nervosa
#2
REVIEW
Stephen Gadsby
In this paper, I discuss empirical evidence regarding anorexic patients' distorted body representations. I fit this evidence into a broader framework for understanding how the spatial content of the body is tracked and represented. This framework is motivated by O'Shaughnessy's (1980) long-term body image hypothesis. This hypothesis posits a representation that tracks changes in the spatial content of the body and supplies this content to other body representations. I argue that a similar kind of body representation might exist and, in the case of anorexia, be distorted...
March 8, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273398/the-development-and-developmental-consequences-of-social-essentialism
#3
REVIEW
Marjorie Rhodes, Tara M Mandalaywala
People often view certain ways of classifying people (e.g., by gender, race, or ethnicity) as reflecting real distinctions found in nature. Such categories are viewed as marking meaningful, fundamental, and informative differences between distinct kinds of people. This article examines the development of these essentialist intuitive theories of how the social world is structured, along with the developmental consequences of these beliefs. We first examine the processes that give rise to social essentialism, arguing that essentialism emerges as children actively attempt to make sense of their environment by relying on several basic representational and explanatory biases...
March 8, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272020/a-stationary-wavelet-transform-and-a-time-frequency-based-spike-detection-algorithm-for-extracellular-recorded-data
#4
Florian Lieb, Hans-Georg Stark, Christiane Thielemann
OBJECTIVE Spike detection from extracellular recordings is a crucial preprocessing step when analyzing neuronal activity. The decision whether a specific part of the signal is a spike or not is important for any kind of other subsequent preprocessing steps, like spike sorting or burst detection in order to reduce the classification of erroneously identified spikes. Many spike detection algorithms have already been suggested, all working reasonably well whenever the signal-to-noise ratio is large enough. When the noise level is high, however, these algorithms have a poor performance...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256025/development-of-allocentric-spatial-recall-from-new-viewpoints-in-virtual-reality
#5
James Negen, Edward Heywood-Everett, Hannah E Roome, Marko Nardini
Using landmarks and other scene features to recall locations from new viewpoints is a critical skill in spatial cognition. In an immersive virtual reality task, we asked children 3.5-4.5 years old to remember the location of a target using various cues. On some trials they could use information from their own self-motion. On some trials they could use a view match. In the very hardest kind of trial, they were 'teleported' to a new viewpoint and could only use an allocentric spatial representation. This approach provides a strict test for allocentric coding (without either a matching viewpoint or self-motion information) while avoiding additional task demands in previous studies (it does not require them to deal with a small table-top environment or to manage stronger cue conflicts)...
March 2, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253256/a-mechanism-for-the-cortical-computation-of-hierarchical-linguistic-structure
#6
Andrea E Martin, Leonidas A A Doumas
Biological systems often detect species-specific signals in the environment. In humans, speech and language are species-specific signals of fundamental biological importance. To detect the linguistic signal, human brains must form hierarchical representations from a sequence of perceptual inputs distributed in time. What mechanism underlies this ability? One hypothesis is that the brain repurposed an available neurobiological mechanism when hierarchical linguistic representation became an efficient solution to a computational problem posed to the organism...
March 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251058/aspirations-and-the-subjective-future-of-migration-comparing-views-and-desires-of-the-time-ahead-through-the-narratives-of-immigrant-domestic-workers
#7
Paolo Boccagni
Migrants' aspirations are a meaningful and under-appreciated research subject. My paper investigates their development and implications over the life course, building on an archive of life stories of immigrant domestic workers in Italy. It dissects the biographical bases of aspirations as ways of cultivating open representations of the future; hence, as a window on migrants' potential to shape the future itself, given their assets, the external structure of opportunities and the relational fields in which they are embedded...
2017: Comp Migr Stud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245356/intuitive-density-functional-theory-based-energy-decomposition-analysis-for-protein-ligand-interactions
#8
M J S Phipps, T Fox, C S Tautermann, C-K Skylaris
First-principles quantum mechanical calculations with methods such as density functional theory (DFT) allow the accurate calculation of interaction energies between molecules. These interaction energies can be dissected into chemically relevant components such as electrostatics, polarization, and charge transfer using energy decomposition analysis (EDA) approaches. Typically EDA has been used to study interactions between small molecules; however, it has great potential to be applied to large biomolecular assemblies such as protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212526/can-you-feel-the-body-that-you-see-on-the-relationship-between-interoceptive-accuracy-and-body-image
#9
Giorgia Zamariola, Flavia Cardini, Emanuel Mian, Andrea Serino, Manos Tsakiris
Interoception and exteroception for body signals are two different ways of perceiving the self: the first from within, the second from outside. We investigated the relationship between Interoceptive Accuracy (IAcc) and external perception of the body and we tested if seeing the body from an external perspective can affect IAcc. Fifty-two healthy female subjects performed a standard heartbeat perception task to assess the IAcc, before and after the Body Image Revealer (BIR), which is a body perception task designed to assess the different aspects of body-image...
March 2017: Body Image
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207873/classification-of-brain-disease-in-magnetic-resonance-images-using-two-stage-local-feature-fusion
#10
Tao Li, Wu Li, Yehui Yang, Wensheng Zhang
BACKGROUND: Many classification methods have been proposed based on magnetic resonance images. Most methods rely on measures such as volume, the cerebral cortical thickness and grey matter density. These measures are susceptible to the performance of registration and limited in representation of anatomical structure. This paper proposes a two-stage local feature fusion method, in which deformable registration is not desired and anatomical information is represented from moderate scale...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202102/how-lives-became-lists-and-scientific-papers-became-data-cataloguing-authorship-during-the-nineteenth-century
#11
Alex Csiszar
The Catalogue of Scientific Papers, published by the Royal Society of London beginning in 1867, projected back to the beginning of the nineteenth century a novel vision of the history of science in which knowledge was built up out of discrete papers each connected to an author. Its construction was an act of canon formation that helped naturalize the idea that scientific publishing consisted of special kinds of texts and authors that were set apart from the wider landscape of publishing. By recovering the decisions and struggles through which the Catalogue was assembled, this essay aims to contribute to current efforts to denaturalize the scientific paper as the dominant genre of scientific life...
February 16, 2017: British Journal for the History of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199341/methods-for-calculating-protection-equality-for-conservation-planning
#12
Alienor L M Chauvenet, Caitlin D Kuempel, Jennifer McGowan, Maria Beger, Hugh P Possingham
Protected Areas (PAs) are a central part of biodiversity conservation strategies around the world. Today, PAs cover c15% of the Earth's land mass and c3% of the global oceans. These numbers are expected to grow rapidly to meet the Convention on Biological Diversity's Aichi Biodiversity target 11, which aims to see 17% and 10% of terrestrial and marine biomes protected, respectively, by 2020. This target also requires countries to ensure that PAs protect an "ecologically representative" sample of their biodiversity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161595/religious-beliefs-are-factual-beliefs-content-does-not-correlate-with-context-sensitivity
#13
Neil Levy
Neil Van Leeuwen argues that religious beliefs are not factual beliefs: typically, at least, they are attitudes of a different type. He argues that they exhibit much more sensitivity to context than factual beliefs: outside of contexts in which they are salient, they do not govern behaviour or inference, or provide background assumptions for cognition. This article surveys a large range of data to show that the kind of context sensitivity that Van Leeuwen thinks is the province of religious beliefs does not correlate with belief content...
February 2, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160453/word-learning-mechanisms
#14
REVIEW
Angela Xiaoxue He, Sudha Arunachalam
How do children acquire the meanings of words? Many word learning mechanisms have been proposed to guide learners through this challenging task. Despite the availability of rich information in the learner's linguistic and extralinguistic input, the word-learning task is insurmountable without such mechanisms for filtering through and utilizing that information. Different kinds of words, such as nouns denoting object concepts and verbs denoting event concepts, require to some extent different kinds of information and, therefore, access to different kinds of mechanisms...
February 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155718/improved-protein-protein-interactions-prediction-via-weighted-sparse-representation-model-combining-continuous-wavelet-descriptor-and-pseaa-composition
#15
Yu-An Huang, Zhu-Hong You, Xing Chen, Gui-Ying Yan
BACKGROUND: Protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are essential to most biological processes. Since bioscience has entered into the era of genome and proteome, there is a growing demand for the knowledge about PPI network. High-throughput biological technologies can be used to identify new PPIs, but they are expensive, time-consuming, and tedious. Therefore, computational methods for predicting PPIs have an important role. For the past years, an increasing number of computational methods such as protein structure-based approaches have been proposed for predicting PPIs...
December 23, 2016: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155697/drug-target-interaction-prediction-via-class-imbalance-aware-ensemble-learning
#16
Ali Ezzat, Min Wu, Xiao-Li Li, Chee-Keong Kwoh
BACKGROUND: Multiple computational methods for predicting drug-target interactions have been developed to facilitate the drug discovery process. These methods use available data on known drug-target interactions to train classifiers with the purpose of predicting new undiscovered interactions. However, a key challenge regarding this data that has not yet been addressed by these methods, namely class imbalance, is potentially degrading the prediction performance. Class imbalance can be divided into two sub-problems...
December 22, 2016: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146106/learning-to-monitor-machine-health-with-convolutional-bi-directional-lstm-networks
#17
Rui Zhao, Ruqiang Yan, Jinjiang Wang, Kezhi Mao
In modern manufacturing systems and industries, more and more research efforts have been made in developing effective machine health monitoring systems. Among various machine health monitoring approaches, data-driven methods are gaining in popularity due to the development of advanced sensing and data analytic techniques. However, considering the noise, varying length and irregular sampling behind sensory data, this kind of sequential data cannot be fed into classification and regression models directly. Therefore, previous work focuses on feature extraction/fusion methods requiring expensive human labor and high quality expert knowledge...
January 30, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134818/an-interactive-image-segmentation-method-in-hand-gesture-recognition
#18
Disi Chen, Gongfa Li, Ying Sun, Jianyi Kong, Guozhang Jiang, Heng Tang, Zhaojie Ju, Hui Yu, Honghai Liu
In order to improve the recognition rate of hand gestures a new interactive image segmentation method for hand gesture recognition is presented, and popular methods, e.g., Graph cut, Random walker, Interactive image segmentation using geodesic star convexity, are studied in this article. The Gaussian Mixture Model was employed for image modelling and the iteration of Expectation Maximum algorithm learns the parameters of Gaussian Mixture Model. We apply a Gibbs random field to the image segmentation and minimize the Gibbs Energy using Min-cut theorem to find the optimal segmentation...
January 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123006/conjoint-representation-of-texture-ensemble-and-location-in-the-parahippocampal-place-area
#19
Jeongho Park, Soojin Park
Texture provides crucial information about the category or identity of a scene. Nonetheless, not much is known about how the texture information in a scene is represented in the brain. Previous studies have shown that the parahippocampal place area (PPA), a scene-selective part of visual cortex, responds to texture ensemble in simple patches. However, in natural scenes, textures exist in spatial context within a scene. Here, we tested two hypotheses that describe how textures within a scene context are represented in the PPA...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116566/an-integrated-soft-computing-approach-to-hughes-syndrome-risk-assessment
#20
João Vilhena, M Rosário Martins, Henrique Vicente, José M Grañeda, Filomena Caldeira, Rodrigo Gusmão, João Neves, José Neves
The AntiPhospholipid Syndrome (APS) is an acquired autoimmune disorder induced by high levels of antiphospholipid antibodies that cause arterial and veins thrombosis, as well as pregnancy-related complications and morbidity, as clinical manifestations. This autoimmune hypercoagulable state, usually known as Hughes syndrome, has severe consequences for the patients, being one of the main causes of thrombotic disorders and death. Therefore, it is required to be preventive; being aware of how probable is to have that kind of syndrome...
March 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
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