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Language and thought

I Absah, A Rishi, N J Talley, D Katzka, M Halland
BACKGROUND: Rumination syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by effortless and repetitive regurgitation of recently ingested food from the stomach to the oral cavity followed by either re-swallowing or spitting. Rumination is thought to occur due to a reversal of the esophagogastric pressure gradient. This is achieved by a coordinated abdominothoracic maneuver consisting of a thoracic suction, crural diaphragm relaxation and an increase in intragastric pressure...
October 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Ronald Schenk
Clinical work, as all of consciousness, is steeped in and emerges out of language. Language is the medium of our knowing, and knowing the medium of our relating. Language has us; words dream us. For the mythical Navajo as for John of the New Testament, in the Beginning was the Word. Before any kind of distinction of thought, feeling, sensation or intuition comes language - language, not as 'just words', but as image. Words are images, and images as encompassing worlds present themselves as and through language...
November 2016: Journal of Analytical Psychology
Kristina Kasparian, Karsten Steinhauer
First language (L1) attrition is a socio-linguistic circumstance where second language (L2) learning coincides with changes in exposure and use of the native-L1. Attriters often report experiencing a decline in automaticity or proficiency in their L1 after a prolonged period in the L2 environment, while their L2 proficiency continues to strengthen. Investigating the neurocognitive correlates of attrition alongside those of late L2 acquisition addresses the question of whether the brain mechanisms underlying both L1 and L2 processing are strongly determined by proficiency, irrespective of whether the language was acquired from birth or in adulthood...
October 14, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Gholam Reza Zarei, Hossein Pourghasemian, Hassan Jalali
The present study attempts to give an account of how students represent writing task in an EAP course. Further, the study is intended to discover if learners' mental representation of writing would contribute to their written performance. During a 16-week term, students were instructed to practice writing as a problem solving activity. At almost the end of the term, they were prompted to write on what they thought writing task was like and also an essay on an argumentative topic. The results revealed that students could conceptualize the instructed recursive model of writing as a process-based, multi-dimensional and integrated activity inducing self-direction and organization while holding in low regard the product view of writing...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
Liat Shani
Animal-assisted psychotherapy (AAP) inherently incorporates standpoints, interventions, and ways of action promoting the development of the reflective function and mentalization, and thus has special value for parent-child psychotherapy. Two central tools in AAP contribute to this process. The first is the ethical stance of the therapist, who sees the animals as full partners in the therapy situation, respecting them as subjects with needs, desires, and thoughts of their own. The second tool combines nonverbal communication with animals together with the relating, in the here and now, to the understanding and decoding of body language of everyone in the setting...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
Bernard C Beins
Psychologists recognized the importance of Jean Piaget's theory from its inception. Within a year of the appearance of his first book translated into English, The Language and Thought of the Child (J. Piaget, 1926) , it had been reviewed and welcomed; shortly thereafter, psychologists began testing the tenets of the theory empirically. The author traces the empirical testing of his theory in the 2 decades following publication of his initial book. A review of the published literature through the World War II era reveals that the research resulted in consistent failure to support the theoretical mechanisms that Piaget proposed...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Genetic Psychology
Olav Nyttingnes, Torleif Ruud, Jorun Rugkåsa
PURPOSE: Some patients criticize coercive mental health treatment using extremely strong words. This may be connected to poor therapeutic relationships and unfavourable treatment outcomes, so a better understanding of this criticism is warranted. METHODS: Data consisted of detailed notes from 15 all-day dialogue seminars on coercion and voluntariness in Oslo, Norway from 2006 to 2009. Very dissatisfied patients and ex-patients were a central voice through the seminars...
October 7, 2016: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Lucas Giner, Hilario Blasco-Fontecilla, Diego De La Vega, Philippe Courtet
Suicide is one of the leading causes of violent death in many countries and its prevention is included in worldwide health objectives. Currently, the DSM-5 considers suicidal behavior as an entity that requires further study. Among the three validators required for considering a psychiatric disorder, there is one based on psychological correlates, biological markers, and patterns of comorbidity. This review includes the most important and recent studies on psychological factors: cognitive, emotional, temperament, and personality correlates (unrelated to diagnostic criteria)...
November 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
Hamada H Altalib, Khalid Elzamzamy, Mary Jo Pugh, Javier Ballester Gonzalez, Kei-Hoi Cheung, Brenda T Fenton, Robert D Kerns, Cynthia A Brandt, W Curt LaFrance
Management of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) requires collaboration among and between health care professionals. Although criteria are established for diagnosis of PNES, miscommunication between neurologists, primary care providers, and mental health professionals may occur if the clinical impression is not clearly articulated. We extracted progress notes from the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) electronic health record (EHR) nationally to study veterans who were evaluated for PNES. Of the 750 patients being worked up for PNES, the majority of patients did not meet criteria for PNES (64...
October 7, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
E Yusuf, D S Y Ong, A Martin-Quiros, C Skevaki, J Cortez, K Dedić, A E Maraolo, D Dušek, P J Maver, M Sanguinetti, E Tacconelli
The purpose of this investigation was to perform a survey among European clinical microbiology (CM) and infectious disease (ID) trainees on training satisfaction, training tools, and competency assessment. An online, anonymous survey in the English language was carried out between April and July 2015. There were 25 questions: seven in a 5-point Likert scale (1: worst scenario, 5: best scenario) and the remainder as closed multiple-choice questions in five areas (satisfaction, adequacy, system, mentorship, and evaluation of training)...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jameel Muzaffar, Christopher Metcalfe, Steve Colley, Christopher Coulson
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis and management of recurrent or residual cholesteatoma can be problematic. Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) sequences have been used for follow up of such lesions. More recent Non-Echoplanar Imaging (Non-EPI) sequences are thought to be superior to older Echoplanar Imaging (EPI) sequences. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: Evaluate whether Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging is useful in the diagnosis of recurrent or residual cholesteatoma...
October 4, 2016: Clinical Otolaryngology
Matthew Winn
People with hearing impairment are thought to rely heavily on context to compensate for reduced audibility. Here, we explore the resulting cost of this compensatory behavior, in terms of effort and the efficiency of ongoing predictive language processing. The listening task featured predictable or unpredictable sentences, and participants included people with cochlear implants as well as people with normal hearing who heard full-spectrum/unprocessed or vocoded speech. The crucial metric was the growth of the pupillary response and the reduction of this response for predictable versus unpredictable sentences, which would suggest reduced cognitive load resulting from predictive processing...
October 3, 2016: Trends in Hearing
Emily L Coderre, Jason F Smith, Walter J B van Heuven, Barry Horwitz
The need to control multiple languages is thought to require domain-general executive control (EC) in bilinguals such that the EC and language systems become interdependent. However, there has been no systematic investigation into how and where EC and language processes overlap in the bilingual brain. If the concurrent recruitment of EC during bilingual language processing is domain-general and extends to non-linguistic EC, we hypothesize that regions commonly involvement in language processing, linguistic EC, and non-linguistic EC may be selectively altered in bilinguals compared to monolinguals...
May 2016: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
Kelli McIntyre, Annie Bélanger, Jasdeep Dhir, Lyndsay Somerville, Lyn Watson, Myles Willis, Jackie Sadi
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. OBJECTIVES: To identify the best evidenced-based approach for the conservative rehabilitation of patients with posterior glenohumeral instability. BACKGROUND: Posterior glenohumeral instability is more common than previously thought. Proper management is imperative to control symptoms and maximize function. METHODS: We conducted an electronic search, up to November 2014, for English-language studies involving rehabilitation of posterior shoulder instability...
June 7, 2016: Physical Therapy in Sport
Antje Lindenmeyer, Sabi Redwood, Laura Griffith, Zaheera Teladia, Jenny Phillimore
OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of the study were to explore the experiences of primary care professionals providing care to recent migrants in a superdiverse city and to elicit barriers and facilitators to meeting migrants' care needs. This paper focuses on a strong emergent theme: participants' descriptions and understandings of creating a fit between patients and practices. DESIGN: An exploratory, qualitative study based on the thematic analysis of semistructured interviews...
2016: BMJ Open
Vitória Piai, Kristopher L Anderson, Jack J Lin, Callum Dewar, Josef Parvizi, Nina F Dronkers, Robert T Knight
Language is classically thought to be supported by perisylvian cortical regions. Here we provide intracranial evidence linking the hippocampal complex to linguistic processing. We used direct recordings from the hippocampal structures to investigate whether theta oscillations, pivotal in memory function, track the amount of contextual linguistic information provided in sentences. Twelve participants heard sentences that were either constrained ("She locked the door with the") or unconstrained ("She walked in here with the") before presentation of the final word ("key"), shown as a picture that participants had to name...
October 4, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Guillaume Thierry
The time has come, perhaps, to go beyond merely acknowledging that language is a core manifestation of the workings of the human mind and that it relates interactively to all aspects of thinking. The issue, thus, is not to decide whether language and human thought may be ineluctably linked (they just are), but rather to determine what the characteristics of this relationship may be and to understand how language influences-and may be influenced by-nonverbal information processing. In an attempt to demystify linguistic relativity, I review neurolinguistic studies from our research group showing a link between linguistic distinctions and perceptual or conceptual processing...
September 2016: Language Learning
Margaret Hegge, Sandra Schmidt Bunkers
The authors in this article retrospectively analyze the community change process undertaken by an American Nurses Association appointed Steering Committee mandated to revise the 2001 Code of Ethics for nursing. The authors identify the community change phases as the following: organizing for diversity of thinking; scanning the horizon of ethical thought; developing unifying discourse; creating new languaging; anticipating an emerging future; and, bearing witness to community innovation. The humanbecoming community change processes are used to expand understanding of these phases of change...
October 2016: Nursing Science Quarterly
Chih-Ping Chung, Kun-Hsien Chou, Wei-Ta Chen, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, Liang-Kung Chen, Ching-Po Lin, Pei-Ning Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Different distributions of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with distinct pathological mechanisms. Lobar CMBs are thought to be related to cerebral amyloid angiopathy, whereas deep or infratentorial CMBs are related to hypertensive vasculopathy. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of CMBs and their locations on a variety of cognitive domains. METHODS: Study subjects were selected from the community-based I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Berna Yalınçetin, Halis Ulaş, Levent Var, Tolga Binbay, Berna Binnur Akdede, Köksal Alptekin
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this cross-sectional study is to examine the relation of formal thought disorder (FTD) with symptomatic remission (SR) and social functioning in patients with schizophrenia. METHOD: The study was carried out with a sample consisting of 117 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to DSM-IV. The patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Thought and Language Index (TLI), and the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP)...
October 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
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