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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163530/sense-and-immunity-context-dependent-neuro-immune-interplay
#1
REVIEW
Simmie L Foster, Corey R Seehus, Clifford J Woolf, Sébastien Talbot
The sensory nervous and immune systems, historically considered autonomous, actually work in concert to promote host defense and tissue homeostasis. These systems interact with each other through a common language of cell surface G protein-coupled receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases as well as cytokines, growth factors, and neuropeptides. While this bidirectional communication is adaptive in many settings, helping protect from danger, it can also become maladaptive and contribute to disease pathophysiology...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124848/quantitative-chemical-biosensing-by-bacterial-chemotaxis-in-microfluidic-chips
#2
Clémence Roggo, Cristian Picioreanu, Xavier Richard, Christian Mazza, Harald van Lintel, Jan Roelof van der Meer
Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters are proposed as alternatives to chemical analysis of, e.g., pollutants in environmental compartments. Commonly based on reporter gene induction, bioreporters produce a detectable signal within 30 min to a few hours after exposure to the chemical target, which is impractical for applications aiming at a fast response. In an attempt to attain faster readout but maintain flexibility of chemical targeting, we explored the concept for quantitative chemical sensing by bacterial chemotaxis...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110591/optical-sensors-for-detection-of-amino-acids
#3
Aafrin M Pettiwala, Prabhat K Singh
BACKGROUND: Amino acids are crucially involved in a myriad of biological processes. Any aberrant changes in physiological level of amino acids often manifest in common metabolic disorders, serious neurological conditions and cardiovascular diseases. Thus, devising methods for detection of trace amounts of amino acids becomes highly elemental to their efficient clinical diagnosis. Recently, the domain of developing optical sensors for detection of amino acids has witnessed significant activity which is the focus of the current review article...
November 6, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083011/nanoparticle-based-optical-sensor-arrays
#4
REVIEW
Arafeh Bigdeli, Forough Ghasemi, Hamed Golmohammadi, Samira Abbasi-Moayed, M Amin Farahmand Nejad, Nafiseh Fahimi-Kashani, Somayeh Jafarinejad, Maryam Shahrajabian, M Reza Hormozi-Nezhad
As in many other methods that have integrated nanoparticles (NPs), the chemical nose/tongue strategy has also progressed greatly since the entrance of NPs into this field. The fascinating tunable physicochemical properties of NPs have made them powerful candidates for array-based sensing platforms and have enabled the development of real-time, sensitive and portable systems that are able to target complex mixtures of analytes. In particular, the unique optical properties of NPs have a key role in providing promising array-based sensing approaches...
November 9, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077790/precision-medicine-needs-pioneering-clinical-bioinformaticians
#5
Gonzalo Gómez-López, Joaquín Dopazo, Juan C Cigudosa, Alfonso Valencia, Fátima Al-Shahrour
Success in precision medicine depends on accessing high-quality genetic and molecular data from large, well-annotated patient cohorts that couple biological samples to comprehensive clinical data, which in conjunction can lead to effective therapies. From such a scenario emerges the need for a new professional profile, an expert bioinformatician with training in clinical areas who can make sense of multi-omics data to improve therapeutic interventions in patients, and the design of optimized basket trials. In this review, we first describe the main policies and international initiatives that focus on precision medicine...
October 25, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072718/field-effect-sensors-from-ph-sensing-to-biosensing-sensitivity-enhancement-using-streptavidin-biotin-as-a-model-system
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin M Lowe, Kai Sun, Ioannis Zeimpekis, Chris-Kriton Skylaris, Nicolas G Green
Field-Effect Transistor sensors (FET-sensors) have been receiving increasing attention for biomolecular sensing over the last two decades due to their potential for ultra-high sensitivity sensing, label-free operation, cost reduction and miniaturisation. Whilst the commercial application of FET-sensors in pH sensing has been realised, their commercial application in biomolecular sensing (termed BioFETs) is hindered by poor understanding of how to optimise device design for highly reproducible operation and high sensitivity...
October 26, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070916/clusters-of-cultures-diversity-in-meaning-of-family-value-and-gender-role-items-across-europe
#7
Eva van Vlimmeren, Guy B D Moors, John P T M Gelissen
Survey data are often used to map cultural diversity by aggregating scores of attitude and value items across countries. However, this procedure only makes sense if the same concept is measured in all countries. In this study we argue that when (co)variances among sets of items are similar across countries, these countries share a common way of assigning meaning to the items. Clusters of cultures can then be observed by doing a cluster analysis on the (co)variance matrices of sets of related items. This study focuses on family values and gender role attitudes...
2017: Quality & Quantity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967775/maternal-conception-of-gestational-weight-gain-among-latinas-a-qualitative-study
#8
Grace E Fletcher, Leah Teeters, David Schlundt, Kemberlee Bonnet, William J Heerman
OBJECTIVE: Interventions to support healthy gestational weight gain are often ineffective. The objective was to develop a model of how pregnant Latinas-who have a higher risk of poor maternal and neonatal weight-related outcomes-conceptualize healthy gestational weight gain, providing guidance for future interventions. METHOD: Ten focus groups with 50 pregnant Latinas were conducted by a native Spanish-speaking female moderator. On the basis of participant responses, we used grounded theory to inductively develop a personal conceptual framework for gestational weight gain...
October 2, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899576/neuroscience-and-everyday-life-facing-the-translation-problem
#9
Jolien C Francken, Marc Slors
To enable the impact of neuroscientific insights on our daily lives, careful translation of research findings is required. However, neuroscientific terminology and common-sense concepts are often hard to square. For example, when neuroscientists study lying to allow the use of brain scans for lie-detection purposes, the concept of lying in the scientific case differs considerably from the concept in court. Furthermore, lying and other cognitive concepts are used unsystematically and have an indirect and divergent mapping onto brain activity...
September 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894245/an-extremely-simple-macroscale-electronic-skin-realized-by-deep-machine-learning
#10
Kee-Sun Sohn, Jiyong Chung, Min-Young Cho, Suman Timilsina, Woon Bae Park, Myungho Pyo, Namsoo Shin, Keemin Sohn, Ji Sik Kim
Complicated structures consisting of multi-layers with a multi-modal array of device components, i.e., so-called patterned multi-layers, and their corresponding circuit designs for signal readout and addressing are used to achieve a macroscale electronic skin (e-skin). In contrast to this common approach, we realized an extremely simple macroscale e-skin only by employing a single-layered piezoresistive MWCNT-PDMS composite film with neither nano-, micro-, nor macro-patterns. It is the deep machine learning that made it possible to let such a simple bulky material play the role of a smart sensory device...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881409/an-emerging-new-risk-analysis-science-foundations-and-implications
#11
Terje Aven
To solve real-life problems-such as those related to technology, health, security, or climate change-and make suitable decisions, risk is nearly always a main issue. Different types of sciences are often supporting the work, for example, statistics, natural sciences, and social sciences. Risk analysis approaches and methods are also commonly used, but risk analysis is not broadly accepted as a science in itself. A key problem is the lack of explanatory power and large uncertainties when assessing risk. This article presents an emerging new risk analysis science based on novel ideas and theories on risk analysis developed in recent years by the risk analysis community...
September 7, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845564/demographics-farm-and-reproductive-management-strategies-used-in-australian-automatic-milking-systems-compared-with-regionally-proximal-conventional-milking-systems
#12
D M Keeper, K L Kerrisk, J K House, S C Garcia, P Thomson
OBJECTIVE: To determine the management practices utilised in automatic milking systems (AMS) that affect reproductive management and performance and how these compare with the management practices used in regionally proximal conventional milking systems (CMS). METHODS: This study examined demographic and management data from AMS and CMS dairy farms through a survey, with a specific focus on reproductive management procedures. RESULTS: Overall, responses from AMS and CMS dairy farms showed little difference in terms of respondent demographics, farm size, herd structure and most farm management strategies...
September 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843132/henry-where-have-you-lost-your-self
#13
Nathalie Philippi, Daniel Roquet, Hédi Ben Malek, Vincent Noblet, Anne Botzung, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
The Self is a complex construct encompassing distinct components, including episodic and semantic autobiographical memory, the Self-concept, and the subjective sense of Self, which highest level consists of Self-awareness. The neuro-anatomical correlates are complex, and it is debated as to whether a common region could support these different components of the Self, with a particular interest for the cortical midline structures and the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Alzheimer's disease (AD) constitutes an interesting model for the study of Self as autobiographical memory typically deteriorates as the disease progresses...
July 14, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828581/optimizing-tumor-immune-response-through-combination-of-radiation-and-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Alissar El Chediak, Ali Shamseddine, Larry Bodgi, Jean-Pierre Obeid, Fady Geara, Youssef H Zeidan
Radiation therapy and immunotherapy are two highly evolving modalities for the treatment of solid tumors. Immunotherapeutic drugs can either stimulate the immune system via immunogenic pathways or target co-inhibitory checkpoints. An augmented tumor cell recognition by host immune cells can be achieved post-irradiation, as irradiated tissues can release chemical signals which are sensed by the immune system resulting in its activation. Different strategies combining both treatment modalities were tested in order to achieve a better therapeutic response and longer tumor control...
August 21, 2017: Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821540/investigating-undergraduate-students-use-of-intuitive-reasoning-and-evolutionary-knowledge-in-explanations-of-antibiotic-resistance
#15
Melissa Richard, John D Coley, Kimberly D Tanner
Natural selection is a central concept throughout biology; however, it is a process frequently misunderstood. Bacterial resistance to antibiotic medications provides a contextual example of the relevance of evolutionary theory and is also commonly misunderstood. While research has shed light on student misconceptions of natural selection, minimal study has focused on misconceptions of antibiotic resistance. Additionally, research has focused on the degree to which misconceptions may be based in the complexity of biological information or in pedagogical choices, rather than in deep-seated cognitive patterns...
2017: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806429/current-concepts-of-bruxism
#16
Daniele Manfredini, Junia Serra-Negra, Fabio Carboncini, Frank Lobbezoo
Bruxism is a common phenomenon, and emerging evidence suggests that biologic, psychologic, and exogenous factors have greater involvement than morphologic factors in its etiology. Diagnosis should adopt the grading system of possible, probable, and definite. In children, it could be a warning sign of certain psychologic disorders. The proposed mechanism for the bruxism-pain relationship at the individual level is that stress sensitivity and anxious personality traits may be responsible for bruxism activities that may lead to temporomandibular pain, which in turn is modulated by psychosocial factors...
September 2017: International Journal of Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795465/a-molecular-breadboard-removal-and-replacement-of-subunits-in-a-hepatitis-b-virus-capsid
#17
Lye Siang Lee, Nicholas Brunk, Daniel G Haywood, David Keifer, Elizabeth Pierson, Panagiotis Kondylis, Joseph Che-Yen Wang, Stephen C Jacobson, Martin F Jarrold, Adam Zlotnick
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein is a model system for studying assembly and disassembly of icosahedral structures. Controlling disassembly will allow re-engineering the 120 subunit HBV capsid, making it a molecular breadboard. We examined removal of subunits from partially crosslinked capsids to form stable incomplete particles. To characterize incomplete capsids, we used two single molecule techniques, resistive-pulse sensing and charge detection mass spectrometry. We expected to find a binomial distribution of capsid fragments...
November 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789725/demoralization-in-medical-illness-feasibility-and-acceptability-of-a-pilot-educational-intervention-for-inpatient-oncology-nurses
#18
Benjamin W Brewer, Jennifer M Caspari, Jean Youngwerth, Leigh Nathan, Izaskun Ripoll, Alison Heru
OBJECTIVE: Demoralization is a common problem among medical inpatients with such serious health problems as cancer. An awareness of this syndrome, a knowledge of what defines it, and a plan for how to intervene are limited among nursing teams. Nurses are uniquely poised to efficiently provide brief interventions that address demoralization in their patients. To our knowledge, there are no interventions that train nurses to distinguish and treat demoralization in their patients. The objective of the present study was to determine the acceptability, feasibility, and impact of a novel educational intervention for nurses...
August 9, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748219/envy-s-pathology-historical-contexts
#19
Lina Minou
This article is concerned with the physicality of envy primarily in early -modern, but also in eighteenth-century health contexts. The discussion brings together descriptions of the effects of envy on the body of the envier, mainly from works of physiology and health preservation, but also from literary and spiritual writings. These depictions of envy are studied beyond their symbolism and with a view to establish whether they are meaningful according to the medical theories of the time in which they occur...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738638/mixed-matrix-membranes-incorporated-with-ln-mof-for-selective-and-sensitive-detection-of-nitrofuran-antibiotics-based-on-inner-filter-effect
#20
Feng Zhang, Hua Yao, Yifan Zhao, Xing Li, Gaowei Zhang, Yangyi Yang
The detection of antibiotics is critical and challenging due to the pervasive use of antibiotics had inevitably brought some negative impacts on ecosystem and human health. Herein, we reported an anti-interfere ability enhanced luminescent sensor of lanthanide metal-organic framework (Ln-MOF) filled mixed matrix membranes (MMMs), which combining the processibility of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) polymer with Ln-MOF of {[Tb2(AIP)2(H2O)10]·(AIP)·4H2O}n (Tb-AIP, where AIP is 5-aminoisophthalate) fillers...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
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