Read by QxMD icon Read

Common-sense concepts

S Justman
Though James Lind is renowned as a pioneer of the clinical trial, he records the 1747 trial aboard the Salisbury in passing, never followed up on it, never campaigned for clinical trials as a means of medical discovery, and eventually pronounced scurvy an insoluble enigma. The case can be made that in confessing his lack of an unfailing remedy for scurvy and his trouble making sense of the disease's behaviour, Lind did medicine a greater service than by conducting his now-famous trial. At the time, medical progress was hindered by the all-too-common practice of proclaiming success and concealing failure...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
J Janata, Z Kamenik, R Gazak, S Kadlcik, L Najmanova
Covering: up to 2017This review covers the biosynthetic and evolutionary aspects of lincosamide antibiotics, antitumour pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBDs) and the quorum-sensing molecule hormaomycin. These structurally and functionally diverse groups of complex natural products all incorporate rarely occurring 4-alkyl-l-proline derivatives (APDs) biosynthesized from l-tyrosine through an unusual specialized pathway catalysed by a common set of six proteins named Apd1-Apd6. We give an overview of APD formation, which involves unusual enzyme activities, and its incorporation, which is based either on nonribosomal peptide synthetase (PBDs, hormaomycin) or a unique hybrid ergothioneine-dependent condensation system followed by mycothiol-dependent sulphur atom incorporation (lincosamides)...
March 8, 2018: Natural Product Reports
Norbert Bannert, Henning Hofmann, Adriana Block, Oliver Hohn
Initial indications that retroviruses are connected to neoplastic transformation were seen more than a century ago. This concept has also been tested for endogenized retroviruses (ERVs) that are abundantly expressed in many transformed cells. In healthy cells, ERV expression is commonly prevented by DNA methylation and other epigenetic control mechanisms. ERVs are remnants of former exogenous forms that invaded the germ line of the host and have since been vertically transmitted. Several examples of ERV-induced genomic recombination events and dysregulation of cellular genes that contribute to tumor formation have been well documented...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Katie Attwell, David T Smith, Paul R Ward
To address the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy and rejection, researchers increasingly recognise the need to engage with the social context of parents' decision-making. This study examines how vaccine rejecting parents socially construct the vaccinating mainstream in opposition to themselves. We analyse qualitative data from interviews with parents in Adelaide, South Australia. Applying insights from Social Identity Theory (SIT), we show how these parents bolster their own sense of identity and self-belief by employing a discourse that casts vaccinators as an Unhealthy Other...
February 12, 2018: Vaccine
Narelle Warren, Karin Walford, Annisha Susilo, Peter Wayne New
Objective: To explore the influence of health communications on the emotional consequences of delays in transfer from acute hospital into a spinal rehabilitation unit (SRU) or delays in discharge from SRU. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in this exploratory, thematic qualitative research design in an SRU, Melbourne, Australia. Results: Six patients experienced delay in admission to (n = 4) or discharge from (n = 3) the SRU, with one person experiencing both an admission and discharge delay...
2018: Topics in Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation
Lyndsey Holt, William Sellwood, Pauline Slade
The frequency of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) amongst new mothers is beginning to be explored but the mechanisms underlying such experiences are yet to be understood. First time mothers (N=10,000) receiving maternity care via the UK National Health Service were contacted postnatally via Emma's Diary, an online resource for mothers. Measures assessed birth experience, trauma appraisals, post-traumatic stress symptoms, adjustment to motherhood, self-concept clarity and PLEs (in the form of hallucinations and delusions)...
February 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Shefali Setia Verma, Marylyn D Ritchie
A plethora of genetic association analyses have identified several genetic risk loci. Technological and statistical advancements have now led to the identification of not only common genetic variants, but also low-frequency variants, structural variants, and environmental factors, as well as multi-omics variations that affect the phenotypic variance of complex traits in a population, thus referred to as complex trait architecture. The concept of heritability, or the proportion of phenotypic variance due to genetic inheritance, has been studied for several decades, but its application is mainly in addressing the narrow sense heritability (or additive genetic component) from Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS)...
January 25, 2018: Genes
Caroline Mullineaux-Sanders, Jotham Suez, Eran Elinav, Gad Frankel
The development of innovative high-throughput genomics and metabolomics technologies has considerably expanded our understanding of the commensal microorganisms residing within the human body, collectively termed the microbiota. In recent years, the microbiota has been reported to have important roles in multiple aspects of human health, pathology and host-pathogen interactions. One function of commensals that has attracted particular interest is their role in protection against pathogens and pathobionts, a concept known as colonization resistance...
February 2018: Nature Microbiology
Elisabeth De Waele, Patrick M Honoré, Manu L N G Malbrain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the recent findings on metabolic monitoring and possible beneficial effects of an adequate nutrition therapy, based on indirect calorimetry as the golden standard to predict energy expenditure. RECENT FINDINGS: in the last decades, major steps are taken in the field of metabolism and nutrition, evolving from nutrition as a baseline support to a therapeutic intervention. The aspect of energy expenditure is of cardinal importance, and technical possibilities have impressively improved: from the first 'calorimetre' in 1789 to the new generation, clinical applicable indirect calorimeters and the high accuracy and easy use model reaching high technology readiness level [Oshima et al...
March 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
L Schilling, T Vogt
Lichen ruber, also called lichen ruber planus or lichen planus (LP), is a noncontagious inflammatory skin disease. LP is the main representative and namesake of the group of lichenoid diseases, which are characterized by small papules often accompanied by severe itching. With 65% of cases, LP is primarily a disease of the mucous membranes. In 20% of the cases, the disease is found on the skin and mucous membranes; skin involvement alone is seen in only about 10% of cases. Cutaneous LP has a very favorable 1‑year prognosis of almost 80% healing as opposed to the mucosa and the adnexal organs...
January 12, 2018: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
Thomas Wells Cronin, Missael Garcia, Viktor Gruev
Multispectral, hyperspectral, polarimetric, and other types of multichannel imaging spectrometers are coming into common use for a variety of applications, including remote sensing, material identification, forensics, and medical diagnosis. These instruments are often bulky and intolerant of field abuse, so designing compact, reliable, portable, and robust devices is a priority. In contrast to most engineering designs, animals have been building compact and robust multichannel imaging systems for millennia - their eyes...
January 9, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
V M Frey, S Mavadia, L M Norris, W de Ferranti, D Lucarelli, L Viola, M J Biercuk
Essential to the functionality of qubit-based sensors are control protocols, which shape their response in frequency space. However, in common control routines out-of-band spectral leakage complicates interpretation of the sensor's signal. In this work, we leverage discrete prolate spheroidal sequences (a.k.a. Slepian sequences) to synthesize provably optimal narrowband controls ideally suited to spectral estimation of a qubit's noisy environment. Experiments with trapped ions demonstrate how spectral leakage may be reduced by orders of magnitude over conventional controls when a near resonant driving field is modulated by Slepians, and how the desired narrowband sensitivity may be tuned using concepts from RF engineering...
December 19, 2017: Nature Communications
Mariano Ben Plotkin
This article lays out an agenda for research on the establishment of psy cultures in Latin America. It begins by analyzing some of the debates on the nature of psychoanalysis, a discipline located between the sciences, philosophy and common sense. It argues that the place of psy cultures needs to be problematized as emerging out of modernity in a cultural space like Latin America, where the very concept of modernity differs greatly from that of central countries.
November 2017: História, Ciências, Saúde—Manguinhos
Rui Antunes, Sérgio Matos
Word sense disambiguation (WSD) is an important step in biomedical text mining, which is responsible for assigning an unequivocal concept to an ambiguous term, improving the accuracy of biomedical information extraction systems. In this work we followed supervised and knowledge-based disambiguation approaches, with the best results obtained by supervised means. In the supervised method we used bag-of-words as local features, and word embeddings as global features. In the knowledge-based method we combined word embeddings, concept textual definitions extracted from the UMLS database, and concept association values calculated from the MeSH co-occurrence counts from MEDLINE articles...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics
M Drack, M Limpinsel, G de Bruyn, J H Nebelsick, O Betz
Many successful examples of biomimetic products are available, and most research efforts in this emerging field are directed towards the development of specific applications. The theoretical and conceptual underpinnings of the knowledge transfer between biologists, engineers and architects are, however, poorly investigated. The present article addresses this gap. We use a 'technomorphic' approach, i.e. the application of conceptual tools derived from engineering design, to better understand the processes operating during a typical biomimetic research project...
December 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Marlène Karam, Isabelle Brault, Thérèse Van Durme, Jean Macq
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration have become important components of a well-functioning healthcare system, all the more so given limited financial resources, aging populations, and comorbid chronic diseases. The nursing role in working alongside other healthcare professionals is critical. By their leadership, nurses can create a culture that encourages values and role models that favour collaborative work within a team context. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the specific features of conceptual frameworks of interprofessional and interorganizational collaboration in the healthcare field...
November 11, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Jennifer S Carrera, Phil Brown, Julia Green Brody, Rachel Morello-Frosch
Protection of human subjects in research typically focuses on extrinsic rather than intrinsic motivations for participation in research. Recent sociological literature on altruism suggests that multiple kinds of altruism exist and are grounded in a sense of connection to common humanity. We interviewed participants in eight community-centered research studies that sampled for endocrine disrupting compounds and that shared research findings with participants. The results of our analysis of participation in these studies indicate that altruistic motivations were commonly held...
January 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Simmie L Foster, Corey R Seehus, Clifford J Woolf, Sébastien Talbot
The sensory nervous and immune systems, historically considered autonomous, actually work in concert to promote host defense and tissue homeostasis. These systems interact with each other through a common language of cell surface G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases as well as cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides. While this bidirectional communication is adaptive in many settings, helping protect from danger, it can also become maladaptive and contribute to disease pathophysiology...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
Clémence Roggo, Cristian Picioreanu, Xavier Richard, Christian Mazza, Harald van Lintel, Jan Roelof van der Meer
Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters are proposed as alternatives to chemical analysis of, e.g., pollutants in environmental compartments. Commonly based on reporter gene induction, bioreporters produce a detectable signal within 30 min to a few hours after exposure to the chemical target, which is impractical for applications aiming at a fast response. In an attempt to attain faster readout but maintain flexibility of chemical targeting, we explored the concept for quantitative chemical sensing by bacterial chemotaxis...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
Aafrin M Pettiwala, Prabhat K Singh
BACKGROUND: Amino acids are crucially involved in a myriad of biological processes. Any aberrant changes in physiological level of amino acids often manifest in common metabolic disorders, serious neurological conditions and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, devising methods for detection of trace amounts of amino acids becomes highly elemental to their efficient clinical diagnosis. Recently, the domain of developing optical sensors for detection of amino acids has witnessed significant activity which is the focus of the current review article...
November 6, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"