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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521557/metacognitive-verb-production-in-adolescents-the-link-to-complex-syntax
#1
Marilyn A Nippold, Laura M Vigeland, Megan W Frantz-Kaspar
Metacognitive verbs (MCVs) such as believe, know and think allow a speaker to describe the thoughts, feelings and perspectives of the self and others. As such, these words reflect the speaker's awareness of differing mental events and activities, or Theory of Mind (ToM). This study investigated the use of MCVs in adolescents with typical language development in relation to the production of complex sentences. It was of interest to determine the frequency with which adolescents used MCVs and to explore the links between MCVs and different types of subordinate clauses...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516472/nasal-decontamination-for-the-prevention-of-surgical-site-infection-in-staphylococcus-aureus-carriers
#2
REVIEW
Zhenmi Liu, Gill Norman, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor, Jason Kf Wong, Emma J Crosbie, Peter Wilson
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection rates in the month following surgery vary from 1% to 5%. Due to the large number of surgical procedures conducted annually, the costs of these surgical site infections (SSIs) can be considerable in financial and social terms. Nasal decontamination using antibiotics or antiseptics is performed to reduce the risk of SSIs by preventing organisms from the nasal cavity being transferred to the skin where a surgical incision will be made. Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) colonises the nasal cavity and skin of carriers and can cause infection in open or unhealed surgical wounds...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516224/psychiatric-behaviors-associated-with-cytoskeletal-defects-in-radial-neuronal-migration
#3
REVIEW
Toshifumi Fukuda, Shigeru Yanagi
Normal development of the cerebral cortex is an important process for higher brain functions, such as language, and cognitive and social functions. Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to develop owing to various dysfunctions occurring during the development of the cerebral cortex. Radial neuronal migration in the embryonic cerebral cortex is a complex process, which is achieved by strict control of cytoskeletal dynamics, and impairments in this process are suggested to cause various psychiatric disorders...
May 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#4
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502915/a-dialogue-on-the-multiple-facets-of-sustainability
#5
Goedele A De Clerck, Patricia Hermann-Shores, Markku Jokinen, Sam Lutalo-Kiingi, Donald F Moores, Annika Pabsch, Peter V Paul, Alys Young
This chapter contains excerpts from a conversation among the contributors to Sign Language, Equal Opportunities, and Sustainable Development (De Clerck & Paul, 2016) during a workshop that preceded the International Conference on Sign Language, Sustainable Development, and Equal Opportunities (Ghent University, Belgium, April 2014). The objective of the conversation was to illustrate an open-ended, dialogical approach that added an interactive component to the book and inspired further thoughts and exchanges...
2017: American Annals of the Deaf
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501548/facilitation-and-interference-in-naming-a-consequence-of-the-same-learning-process
#6
Julie W Hughes, Tatiana T Schnur
Our success with naming depends on what we have named previously, a phenomenon thought to reflect learning processes. Repeatedly producing the same name facilitates language production (i.e., repetition priming), whereas producing semantically related names hinders subsequent performance (i.e., semantic interference). Semantic interference is found whether naming categorically related items once (continuous naming) or multiple times (blocked cyclic naming). A computational model suggests that the same learning mechanism responsible for facilitation in repetition creates semantic interference in categorical naming (Oppenheim, Dell, & Schwartz, 2010)...
May 11, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484022/biological-origins-of-color-categorization
#7
Alice E Skelton, Gemma Catchpole, Joshua T Abbott, Jenny M Bosten, Anna Franklin
The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages...
May 8, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483031/language-functional-changes-after-ischemic-stroke
#8
Jing Li, Weihong Zhang
Language function after ischemic stroke remains controversial. Lesion location was thought to be the main determinant of aphasia. However,some studies have shown inconsistencies between clinical manifestations and imaging findings,thus challenging the classic anatomy of aphasia. In addition,language reorganization after ischemic stroke is poorly understood,especially the role of the non-dominant hemispheric homologous language area plays in the rehabilitation of aphasia. In this review,by focusing on the localization of language functional area and the role of non-dominant hemispheric homologous language area in the rehabilitation of aphasia,we try to elucidate the functional changes after ischemic stroke and provide theoretical basis for its rehabilitation...
April 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482683/problem-solving-styles-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-the-development-of-higher-cognitive-functions
#9
Paul A Constable, Melanie Ring, Sebastian B Gaigg, Dermot M Bowler
The Vygotsky Blocks Test assesses problem-solving styles within a theoretical framework for the development of higher mental processes devised by Vygotsky. Because both the theory and the associated test situate cognitive development within the child's social and linguistic context, they address conceptual issues around the developmental relation between language and thought that are pertinent to development in autism. Our aim was to document the performance of adults with autism spectrum disorder on the Vygotsky Blocks Test, and our results showed that they made more errors than the typically developing participants and that these errors correlated with performance IQ...
May 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476072/mental-state-language-development-the-longitudinal-roles-of-attachment-and-maternal-language
#10
Erin Becker Razuri, Amanda R Hiles Howard, Karyn B Purvis, David R Cross
Maternal mental state language is thought to influence children's mental state language and sociocognitive understanding (e.g., theory of mind), but the mechanism is unclear. The current study examined the longitudinal development of mental state language in mother-child interactions. The methodology included assessments of the child and/or mother-child dyad at six time points between 12 to 52 months of the child's age. Measures determined child's attachment style and language abilities, and mental state language used by mother and child during a block-building task...
May 5, 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473004/the-attitudes-of-family-physicians-toward-a-child-with-delayed-growth-and-development
#11
Servet Aker, Mustafa Kürşat Şahin, Ömer Kınalı, Elif Şimşek Karadağ, Tuğba Korkmaz
Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the attitude of family physicians toward a child with delayed growth and development. BACKGROUND: Primary healthcare professionals play a key role in monitoring growth and development, the best indicator of the child's health status. If delayed growth and development can be detected early, then it is usually possible to restore functioning. METHODS: This descriptive study was performed in Samsun, Turkey, in May and June 2015...
May 5, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472333/aging-and-the-ethics-of-authenticity
#12
Hanne Laceulle
This article aims to make a philosophical contribution to debates about meaningful sociocultural narratives about aging. It is argued that the moral-philosophical discourse of authenticity may provide valuable resources for counter narratives about later life that are capable of challenging the dominant stereotyping decline- and age-defying cultural narratives. The discussion will draw on classical and contemporary views of authenticity by Rousseau; existentialists such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, and Heidegger; and contemporary thinkers such as Taylor and Meyers...
May 2, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468023/islamic-civilization-in-spain-a-magnificient-example-of-interaction-and-unity-of-religion-and-science
#13
Safvet Halilović
Islam and its followers had created a civilization that played very important role on the world stage for more than a thousand years. One of the most important specific qualities of the Islamic civilization is that it is a well-balanced civilization that brought together science and faith, struck a balance between spirit and matter and did not separate this world from the Hereafter. This is what distinguishes the Islamic civilization from other civilizations which attach primary importance to the material aspect of life, physical needs and human instincts, and attach greater attention to this world by striving to instantly satisfy desires of the flesh, without finding a proper place for God and the Hereafter in their philosophies and education systems...
April 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460299/a-perceptual-advantage-for-onomatopoeia-in-early-word-learning-evidence-from-eye-tracking
#14
Catherine E Laing
A perceptual advantage for iconic forms in infant language learning has been widely reported in the literature, termed the "sound symbolism bootstrapping hypothesis" by Imai and Kita (2014). However, empirical research in this area is limited mainly to sound symbolic forms, which are very common in languages such as Japanese but less so in Indo-European languages such as English. In this study, we extended this body of research to onomatopoeia-words that are thought to be present across most of the world's languages and that are known to be dominant in infants' early lexicons...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457018/modulation-of-the-n400-component-in-relation-to-hypomanic-personality-traits-in-a-word-meaning-ambiguity-resolution-task
#15
Delphine Raucher-Chéné, Sarah Terrien, Pamela Gobin, Fabien Gierski, Arthur Kaladjian, Chrystel Besche-Richard
AIM: High levels of hypomanic personality traits have been associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder (BD). Changes in semantic content, impaired verbal associations, abnormal prosody and abnormal speed of language are core features of BD, and are thought to be related to semantic processing abnormalities. In the present study, we used event-related potentials to investigate the relationship between semantic processing (N400 component) and hypomanic personality traits...
April 29, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455948/mobile-phone-text-messaging-to-improve-medication-adherence-in-secondary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#16
REVIEW
Alma J Adler, Nicole Martin, Javier Mariani, Carlos D Tajer, Onikepe O Owolabi, Caroline Free, Norma C Serrano, Juan P Casas, Pablo Perel
BACKGROUND: Worldwide at least 100 million people are thought to have prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD). This population has a five times greater chance of suffering a recurrent cardiovascular event than people without known CVD. Secondary CVD prevention is defined as action aimed to reduce the probability of recurrence of such events. Drug interventions have been shown to be cost-effective in reducing this risk and are recommended in international guidelines. However, adherence to recommended treatments remains sub-optimal...
April 29, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455908/the-sapir-whorf-hypothesis-and-inference-under-uncertainty
#17
REVIEW
Terry Regier, Yang Xu
The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis holds that human thought is shaped by language, leading speakers of different languages to think differently. This hypothesis has sparked both enthusiasm and controversy, but despite its prominence it has only occasionally been addressed in computational terms. Recent developments support a view of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis in terms of probabilistic inference. This view may resolve some of the controversy surrounding the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, and may help to normalize the hypothesis by linking it to established principles that also explain other phenomena...
April 28, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452611/at-zero-and-turning-in-circles-refugee-experiences-and-coping-in-durban-south-africa
#18
Charlotte A Labys, Chandré Dreyer, Jonathan K Burns
Millions of refugees are on the move globally, mostly settling in low- and middle-income (LMIC) "host" countries, where they often receive insufficient assistance and encounter a multitude of barriers. Despite a risk for developing mental illness, limited research exists on their struggles and coping strategies in these settings, especially outside of camps. Against this backdrop, our qualitative study aimed to gain a deeper understanding of refugee experiences in Durban, South Africa. We conducted semistructured individual interviews with 18 adult refugees from Zimbabwe and the Democratic Republic of Congo at a community-based support center in Durban...
January 1, 2017: Transcultural Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444235/right-hemisphere-structural-adaptation-and-changing-language-skills-years-after-left-hemisphere-stroke
#19
Thomas M H Hope, Alex P Leff, Susan Prejawa, Rachel Bruce, Zula Haigh, Louise Lim, Sue Ramsden, Marion Oberhuber, Philipp Ludersdorfer, Jenny Crinion, Mohamed L Seghier, Cathy J Price
Stroke survivors with acquired language deficits are commonly thought to reach a 'plateau' within a year of stroke onset, after which their residual language skills will remain stable. Nevertheless, there have been reports of patients who appear to recover over years. Here, we analysed longitudinal change in 28 left-hemisphere stroke patients, each more than a year post-stroke when first assessed-testing each patient's spoken object naming skills and acquiring structural brain scans twice. Some of the patients appeared to improve over time while others declined; both directions of change were associated with, and predictable given, structural adaptation in the intact right hemisphere of the brain...
April 24, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433347/phonological-and-semantic-processing-during-comprehension-in-wernicke-s-aphasia-an-n400-and-phonological-mapping-negativity-study
#20
Holly Robson, Emma Pilkington, Louise Evans, Vincent DeLuca, James L Keidel
Comprehension impairments in Wernicke's aphasia are thought to result from a combination of impaired phonological and semantic processes. However, the relationship between these cognitive processes and language comprehension has only been inferred through offline neuropsychological tasks. This study used ERPs to investigate phonological and semantic processing during online single word comprehension. EEG was recorded in a group of Wernicke's aphasia n=8 and control participants n=10 while performing a word-picture verification task...
April 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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