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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093833/cracking-the-code-residents-interpretations-of-written-assessment-comments
#1
Shiphra Ginsburg, Cees Pm van der Vleuten, Kevin W Eva, Lorelei Lingard
CONTEXT: Interest is growing in the use of qualitative data for assessment. Written comments on residents' in-training evaluation reports (ITERs) can be reliably rank-ordered by faculty attendings, who are adept at interpreting these narratives. However, if residents do not interpret assessment comments in the same way, a valuable educational opportunity may be lost. OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to explore residents' interpretations of written assessment comments using mixed methods...
January 16, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091761/on-the-origins-of-endogenous-thoughts
#2
Alexandros Tillas
Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)...
January 13, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080970/differentiating-attention-styles-and-regulatory-aspects-of-self-reported-interoceptive-sensibility
#3
REVIEW
Wolf Mehling
Based on prior research, multiple discriminable dimensions of interoception have been defined: awareness, accuracy and sensibility. Some investigators defined interoceptive awareness as metacognitive awareness of interoceptive accuracy, assessed as correspondence between subjective confidence in and objective accuracy of one's heartbeat detection. However, metacognitive awareness has been understood quite differently: 'a cognitive set in which negative thoughts/feelings are experienced as mental events, rather than as the self' or as 'error awareness'...
November 19, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078330/pheochromocytoma-in-urologic-practice
#4
Nikhil Waingankar, Gennady Bratslavsky, Camilo Jimenez, Paul Russo, Alexander Kutikov
CONTEXT: Pheochromocytoma is regularly encountered in urological practice and requires a thoughtful and careful clinical approach. OBJECTIVE: To review clinical aspects of management of pheochromocytoma in urologic practice. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review of English-language literature was performed through year 2015 using the Medline database. Manuscripts were selected with consensus of the coauthors and evaluated using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria...
February 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074291/unaccompanied-refugee-minors-in-germany-attitudes-of-the-general-population-towards-a-vulnerable-group
#5
Paul L Plener, Rebecca C Groschwitz, Elmar Brähler, Thorsten Sukale, Jörg M Fegert
Germany saw an increase in numbers of refugees in 2015, with nearly a third being below the age of 18. Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) present an especially vulnerable group. In addition to pre-flight and flight stress, the acculturation process can work as potential stressor, and we wanted to explore attitudes towards URM. We conducted a study in a representative sample (n = 2524) of the German population (ages 14 years or older) between January and March 2016. Only 22.8% of participants thought that Germany could accompany more URM...
January 10, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071615/knowledge-attitude-and-practice-about-breast-cancer-and-breast-self-examination-among-women-seeking-out-patient-care-in-a-teaching-hospital-in-central-india
#6
Rao Siddharth, D Gupta, R Narang, P Singh
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) continues to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Early detection of BC and early treatment increases the chance of survival. According to Breast Health Global Initiative guidelines for low and middle income countries, diagnosing BCs early by promoting breast self-awareness; clinical breast examination (CBE) and resource adapted mammographic screening will reduce BC mortality. There is a paucity of data on the knowledge and awareness of BC and self-breast examination in India...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069925/cerebellar-tdcs-modulates-neural-circuits-during-semantic-prediction-a-combined-tdcs-fmri-study
#7
Anila M D'Mello, Peter E Turkeltaub, Catherine J Stoodley
: It has been proposed that the cerebellum acquires internal models of mental processes that enable prediction, allowing for the optimization of behavior. In language, semantic prediction speeds speech production and comprehension. Right cerebellar lobules VI and VII (including Crus I/II) are engaged during a variety of language processes and are functionally connected with cerebral cortical language networks. Further, right posterolateral cerebellar neuromodulation modifies behavior during predictive language processing...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059789/the-mild-behavioral-impairment-checklist%C3%A2-mbi-c-a-rating-scale-for%C3%A2-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in%C3%A2-pre-dementia-populations
#8
Zahinoor Ismail, Luis Agüera-Ortiz, Henry Brodaty, Alicja Cieslak, Jeffrey Cummings, Corinne E Fischer, Serge Gauthier, Yonas E Geda, Nathan Herrmann, Jamila Kanji, Krista L Lanctôt, David S Miller, Moyra E Mortby, Chiadi U Onyike, Paul B Rosenberg, Eric E Smith, Gwenn S Smith, David L Sultzer, Constantine Lyketsos
BACKGROUND: Mild behavioral impairment (MBI) is a construct that describes the emergence at ≥50 years of age of sustained and impactful neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), as a precursor to cognitive decline and dementia. MBI describes NPS of any severity, which are not captured by traditional psychiatric nosology, persist for at least 6 months, and occur in advance of or in concert with mild cognitive impairment. While the detection and description of MBI has been operationalized in the International Society to Advance Alzheimer's Research and Treatment - Alzheimer's Association (ISTAART-AA) research diagnostic criteria, there is no instrument that accurately reflects MBI as described...
December 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043901/mother-child-language-style-matching-predicts-children-s-and-mothers-emotion-reactivity
#9
Hannah F Rasmussen, Jessica L Borelli, Patricia A Smiley, Chloe Cohen, Ryan Cheuk Ming Cheung, Schuyler Fox, Matthew Marvin, Betsy Blackard
Co-regulation of behavior occurring within parent-child attachment relationships is thought to be the primary means through which children develop the capacity to regulate emotion, an ability that is protective across development. Existing research on parent-child co-regulation focuses predominantly on parent-infant dyads, and operationalizes co-regulation as the matching of facial expressions; however, matching can occur on other behaviors, including vocal tone, body movement, and language. Studies with young children find that greater matching is associated with children's lower emotion reactivity, but with unknown impacts on parents...
December 30, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039933/aphasia-and-literacy-the-insider-s-perspective
#10
Emma Kjellén, Katja Laakso, Ingrid Henriksson
BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated how people with aphasia (PWA) experience literacy skills. Taking the insider's perspective is a way to increase understanding of the individual experiences of literacy among PWA, which may have clinical implications. AIMS: To describe how literacy, i.e., reading and writing, is experienced in everyday life by PWA and to gain insight into the part played by literacy skills in their lives. METHODS & PROCEDURES: A qualitative descriptive research approach was taken...
December 31, 2016: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032433/maturation-constrains-the-effect-of-exposure-in-linking-language-and-thought-evidence-from-healthy-preterm-infants
#11
Danielle R Perszyk, Brock Ferguson, Sandra R Waxman
The power of human language rests upon its intricate links to human cognition. By 3 months of age, listening to language supports infants' ability to form object categories, a building block of cognition. Moreover, infants display a systematic shift between 3 and 4 months - a shift from familiarity to novelty preferences - in their expression of this link between language and core cognitive processes. Here, we capitalize on this tightly-timed developmental shift in fullterm infants to assess (a) whether it also appears in preterm infants and (b) whether it reflects infants' maturational status or the duration of their postnatal experience...
December 29, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032254/white-matter-correlates-of-the-disorganized-speech-dimension-in-schizophrenia
#12
Petra V Viher, Katharina Stegmayer, Stéphanie Giezendanner, Andrea Federspiel, Stephan Bohlhalter, Roland Wiest, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
Disorganized speech is related to functional abnormalities in schizophrenia. To test the association between formal thought disorders (FTDs) and white matter microstructure, we applied a behavioral rating and diffusion tensor imaging in 61 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The Bern Psychopathology Scale was used to rate the dimension of language abnormalities ranging from negative FTDs, basically unaltered speech, to positive FTDs. Tract-based spatial statistics indicated increased fractional anisotropy in left hemispheric pathways of the language system in patients with negative FTDs...
December 28, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024253/language-use-statistics-and-prototypical-grapheme-colours-predict-synaesthetes-and-non-synaesthetes-word-colour-associations
#13
Stephanie C Goodhew, Evan Kidd
Synaesthesia is the neuropsychological phenomenon in which individuals experience unusual sensory associations, such as experiencing particular colours in response to particular words. While it was once thought the particular pairings between stimuli were arbitrary and idiosyncratic to particular synaesthetes, there is now growing evidence for a systematic psycholinguistic basis to the associations. Here we sought to assess the explanatory value of quantifiable lexical association measures (via latent semantic analysis; LSA) in the pairings observed between words and colours in synaesthesia...
December 23, 2016: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018494/research-on-individual-differences-in-executive-functions-implications-for-the-bilingual-advantage-hypothesis
#14
Naomi P Friedman
Executive functions (EFs), such as response inhibition, interference control, and set shifting, are general-purpose control mechanisms that enable individuals to regulate their thoughts and behaviors. Because bilingual individuals use EF-like processes during language control, researchers have become interested in the hypothesis that this use might train EFs, resulting in better performance on non-linguistic EF tasks. Although this bilingual advantage hypothesis seems straightforward to test, it involves a number of important decisions in terms of how to assess bilingualism and EFs...
2016: Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009058/the-health-functioning-and-wellbeing-summary-traffic-light-communication-tool-a-survey-of-families-views
#15
Peter Ireland, Karen A Horridge
AIM: To ascertain families' views about the utility of the Health, Functioning and Wellbeing Summary (HFWS) in positively supporting communication in clinics. METHOD: The HFWS was co-developed with families and members of the multidisciplinary team. A sequential convenience sample of 60 families who attended clinics in Sunderland, UK in 2015 agreed to participate and answered eight questions about their views on the tool's usefulness. Data were recorded and analysed in Microsoft Excel...
December 23, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008801/focus-in-corrective-exchanges-effects-of-pitch-accent-and-syntactic-form
#16
Charles Clifton, Lyn Frazier
A dialog consisting of an utterance by one speaker and another speaker's correction of its content seems intuitively to be made more acceptable when the new information is pitch accented or otherwise focused, and when the utterance and correction have the same syntactic form. Three acceptability judgment studies, one written and two auditory, investigated the interaction of focus (manipulated by sentence position and, in Experiments 2 and 3, pitch accent) and syntactic parallelism. Experiment 1 indicated that syntactic parallelism interacted with position of the new (contrastive) term: nonparallel forms were relatively acceptable when the new term appeared in object position, a position that commonly contains new information (a 'default focus' position)...
December 2016: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005562/neuropsychological-testing-in-pathologically-verified-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-how-well-do-the-uniform-data-set-measures-differentiate-between-diseases
#17
Aaron R Ritter, Gabriel C Leger, Justin B Miller, Sarah J Banks
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Differences in cognition between frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer disease (AD) are well described in clinical cohorts, but have rarely been confirmed in studies with pathologic verification. For emerging therapeutics to succeed, determining underlying pathology early in the disease course is increasingly important. Neuropsychological evaluation is an important component of the diagnostic workup for AD and FTD. Patients with FTD are thought to have greater deficits in language and executive function while patients with AD are more likely to have deficits in memory...
December 21, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005457/modelling-difficulties-in-abstract-thinking-in-psychosis-the-importance-of-socio-developmental-background
#18
A O Berg, I Melle, V Zuber, C Simonsen, M Nerhus, T Ueland, O A Andreassen, K Sundet, A Vaskinn
INTRODUCTION: Abstract thinking is important in modern understanding of neurocognitive abilities, and a symptom of thought disorder in psychosis. In patients with psychosis, we assessed if socio-developmental background influences abstract thinking, and the association with executive functioning and clinical psychosis symptoms. METHODS: Participants (n = 174) had a diagnosis of psychotic or bipolar disorder, were 17-65 years, intelligence quotient (IQ) > 70, fluent in a Scandinavian language, and their full primary education in Norway...
December 22, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994544/seeking-temporal-predictability-in-speech-comparing-statistical-approaches-on-18-world-languages
#19
Yannick Jadoul, Andrea Ravignani, Bill Thompson, Piera Filippi, Bart de Boer
Temporal regularities in speech, such as interdependencies in the timing of speech events, are thought to scaffold early acquisition of the building blocks in speech. By providing on-line clues to the location and duration of upcoming syllables, temporal structure may aid segmentation and clustering of continuous speech into separable units. This hypothesis tacitly assumes that learners exploit predictability in the temporal structure of speech. Existing measures of speech timing tend to focus on first-order regularities among adjacent units, and are overly sensitive to idiosyncrasies in the data they describe...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986091/from-early-detection-to-rehabilitation-in-the-community-reading-beyond-the-blog-testimonies-of-survivors-quality-of-life-and-prostate-cancer-representation
#20
Margareth Santos Zanchetta, Marguerite Cognet, Mary Rachel Lam-Kin-Teng, Marie Elisabeth Dumitriu, Lise Renaud, Jacques Rhéaume
BACKGROUND: Survivors' testimonies can reveal much about men's experiences of prostate cancer and impacts on their quality of life (QOL) during the clinical trajectory of the disease. These survivors' shared thoughts and views were hypothesized to reflect salient features of their lived social representation of prostate cancer. CONTEXT: We explored the content of testimonies posted by men to a public blog hosted by a French national prostate cancer patients' association...
December 16, 2016: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
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