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Kind representations

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609100/the-development-of-principled-connections-and-kind-representations
#1
Paul Haward, Laura Wagner, Susan Carey, Sandeep Prasada
Kind representations draw an important distinction between properties that are understood as existing in instances of a kind by virtue of their being the kind of thing they are and properties that are not understood in this manner. For example, the property of barking for the kind dog is understood as being had by dogs by virtue of the fact that they are dogs. These properties are said to have a principled connection to the kind. In contrast, the property of wearing a collar is not understood as existing in instances by virtue of their being dogs, despite the fact that a large percentage of dogs wear collars...
March 30, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584770/visualizing-the-bayesian-2-test-case-the-effect-of-tree-diagrams-on-medical-decision-making
#2
Karin Binder, Stefan Krauss, Georg Bruckmaier, Jörg Marienhagen
In medicine, diagnoses based on medical test results are probabilistic by nature. Unfortunately, cognitive illusions regarding the statistical meaning of test results are well documented among patients, medical students, and even physicians. There are two effective strategies that can foster insight into what is known as Bayesian reasoning situations: (1) translating the statistical information on the prevalence of a disease and the sensitivity and the false-alarm rate of a specific test for that disease from probabilities into natural frequencies, and (2) illustrating the statistical information with tree diagrams, for instance, or with other pictorial representation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556758/pybiomed-a-python-library-for-various-molecular-representations-of-chemicals-proteins-and-dnas-and-their-interactions
#3
Jie Dong, Zhi-Jiang Yao, Lin Zhang, Feijun Luo, Qinlu Lin, Ai-Ping Lu, Alex F Chen, Dong-Sheng Cao
BACKGROUND: With the increasing development of biotechnology and informatics technology, publicly available data in chemistry and biology are undergoing explosive growth. Such wealthy information in these data needs to be extracted and transformed to useful knowledge by various data mining methods. Considering the amazing rate at which data are accumulated in chemistry and biology fields, new tools that process and interpret large and complex interaction data are increasingly important...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550524/the-neural-systems-for-perceptual-updating
#4
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Markus Aichhorn, Britt Anderson, James Danckert
In a constantly changing environment we must adapt to both abrupt and gradual changes to incoming information. Previously, we demonstrated that a distributed network (including the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex) was active when participants updated their initial representations (e.g., it's a cat) in a gradually morphing picture task (e.g., now it's a rabbit; Stöttinger et al., 2015). To shed light on whether these activations reflect the proactive decisions to update or perceptual uncertainty, we introduced two additional conditions...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544790/a-novel-biomedical-image-indexing-and-retrieval-system-via-deep-preference-learning
#5
Shuchao Pang, Mehmet A Orgun, Zhezhou Yu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The traditional biomedical image retrieval methods as well as content-based image retrieval (CBIR) methods originally designed for non-biomedical images either only consider using pixel and low-level features to describe an image or use deep features to describe images but still leave a lot of room for improving both accuracy and efficiency. In this work, we propose a new approach, which exploits deep learning technology to extract the high-level and compact features from biomedical images...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535044/hippocampal-representations-as-a-function-of-time-subregion-and-brain-state
#6
Katherine D Duncan, Margaret L Schlichting
How does the hippocampus represent interrelated experiences in memory? We review prominent yet seemingly contradictory theoretical perspectives, which propose that the hippocampus distorts experiential representations to either emphasize their distinctiveness or highlight common elements. These fundamentally different kinds of memory representations may be instantiated in the brain via conjunctive separated codes and adaptively differentiated codes on the one hand, or integrated relational codes on the other...
March 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520243/structured-semantic-knowledge-can-emerge-automatically-from-predicting-word-sequences-in-child-directed-speech
#7
Philip A Huebner, Jon A Willits
Previous research has suggested that distributional learning mechanisms may contribute to the acquisition of semantic knowledge. However, distributional learning mechanisms, statistical learning, and contemporary "deep learning" approaches have been criticized for being incapable of learning the kind of abstract and structured knowledge that many think is required for acquisition of semantic knowledge. In this paper, we show that recurrent neural networks, trained on noisy naturalistic speech to children, do in fact learn what appears to be abstract and structured knowledge...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515470/assessing-the-role-of-experimental-evidence-for-interface-judgment-licensing-of-negative-polarity-items-scalar-readings-and-focus
#8
REVIEW
Anastasia Giannakidou, Urtzi Etxeberria
This paper reviews a series of experimental studies that address what we call "interface judgment," which is the complex judgment involving integration from multiple levels of grammatical representation such as the syntax-semantics and prosody-semantics interface. We first discuss the results from the ERP literature connected to NPI licensing in different languages, paying particular attention to the N400 and the P600 as neural correlates of this specific phenomenon and focusing on the study by Xiang et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496629/obo-to-uml-support-for-the-development-of-conceptual-models-in-the-biomedical-domain
#9
Ricardo C Waldemarin, Cléver R G de Farias
A conceptual model abstractly defines a number of concepts and their relationships for the purposes of understanding and communication. Once a conceptual model is available, it can also be used as a starting point for the development of a software system. The development of conceptual models using the Unified Modeling Language (UML) facilitates the representation of modeled concepts and allows software developers to directly reuse these concepts in the design of a software system. The OBO Foundry represents the most relevant collaborative effort towards the development of ontologies in the biomedical domain...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484541/taking-an-insect-inspired-approach-to-bird-navigation
#10
REVIEW
David J Pritchard, Susan D Healy
Navigation is an essential skill for many animals, and understanding how animal use environmental information, particularly visual information, to navigate has a long history in both ethology and psychology. In birds, the dominant approach for investigating navigation at small-scales comes from comparative psychology, which emphasizes the cognitive representations underpinning spatial memory. The majority of this work is based in the laboratory and it is unclear whether this context itself affects the information that birds learn and use when they search for a location...
February 26, 2018: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414712/diffusion-as-a-ruler-modeling-kinesin-diffusion-as%C3%A2-a%C3%A2-length-sensor-for-intraflagellar-transport
#11
Nathan L Hendel, Matthew Thomson, Wallace F Marshall
An important question in cell biology is whether cells are able to measure size, either whole cell size or organelle size. Perhaps cells have an internal chemical representation of size that can be used to precisely regulate growth, or perhaps size is just an accident that emerges due to constraint of nutrients. The eukaryotic flagellum is an ideal model for studying size sensing and control because its linear geometry makes it essentially one-dimensional, greatly simplifying mathematical modeling. The assembly of flagella is regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), in which kinesin motors carry cargo adaptors for flagellar proteins along the flagellum and then deposit them at the tip, lengthening the flagellum...
February 6, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413871/time-drawings-spatial-representation-of-temporal-concepts
#12
María Juliana Leone, Alejo Salles, Alejandro Pulver, Diego Andrés Golombek, Mariano Sigman
Time representation is a fundamental property of human cognition. Ample evidence shows that time (and numbers) are represented in space. However, how the conceptual mapping varies across individuals, scales, and temporal structures remains largely unknown. To investigate this issue, we conducted a large online study consisting in five experiments that addressed different time scales and topology: Zones of time, Seasons, Days of the week, Parts of the day and Timeline. Participants were asked to map different kinds of time events to a location in space and to determine their size and color...
March 2018: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401069/validity-and-reproducibility-of-various-measurement-methods-for-craniocervical-sagittal-balance
#13
Koji Tamai, Akinobu Suzuki, Shinji Takahashi, Masatoshi Hoshino, Hiromitsu Toyoda, Kazunori Hayashi, Shoichiro Ohyama, Yuichi Kishimura, Ema Onode, Masayuki Umano, Hidetomi Terai, Hiroaki Nakamura
STUDY DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To identify the best indicator for reproducible representation of craniocervical sagittal balance (CCSB). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal sagittal balance is considered one of the most critical factors affecting the health-related quality of life. Although standard indicators of spinopelvic balance have been established, these do not include the craniocervical balance and there is no standard parameter for evaluating the CCSB...
March 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368758/modelling-the-effect-of-religion-on-human-empathy-based-on-an-adaptive-temporal-causal-network-model
#14
Laila van Ments, Peter Roelofsma, Jan Treur
Background: Religion is a central aspect of many individuals' lives around the world, and its influence on human behaviour has been extensively studied from many different perspectives. Methods: The current study integrates a number of these perspectives into one adaptive temporal-causal network model describing the mental states involved, their mutual relations, and the adaptation of some of these relations over time due to learning. Results: By first developing a conceptual representation of a network model based on the literature, and then formalizing this model into a numerical representation, simulations can be done for almost any kind of religion and person, showing different behaviours for persons with different religious backgrounds and characters...
2018: Computational social networks
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355253/on-the-physics-of-both-surface-overcharging-and-charge-reversal-at-heterophase-interfaces
#15
Zhi-Yong Wang, Pengli Zhang, Zengwei Ma
The conventional paradigm for characterizing surface overcharging and charge reversal is based on the so-called Stern layer, in which surface dissociation reaction and specific chemical adsorption are assumed to take place. In this article, a series of Monte Carlo simulations have been applied to obtain useful insights into the underlying physics responsible for these two kinds of anomalous phenomena at the interface of two dielectrics, with special emphasis on the case of divalent counterions that are more relevant in natural and biological environments...
January 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346092/hierarchical-and-spatio-temporal-sparse-representation-for-human-action-recognition
#16
Yi Tian, Yu Kong, Qiuqi Ruan, Gaoyun An, Yun Fu
In this paper, we present a novel two-layer video representation for human action recognition employing hierarchical group sparse encoding technique and spatio-temporal structure. In the first layer, a new sparse encoding method named locally consistent group sparse coding (LCGSC) is proposed to make full use of motion and appearance information of local features. LCGSC method not only encodes global layouts of features within the same video-level groups, but also captures local correlations between them, which obtains expressive sparse representations of video sequences...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342869/surface-fitting-for-quasi-scattered-data-from-coordinate-measuring-systems
#17
Qing Mao, Shugui Liu, Sen Wang, Xinhui Ma
Non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface fitting from data points is wildly used in the fields of computer aided design (CAD), medical imaging, cultural relic representation and object-shape detection. Usually, the measured data acquired from coordinate measuring systems is neither gridded nor completely scattered. The distribution of this kind of data is scattered in physical space, but the data points are stored in a way consistent with the order of measurement, so it is named quasi scattered data in this paper...
January 13, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322244/metacontrol-and-body-ownership-divergent-thinking-increases-the-virtual-hand-illusion
#18
Ke Ma, Bernhard Hommel
The virtual hand illusion (VHI) paradigm demonstrates that people tend to perceive agency and bodily ownership for a virtual hand that moves in synchrony with their own movements. Given that this kind of effect can be taken to reflect self-other integration (i.e., the integration of some external, novel event into the representation of oneself), and given that self-other integration has been previously shown to be affected by metacontrol states (biases of information processing towards persistence/selectivity or flexibility/integration), we tested whether the VHI varies in size depending on the metacontrol bias...
January 10, 2018: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278261/text-world-theory-and-real-world-readers-from-literature-to-life-in-a-belfast-prison
#19
Patricia Canning
Cognitive stylistics offers a range of frameworks for understanding (amongst other things) what producers of literary texts 'do' with language and how they 'do' it. Less prevalent, however, is an understanding of the ways in which these same frameworks offer insights into what readers 'do' (and how they 'do' it). Text World Theory (Werth, 1999; Gavins, 2007; Whiteley, 2011) has proved useful for understanding how and why readers construct mental representations engendered by the act of reading. However, research on readers' responses to literature has largely focused on an 'idealised' reader or an 'experimental' subject-reader often derived from within the academy and conducted using contrived or amended literary fiction...
May 2017: Language and literature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221194/altered-microrna-profiles-during-early-colon-adenoma-progression-in-a-porcine-model-of-familial-adenomatous-polyposis
#20
Monika Stachowiak, Tatiana Flisikowska, Stefan Bauersachs, Carolin Perleberg, Hubert Pausch, Marek Switonski, Alexander Kind, Dieter Saur, Angelika Schnieke, Krzysztof Flisikowski
MicroRNAs are dysregulated in various cancers including colorectal cancer, and are potential useful biomarkers of disease development. We used next generation sequencing to investigate miRNA expression profiles in low- and high-grade intraepithelial dysplastic polyps from pigs carrying a mutation in the adenomatous polyposis coli tumour suppressor ( APC1311 , orthologous to human APC1309 ) that model an inherited predisposition to colorectal cancer, familial adenomatous polyposis. We identified several miRNAs and their isomiRs significantly ( P < 0...
November 10, 2017: Oncotarget
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