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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241649/the-structure-of-the-mental-lexicon-what-primary-progressive-aphasias-reveal
#1
Clara Sanches, Alexandre Routier, Olivier Colliot, Marc Teichmann
Like recursive syntax, a structured mental lexicon is specific to the human species but its internal organization remains unclear. It is thought to contain information about the semantic, syntactic (e.g., gender) and formal (orthographic/phonological) features of a word. Previous studies suggested that these three components might be separated at the behavioral level and that they might be implemented by temporal cortices. However, the available investigations are based on case reports or small-cohort studies with patients demonstrating post-stroke aphasia, and they did not contrast the three lexical components in a directly comparable way...
December 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229587/myvoice-national-text-message-survey-of-youth-aged-14-to-24-years-study-protocol
#2
Melissa DeJonckheere, Lauren P Nichols, Michelle H Moniz, Kendrin R Sonneville, V G Vinod Vydiswaran, Xinyan Zhao, Timothy C Guetterman, Tammy Chang
BACKGROUND: There has been little progress in adolescent health outcomes in recent decades. Researchers and youth-serving organizations struggle to accurately elicit youth voice and translate youth perspectives into health care policy. OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to describe the protocol of the MyVoice Project, a longitudinal mixed methods study designed to engage youth, particularly those not typically included in research. Text messaging surveys are collected, analyzed, and disseminated in real time to leverage youth perspectives to impact policy...
December 11, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209258/syntactic-and-story-structure-complexity-in-the-narratives-of-high-and-low-language-ability-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Eleni Peristeri, Maria Andreou, Ianthi M Tsimpli
Although language impairment is commonly associated with the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the Diagnostic Statistical Manual no longer includes language impairment as a necessary component of an ASD diagnosis (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). However, children with ASD and no comorbid intellectual disability struggle with some aspects of language whose precise nature is still outstanding. Narratives have been extensively used as a tool to examine lexical and syntactic abilities, as well as pragmatic skills in children with ASD...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207287/nursing-students-experiences-with-refugees-with-mental-health-problems-in-jordan-a-qualitative-content-analysis
#4
Camilla Dotevall, Elin Winberg, Kristina Rosengren
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe Jordanian nursing students' experience of caring for refugees with mental health problems. BACKGROUND: According to refugees' experiences of crisis, a well-educated staff is needed to provide high quality of care due to mental health problems. Therefore, health professionals play an important role in creating an environment that promotes human rights regardless of ethnic origin. SETTINGS, PARTICIPANTS, METHOD: The study comprised eight interviews and was analysed using content analysis, a qualitative method that involves an inductive approach, to increase our understanding of nursing students' perspective and thoughts regarding caring for refugees with mental health problems...
November 28, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200435/a-model-of-individualized-canonical-microcircuits-supporting-cognitive-operations
#5
Tim Kunze, Andre D H Peterson, Jens Haueisen, Thomas R Knösche
Major cognitive functions such as language, memory, and decision-making are thought to rely on distributed networks of a large number of basic elements, called canonical microcircuits. In this theoretical study we propose a novel canonical microcircuit model and find that it supports two basic computational operations: a gating mechanism and working memory. By means of bifurcation analysis we systematically investigate the dynamical behavior of the canonical microcircuit with respect to parameters that govern the local network balance, that is, the relationship between excitation and inhibition, and key intrinsic feedback architectures of canonical microcircuits...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198286/what-do-language-disorders-reveal-about-brain-language-relationships-from-classic-models-to-network-approaches
#6
Nina F Dronkers, Maria V Ivanova, Juliana V Baldo
Studies of language disorders have shaped our understanding of brain-language relationships over the last two centuries. This article provides a review of this research and how our thinking has changed over the years regarding how the brain processes language. In the 19th century, a series of famous case studies linked distinct speech and language functions to specific portions of the left hemisphere of the brain, regions that later came to be known as Broca's and Wernicke's areas. One hundred years later, the emergence of new brain imaging tools allowed for the visualization of brain injuries in vivo that ushered in a new era of brain-behavior research and greatly expanded our understanding of the neural processes of language...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197939/postmortem-angiography-revealing-traumatic-rupture-of-the-intracranial-internal-carotid-artery
#7
Fumiko Chiba, Go Inokuchi, Yohsuke Makino, Suguru Torimitsu, Ayumi Motomura, Rutsuko Yamaguchi, Mari Hashimoto, Yumi Hoshioka, Sayaka Nasgasawa, Ayaka Sakuma, Daisuke Yajima, Hisako Saito, Hirotaro Iwase
Diagnosis of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), although relatively rare, is important in forensic medicine. It is mostly associated with rupture of the vertebrobasilar artery. Traumatic aneurysm of the intracranial part of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is also rare but has been reported in several studies. It is thought that the intracranial ICA is injured by blunt force to the head, neck, and chest. However, traumatic SAH with fatal acute course resulting from rupture of the ICA is especially uncommon: only two fatal cases without an associated aneurysm have been reported in the English-language literature...
December 2, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192691/patient-understanding-of-commonly-used-oral-medicine-terminology
#8
E Hayes, R Dua, E Yeung, K Fan
Introduction Communication within the doctor-patient relationship is complex due to a variety of reasons; a patient's understanding may not correspond with the clinician's vocabulary, resulting in misunderstanding, anxiety and ill-informed decision making. We investigated the understanding of terminology commonly used in oral and maxillofacial surgery and oral medicine clinics.Methods We investigated patients' understanding using a questionnaire-based study in the out-patient setting. Age, gender, first language and highest educational level were recorded...
December 1, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186345/organizational-principles-of-abstract-words-in-the-human-brain
#9
Xiaosha Wang, Wei Wu, Zhenhua Ling, Yangwen Xu, Yuxing Fang, Xiaoying Wang, Jeffrey R Binder, Weiwei Men, Jia-Hong Gao, Yanchao Bi
words constitute nearly half of the human lexicon and are critically associated with human abstract thoughts, yet little is known about how they are represented in the brain. We tested the neural basis of 2 classical cognitive notions of abstract meaning representation: by linguistic contexts and by semantic features. We collected fMRI BOLD responses for 360 abstract words and built theoretical representational models from state-of-the-art corpus-based natural language processing models and behavioral ratings of semantic features...
November 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183684/age-related-changes-in-the-neural-networks-supporting-semantic-cognition-a-meta-analysis-of-47-functional-neuroimaging-studies
#10
REVIEW
Paul Hoffman, Alexa M Morcom
Semantic cognition is central to understanding of language and the world and, unlike many cognitive domains, is thought to show little age-related decline. We investigated age-related differences in the neural basis of this critical cognitive domain by performing an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies comparing young and older people. On average, young people outperformed their older counterparts during semantic tasks. Overall, both age groups activated similar left-lateralised regions...
November 25, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173841/improving-perceptions-of-empathy-in-patients-undergoing-low-yield-computerized-tomographic-imaging-in-the-emergency-department
#11
Michelle P Lin, Marc A Probst, Michael A Puskarich, Erin Dehon, Damon R Kuehl, Ralph C Wang, Erik P Hess, Katie Butler, Michael S Runyon, Hao Wang, D Mark Courtney, Brandon Muckley, Cherri D Hobgood, Cassandra L Hall, Jeffrey A Kline
OBJECTIVE: We assessed emergency department (ED) patient perceptions of how physicians can improve their language to determine patient preferences for 11 phrases to enhance physician empathy toward the goal of reducing low-value advanced imaging. METHODS: Multi-center survey study of low-risk ED patients undergoing computerized tomography (CT) scanning. RESULTS: We enroled 305 participants across nine sites. The statement "I have carefully considered what you told me about what brought you here today" was most frequently rated as important (88%)...
November 22, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167040/delirium-in-the-intensive-care-setting-and-the-richmond-agitation-and-sedation-scale-rass-drowsiness-increases-the-risk-and-is-subthreshold-for-delirium
#12
Soenke Boettger, David Garcia Nuñez, Rafael Meyer, André Richter, Susana Franco Fernandez, Alain Rudiger, Maria Schubert, Josef Jenewein
INTRODUCTION: Sedation is a core concept in the intensive care setting, however, the impact of sedation on delirium has not yet been studied to date. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 225 patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation (RASS) scores of -1 - drowsiness and 0 - alert- and calmness were assessed with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 1998 (DRS-R-98) and DSM-IV-TR-determined diagnosis of delirium assessing drowsiness versus alertness. RESULTS: By itself, drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold (OR 7...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163003/a-complex-interplay-of-vitamin-b1-and-b6-metabolism-with-cognition-brain-structure-and-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults
#13
Kai Jannusch, Christiane Jockwitz, Hans-Jürgen Bidmon, Susanne Moebus, Katrin Amunts, Svenja Caspers
Aging is associated with brain atrophy, functional brain network reorganization and decline of cognitive performance, albeit characterized by high interindividual variability. Among environmental influencing factors accounting for this variability, nutrition and particularly vitamin supply is thought to play an important role. While evidence exists that supplementation of vitamins B6 and B1 might be beneficial for cognition and brain structure, at least in deficient states and neurodegenerative diseases, little is known about this relation during healthy aging and in relation to reorganization of functional brain networks...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154622/how-does-not-left-become-right-electrophysiological-evidence-for-a-dynamic-conflict-bound-negation-processing-account
#14
Carolin Dudschig, Barbara Kaup
Human thought and language is traditionally considered as abstract, amodal, and symbolic. However, recent theories propose that high-level human cognition is directly linked to basic, modal biological systems such as sensorimotor areas. Despite this influential representational debate very little is known regarding whether the mechanisms involved in sensorimotor control are also shared with higher-level cognitive processes, such as language comprehension. We investigated negation as a universal of human language, addressing two key questions: (a) Does negation result in a conflict-like representation? (b) Does negation trigger executive control adjustments in a similar manner as standard information processing conflicts do (e...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153448/evidence-of-disturbances-of-deep-levels-of-semantic-cohesion-within-personal-narratives-in-schizophrenia
#15
Jon A Willits, Timothy Rubin, Michael N Jones, Kyle S Minor, Paul H Lysaker
Since initial conceptualizations, schizophrenia has been thought to involve core disturbances in the ability to form complex, integrated ideas. Although this has been studied in terms of formal thought disorder, the level of involvement of altered latent semantic structure is less clear. To explore this question, we compared the personal narratives of adults with schizophrenia (n=200) to those produced by an HIV+ sample (n=55) using selected indices from Coh-Metrix. Coh-Metrix is a software system designed to compute various language usage statistics from transcribed written and spoken language documents...
November 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151094/glossolalia-and-aphasia-related-but-different-worlds
#16
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140556/withdrawn-transcendental-meditation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-cardiovascular-disease
#17
REVIEW
Louise Hartley, Angelique Mavrodaris, Nadine Flowers, Edzard Ernst, Karen Rees
BACKGROUND: A major determinant in cardiovascular disease (CVD) is stress. As transcendental meditation (TM) is thought to help in lowering negative stress indicators, it may be a beneficial strategy for the primary prevention of CVD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of TM for the primary prevention of CVD. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2013, Issue 10); MEDLINE (Ovid) (1946 to week three November 2013); EMBASE Classic and EMBASE (Ovid) (1947 to week 48 2013); ISI Web of Science (1970 to 28 November 2013); and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE) and Health Technology Assessment Database and Health Economics Evaluations Database (November 2013)...
November 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139649/construction-of-the-questionnaire-on-foreign-language-learning-strategies-in-specific-croatian-context
#18
Nikolina Božinović, Joško Sindik
Learning strategies are special thoughts or behaviours that individuals use to understand, learn or retain new information, according to the point of view of O’Malley & Chamot. The other view, promoted by Oxford, believes learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, and more transferrable to new situations of language learning and use. The use of appropriate strategies ensures greater success in language learning. The aim of the research was to establish metric characteristics of the Questionnaire on learning strategies created by the author, in line with the template of the original SILL questionnaire (Strategy Inventory for Language Learning)...
March 2017: Collegium Antropologicum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135750/student-and-educator-experiences-of-maternal-child-simulation-based-learning-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#19
Karen MacKinnon, Lenora Marcellus, Julie Rivers, Carol Gordon, Maureen Ryan, Diane Butcher
BACKGROUND: Although maternal-child care is a pillar of primary health care, there is a global shortage of maternal-child health care providers. Nurse educators experience difficulties providing undergraduate students with maternal-child learning experiences for a number of reasons. Simulation has the potential to complement learning in clinical and classroom settings. Although systematic reviews of simulation are available, no systematic reviews of qualitative evidence related to maternal-child simulation-based learning (SBL) for undergraduate nursing students and/or educators have been located...
November 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110738/what-can-we-learn-from-simulation-based-training-to-improve-skills-for-end-of-life-care-insights-from-a-national-project-in-israel
#20
Mayer Brezis, Yael Lahat, Meir Frankel, Alan Rubinov, Davina Bohm, Matan J Cohen, Meni Koslowsky, Orit Shalomson, Charles L Sprung, Henia Perry-Mezare, Rina Yahalom, Amitai Ziv
BACKGROUND: Simulation-based training improves residents' skills for end-of-life (EOL) care. In the field, staff providers play a significant role in handling those situations and in shaping practice by role modeling. We initiated an educational intervention to train healthcare providers for improved communication skills at EOL using simulation of sensitive encounters with patients and families. METHODS: Hospital physicians and nurses (n = 1324) attended simulation-based workshops (n = 100) in a national project to improve EOL care...
November 6, 2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
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