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Language and thought

Jacqueline Schmidt-Busby, Janine Wiles, Daniel Exeter, Timothy Kenealy
OBJECTIVE: To identify contextual factors that affect self-management of diabetes with comorbidities, and to evaluate in what way these factors affect self-management effectiveness. METHODS: A systematic review of literature considered English language articles published within Medline, PsycINFO, Pubmed, CINAHL Plus, and Scopus databases that focussed on individuals' experiences of type 2 diabetes from primary intervention or observational studies. A realist evaluation approach was used to analyse themes identified within the literature...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Reilly N Grant, David Kucher, Ana M León, Jonathan F Gemmell, Daniela S Raicu, Samah J Fodeh
BACKGROUND: Suicide is an alarming public health problem accounting for a considerable number of deaths each year worldwide. Many more individuals contemplate suicide. Understanding the attributes, characteristics, and exposures correlated with suicide remains an urgent and significant problem. As social networking sites have become more common, users have adopted these sites to talk about intensely personal topics, among them their thoughts about suicide. Such data has previously been evaluated by analyzing the language features of social media posts and using factors derived by domain experts to identify at-risk users...
June 13, 2018: BMC Bioinformatics
Annalena Venneri, Caroline Jahn-Carta, Matteo De Marco, Davide Quaranta, Camillo Marra
Relatively spared during most of the timeline of normal aging, semantic memory shows a subtle yet measurable decline even during the pre-clinical stage of Alzheimer's disease. This decline is thought to reflect early neurofibrillary changes and impairment is detectable using tests of language relying on lexical-semantic abilities. A promising approach is the characterization of semantic parameters such as typicality and age of acquisition of words, and propositional density from verbal output. Seminal research like the Nun Study or the analysis of the linguistic decline of famous writers and politicians later diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease supports the early diagnostic value of semantic processing and semantic memory...
June 13, 2018: Biomarkers in Medicine
Jet M J Vonk, Batool Rizvi, Patrick J Lao, Mariana Budge, Jennifer J Manly, Richard Mayeux, Adam M Brickman
Verbal fluency tasks are generally thought to be mediated by frontal brain regions for letter fluency and temporal regions for category fluency. This idea, however, is primarily based on lesion studies and adapted versions of the fluency tasks in functional neuroimaging, without fundamental evidence from structural neuroimaging in healthy individuals. We investigated the cortical structural correlates of letter and category fluency, including overlapping and different regions, in 505 individuals who participated in a community-based study of healthy aging...
June 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Yann Auxéméry
BACKGROUND: People who witness a horrific event are at risk of suffering from acute psychological disorders, potentially leading to chronic post-traumatic symptoms and severe medico-psycho-social complications. Traumatised individuals suffer from psychological damage that is initially indescribable: they are often unable to ask for care in the immediate aftermath of an event. Afterwards, traumatic events and their post-traumatic consequences are still often hidden or minimised by patients for reasons linked to the disorder itself (inexpressibility, shame, depressive thoughts, fear of stigmatisation, etc...
June 7, 2018: L'Encéphale
N Gao, K Fu, W He
Objective: To evaluate the quality of life (QOL) of patients who underwent resection of mandible and reconstruction by fibula flap. Methods: A total of seventy six patients who underwent resection of mandible and reconstruction by fibula flap admitted to The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University from January 2013 to August 2016 were prospectively analyzed. In the preoperative and postoperative 3 month, 12 months, the QOL of these patients were assessed by using the 14-item oral health impact profile questionnaires (OHIP), The University of Washington quality of life (UW-QOL) and the European organization for research and treatment of cancer quality of life questionnaire head and neck module (EORTC-QLQ-H&N)...
June 9, 2018: Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Stomatology
Ileana Rossetti, Paolo Brambilla, Costanza Papagno
People with schizophrenia often exhibit difficulties to comprehend figurative expressions, such as irony, proverbs, metaphors and idioms, with a general proneness to neglect the figurative meaning and to accept the more literal one. This inability is usually referred to as concretism and it constitutes a clinical manifestation of the broader language dysfunction called Formal Thought Disorder. The current review focuses on the neuropsychological and neuroanatomical underpinnings of schizophrenics' misinterpretation of a subgroup of figurative expressions, i...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Johan J Bolhuis, Gabriel J L Beckers, Marinus A C Huybregts, Robert C Berwick, Martin B H Everaert
The faculty of language is thought to be uniquely human. Recently, it has been claimed that songbirds are able to associate meaning with sound, comparable to the way that humans do. In human language, the meaning of expressions (semantics) is dependent on a mind-internal hierarchical structure (syntax). Meaning is associated with structure through the principle of compositionality, whereby the meaning of a complex expression is a function of the meaning of its constituent parts and the mode of composition. We argue that while recent experimental findings on songbird call sequences offer exciting novel insights into animal communication, despite claims to the contrary, they are quite unlike what we find in human language...
June 4, 2018: PLoS Biology
Marialuisa Cavelti, Stephanie Winkelbeiner, Andrea Federspiel, Sebastian Walther, Katharina Stegmayer, Stéphanie Giezendanner, Karin Laimböck, Thomas Dierks, Werner Strik, Helge Horn, Philipp Homan
This study examined the hypothesis that a fronto-temporal disconnection in the language network underpins formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia. Forty-nine patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (27 with mild FTD, 22 with severe FTD) and 26 healthy controls (HC) were included. Overall psychopathology and FTD were assessed by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Thought, Language, and Communication scale, respectively. White matter (WM) microstructure was analysed using Tract-Based Spatial Statistics...
May 23, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Anja Starke
Although bilingual children are thought to be at higher risk for selective mutism (SM), little is known about the development of SM in this population. This study investigates the effects of children's anxiety and language skills and parents' cultural adaptation on the development of SM. 15 bilingual (11 mute, 4 speaking at the beginning of the study) and 15 monolingual children (7 mute, 8 speaking at the beginning of the study) between the ages of 3 years and 5 years 8 months were assessed longitudinally over a 9-month period...
July 2018: Journal of Communication Disorders
John Alderete, Paul Tupper
Speech errors involving manipulations of sounds tend to be phonologically regular in the sense that they obey the phonotactic rules of well-formed words. We review the empirical evidence for phonological regularity in prior research, including both categorical assessments of words and regularity at the granular level involving specific segments and contexts. Since the reporting of regularity is affected by human perceptual biases, we also document this regularity in a new data set of 2,228 sublexical errors that was collected using methods that are demonstrably less prone to bias...
May 30, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
Angela T Morgan, Elizabeth Murray, Frederique J Liégeois
BACKGROUND: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) affects a child's ability to produce sounds and syllables precisely and consistently, and to produce words and sentences with accuracy and correct speech rhythm. It is a rare condition, affecting only 0.1% of the general population. Consensus has been reached that three core features have diagnostic validity: (1) inconsistent error production on both consonants and vowels across repeated productions of syllables or words; (2) lengthened and impaired coarticulatory transitions between sounds and syllables; and (3) inappropriate prosody (ASHA 2007)...
May 30, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Hugo Botha, Rene L Utianski, Jennifer L Whitwell, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Nirubol Tosakulwong, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs, David T Jones
Apraxia of speech is a motor speech disorder thought to result from impaired planning or programming of articulatory movements. It can be the initial or only manifestation of a degenerative disease, termed primary progressive apraxia of speech (PPAOS). The aim of this study was to use task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to assess large-scale brain network pathophysiology in PPAOS. Twenty-two PPAOS participants were identified from a prospective cohort of degenerative speech and language disorders patients...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Sara Quinn, Evan Kidd
Symbolic play has long been considered a fertile context for communicative development (Bruner, 1983, Child's talk: Learning to use language, Oxford University Press, Oxford; Vygotsky, 1962, Thought and language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA; Vygotsky, 1978, Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA). In the current study, we examined caregiver-infant interaction during symbolic play and compared it to interaction in a comparable but non-symbolic context (i...
May 28, 2018: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Erika Hoff
Early exposure to two languages is widely thought to guarantee successful bilingual development. Contradicting that belief, children in bilingual immigrant families who grow up hearing a heritage language and a majority language from birth often reach school age with low levels of skill in both languages. This outcome cannot be explained fully by influences of socioeconomic status. In this article, I summarize research that helps explain the trajectories of observed dual language growth among children in immigrant families in terms of the amount and quality of their language exposure as well as their own language use...
June 2018: Child Development Perspectives
Jacqueline F Gould, John Colombo, Carmel T Collins, Maria Makrides, Erandi Hewawasam, Lisa G Smithers
INTRODUCTION: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accumulates in the frontal lobes (responsible for higher-order cognitive skills) of the fetal brain during the last trimester of pregnancy. Infants born preterm miss some of this in utero provision of DHA, and have an increased risk of suboptimal neurodevelopment. It is thought that supplementing infants born preterm with DHA may improve developmental outcomes. The aim of this follow-up is to determine whether DHA supplementation in infants born preterm can improve areas of the brain associated with frontal lobe function, namely attention and distractibility...
May 26, 2018: BMJ Open
Nicole N Craycraft, Sarah Brown-Schmidt
The common ground that conversational partners share is thought to form the basic context for language use. According to the classic view, inferences about common ground, or mutual knowledge, are guided by beliefs about the physical, cognitive, and attentional states of one's communicative partners. Here, we provide a first test of the attention assumption for common ground, the proposal that common ground for a co-present entity-such as an object or an utterance-can only be formed if a person has evidence that his or her partner has also attended to it...
May 20, 2018: Cognitive Science
Isabelle Dautriche, Laia Fibla, Anne-Caroline Fievet, Anne Christophe
Even though ambiguous words are common in languages, children find it hard to learn homophones, where a single label applies to several distinct meanings (e.g., Mazzocco, 1997). The present work addresses this apparent discrepancy between learning abilities and typological pattern, with respect to homophony in the lexicon. In a series of five experiments, 20-month-old French children easily learnt a pair of homophones if the two meanings associated with the phonological form belonged to different syntactic categories, or to different semantic categories...
May 16, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
Jinghong Ma, Shaoyang Ma, Haiqiang Zou, Yizhi Zhang, Piu Chan, Zheng Ye
The ability to arrange thoughts and actions in an appropriate serial order (the problem of serial order) is essential to complex behaviors such as language, reasoning and cognitive planning. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) perform poorly in tasks that rely on the successful rearrangement of working memory representations. We hypothesized that serial ordering is impaired in nondemented patients with mild PD. We recruited 49 patients with mild idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr Scale 1-2.5) and 51 matched healthy adults...
2018: PloS One
Ee Teng Goh, Caroline S Stokes, Sandeep S Sidhu, Hendrik Vilstrup, Lise Lotte Gluud, Marsha Y Morgan
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis and has high associated morbidity and mortality. The condition is classified as overt if it is clinically apparent or minimal if only evident though psychometric testing. The exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is unknown although ammonia is thought to play a key role. L-ornithine L-aspartate has ammonia-lowering properties and may, therefore, benefit people with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of L-ornithine L-aspartate versus placebo, no intervention, or other active interventions in people with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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