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Common-sense concepts

Lisanne L de Boer, Jarich W Spliethoff, Henricus J C M Sterenborg, Theo J M Ruers
Innovations in optical spectroscopy have helped the technology reach a point where performance previously seen only in laboratory settings can be translated and tested in real-world applications. In the field of oncology, spectral tissue sensing (STS) by means of optical spectroscopy is considered to have major potential for improving diagnostics and optimizing treatment outcome. The concept has been investigated for more than two decades and yet spectral tissue sensing is not commonly employed in routine medical practice...
December 2, 2016: Lasers in Medical Science
Stephen K Reed
An important characteristic of knowledge is that it exists at multiple levels of abstraction. This article illustrates how different levels of abstraction influence perception, comprehension, categorization, memory, and thought. Theories exist for how abstraction influences each of these cognitive processes, but there are few unifying principles for discussing these theories within a common conceptual framework. My proposed taxonomy examines three senses of abstraction: (a) an abstract entity is a concept that has no material referent, (b) abstraction focuses on only some attributes of multicomponent stimuli, and (c) an abstract idea applies to many particular instances of a category...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
Larisa V Kovtonyuk, Kristin Fritsch, Xiaomin Feng, Markus G Manz, Hitoshi Takizawa
All hematopoietic and immune cells are continuously generated by hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) through highly organized process of stepwise lineage commitment. In the steady state, HSCs are mostly quiescent, while HPCs are actively proliferating and contributing to daily hematopoiesis. In response to hematopoietic challenges, e.g., life-threatening blood loss, infection, and inflammation, HSCs can be activated to proliferate and engage in blood formation. The HSC activation induced by hematopoietic demand is mediated by direct or indirect sensing mechanisms involving pattern recognition receptors or cytokine/chemokine receptors...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Maureen Burns, Fabien Medvecky
In this article, we suggest that three concepts from cultural and media studies might be useful for analysing the ways audiences are constructed in science communication: that media are immanent to society, media are multiple and various, and audiences are active. This article uses those concepts, along with insights from Science and Technology Studies (STS), to examine the category of 'the disengaged' within science communication. This article deals with the contrast between 'common sense' and scholarly ideas of media and audiences in the field of cultural and media studies...
November 25, 2016: Public Understanding of Science
Miquel Bastons, Jaume Armengou
There is both individual and collective widespread concern in society about the impact of human activity and the effects of our decisions on the physical and social environment. This concern is included within the idea of sustainability. The meaning of the concept is still ambiguous and its practical effectiveness disputed. Like many other authors, this article uses as a starting point the definition proposed by the World Commission on Environment and Development (Our common future, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1987), considering it to be a proposal for changing the assessment of the effects of decisions, from at least two perspectives: (1) what effects we should consider and (2) how we should assess them...
November 24, 2016: Science and Engineering Ethics
Elizabeth K Jones, Anne L Kittendorf, Arno K Kumagai
OBJECTIVES: Although many medical schools include arts-based activities in their curricula, empirical evidence is lacking regarding how the creation of art might impact medical students and their professional development. We used a qualitative research design in order to understand this process. METHODS: We conducted and analysed interviews with 16 medical students who had created and presented original artwork in the context of a required narrative-based undergraduate medical education programme...
November 23, 2016: Medical Education
Alex Cohen, Ramachandran Padmavati, Maia Hibben, Samuel Oyewusi, Sujit John, Oluyomi Esan, Vikram Patel, Helen Weiss, Robin Murray, Gerard Hutchinson, Oye Gureje, Rangaswamy Thara, Craig Morgan
BACKGROUND: In order to facilitate case identification of incident (untreated and recent onset) cases of psychosis and controls in three sites in India, Nigeria and Trinidad, we sought to understand how psychoses (or madness) were conceptualized locally. The evidence we gathered also contributes to a long history of research on concepts of madness in diverse settings. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions and individual interviews to collect information about how informants in each site make sense of and respond to madness...
November 9, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Stephen C Pritchard, Regine Zopf, Vince Polito, David M Kaplan, Mark A Williams
The concept of self-representation is commonly decomposed into three component constructs (sense of embodiment, sense of agency, and sense of presence), and each is typically investigated separately across different experimental contexts. For example, embodiment has been explored in bodily illusions; agency has been investigated in hypnosis research; and presence has been primarily studied in the context of Virtual Reality (VR) technology. Given that each component involves the integration of multiple cues within and across sensory modalities, they may rely on similar underlying mechanisms...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Andreas Natsch, Roger Emter
The 21st century paradigm for toxicology and the adverse outcome pathway concept envisage a future toxicology largely based on mechanistic in vitro assays and relying mainly on cellular models. In the skin sensitisation field, this concept was not intuitive at the beginning. Given the high structural diversity of skin sensitising molecules, classical receptor binding as the molecular initiating event in a cell-based assay could be excluded from the start, leaving the question of how cells could sense potential skin sensitising chemicals and be able to differentiate them from non-sensitisers...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
Victor Gomel, Philippe R Koninckx
"Microsurgery" is a set of principles developed to improve fertility surgery outcomes. These principles were developed progressively based on common sense and available evidence, under control of clinical feedback obtained with the use of second-look laparoscopy. Fertility outcome was the end point; significant improvement in fertility rates validated the concept clinically. Postoperative adhesion formation being a major cause of failure in fertility surgery, the concept of microsurgery predominantly addresses prevention of postoperative adhesions...
October 2016: Fertility and Sterility
Alexandra Greenberg, Rachel Kiddell-Monroe
In recent years, the world has witnessed the tragic outcomes of multiple global health crises. From Ebola to high prices to antibiotic resistance, these events highlight the fundamental constraints of the current biomedical research and development (R&D) system in responding to patient needs globally.To mitigate this lack of responsiveness, over 100 self-identified "alternative" R&D initiatives, have emerged in the past 15 years. To begin to make sense of this panoply of initiatives working to overcome the constraints of the current system, UAEM began an extensive, though not comprehensive, mapping of the alternative biomedical R&D landscape...
2016: Globalization and Health
William T Carpenter, Katherine H Frost, Kayla M Whearty, Gregory P Strauss
The concepts and investigations reviewed above suggest the following * Schizophrenia is a clinical syndrome that can be deconstructed into meaningful domains of psychopathology. * Individual patients vary substantially on which domains are present as well as severity. * Negative symptoms are common in persons with schizophrenia, but only primary negative symptoms are a manifestation of schizophrenia psychopathology in the "weakening of the wellsprings of volition" sense that Kraepelin described. * The failure to distinguish primary from secondary negative symptoms has profound consequences as viewed in the vast majority of clinical trials that report negative symptom efficacy without regard for causation and without controlling for pseudospecificity...
2016: Nebraska Symposium on Motivation
D Leguay
This article attempts to identify and put into perspective the different approaches that could globally prevent the suffering induced by schizophrenia, from the detection of early psychosis to the impact on individual and family functioning and emotional health. Schizophrenia causes, at the community level, a number of difficult consequences and associated costs, which likely could be reduced if specific strategies, already known and documented internationally, were applied. Two areas not explored in this article: the role of medication and the issue of suicide prevention...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
Xinmei Wen, Thomas Westergard, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are two apparently distinct neurodegenerative diseases, the former characterized by selective loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord and the latter characterized by selective atrophy of frontal and temporal lobes. Over the years, however, growing evidence from clinical, pathological and genetic findings has suggested that ALS and FTD belong to the same clinic-pathological spectrum disorder. This concept has been further supported by the identification of the most common genetic cause for both diseases, an aberrantly expanded hexanucleotide repeat GGGGCC/ CCCCGG sequence located in a non-coding region of the gene C9orf72...
September 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
César Llamas, Manuel A González, Carmen Hernández, Jesús Vegas
Nearly every practical improvement in modeling human motion is well founded in a properly designed collection of data or datasets. These datasets must be made publicly available for the community could validate and accept them. It is reasonable to concede that a collective, guided enterprise could serve to devise solid and substantial datasets, as a result of a collaborative effort, in the same sense as the open software community does. In this way datasets could be complemented, extended and expanded in size with, for example, more individuals, samples and human actions...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Carlos Eduardo Menezes Amaral, Maria Lúcia Magalhães Bosi
The main proposal to set up an articulated mode of operation of health services has been the concept of network, which has been appropriated in different ways in the field of public health, as it is used in other disciplinary fields or even taking it from common sense. Amid the diversity of uses and concepts, we recognize the need for rigorous conceptual demarcation about networks in the field of health. Such concern aims to preserve the strategic potential of this concept in the research and planning in the field, overcoming uncertainties and distortions still observed in its discourse-analytic circulation in public health...
August 22, 2016: Revista de Saúde Pública
André Silva Ranhel, Evandro Tinoco Mesquita
The historical period called the Middle Ages, a long interval between the 5th and the 15th centuries, is still commonly known as the Dark Ages, especially in the area of health sciences. In the last decades, this "classic" view of the Middle Ages has been gradually modified with advances in historiographical studies and the history of science. During that period in Western Europe, knowledge about the human body suffered a regression in terms of anatomy and physiology, with the predominance of religious conceptions mainly about diseases and their treatments...
April 2016: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
Fassil Shiferaw, Meketew Letebo, Abate Bane
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and C are silent killers not yet recognized as major public health challenges in many developing countries with huge disease burden. In Ethiopia, Hepatitis B is endemic with an average prevalence of 10.8 %, and the prevalence of Hepatitis C is 2 %. The prevalence of both infections, however, is likely to be underreported due to the lack of diagnostic facilities and appropriate surveillance systems. Ethiopia is also among the many Sub-Sahara African countries lacking a coordinated and systematic national response to chronic viral hepatitis...
August 11, 2016: BMC Public Health
Fumiya Iida, Surya G Nurzaman
Sensor morphology, the morphology of a sensing mechanism which plays a role of shaping the desired response from physical stimuli from surroundings to generate signals usable as sensory information, is one of the key common aspects of sensing processes. This paper presents a structured review of researches on bioinspired sensor morphology implemented in robotic systems, and discusses the fundamental design principles. Based on literature review, we propose two key arguments: first, owing to its synthetic nature, biologically inspired robotics approach is a unique and powerful methodology to understand the role of sensor morphology and how it can evolve and adapt to its task and environment...
August 6, 2016: Interface Focus
Olivier Brabant
Commonly accepted models of human consciousness have substantial shortcomings, in the sense that they cannot account for the entire scope of human experiences. The goal of this article is to describe a model with higher explanatory power, by integrating ideas from psychology and quantum mechanics. In the first part, the need for a paradigm change will be justified by presenting three types of phenomena that challenge the materialistic view of consciousness. The second part is about proposing an alternative view of reality and mind-matter manifestation that is able to accommodate these phenomena...
September 2016: Explore: the Journal of Science and Healing
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