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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214132/language-evolution-a-changing-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Michael C Corballis
From ancient times, religion and philosophy have regarded language as a faculty bestowed uniquely and suddenly on our own species, primarily as a mode of thought with communication as a byproduct. This view persists among some scientists and linguists and is counter to the theory of evolution, which implies that the evolution of complex structures is incremental. I argue here that language derives from mental processes with gradual evolutionary trajectories, including the generative capacities to travel mentally in time and space and into the minds of others...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212897/representing-composed-meanings-through-temporal-binding
#2
Hugh Rabagliati, Leonidas A A Doumas, Douglas K Bemis
A key feature of human thought and language is compositionality, the ability to bind pre-existing concepts or word meanings together in order to express new ideas. Here we ask how newly composed complex concepts are mentally represented and matched to the outside world, by testing whether it is harder to verify if a picture matches the meaning of a phrase, like big pink tree, than the meaning of a single word, like tree. Five sentence-picture verification experiments provide evidence that, in fact, the meaning of a phrase can often be checked just as fast as the meaning of one single word (and sometimes faster), indicating that the phrase's constituent concepts can be represented and checked in parallel...
February 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211045/walk-in-clinics-versus-physician-offices-and-emergency-rooms-for-urgent-care-and-chronic-disease-management
#3
REVIEW
Connie E Chen, Christopher T Chen, Jia Hu, Ateev Mehrotra
BACKGROUND: Walk-in clinics are growing in popularity around the world as a substitute for traditional medical care delivered in physician offices and emergency rooms, but their clinical efficacy is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the quality of care and patient satisfaction of walk-in clinics compared to that of traditional physician offices and emergency rooms for people who present with basic medical complaints for either acute or chronic issues. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, six other databases, and two trials registers on 22 March 2016 together with reference checking, citation searching, and contact with study authors to identify additional studies...
February 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203531/an-fmri-study-of-implicit-language-learning-in-developmental-language-impairment
#4
Elena Plante, Dianne Patterson, Michelle Sandoval, Christopher J Vance, Arve E Asbjørnsen
Individuals with developmental language impairment can show deficits into adulthood. This suggests that neural networks related to their language do not normalize with time. We examined the ability of 16 adults with and without impaired language to learn individual words in an unfamiliar language. Adults with impaired language were able to segment individual words from running speech, but needed more time to do so than their normal-language peers. ICA analysis of fMRI data indicated that adults with language impairment activate a neural network that is comparable to that of adults with normal language...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195639/ethosuximide-sodium-valproate-or-lamotrigine-for-absence-seizures-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
REVIEW
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review originally published in 2003, Issue 3, and updated in 2005, Issue 4.Absence seizures are brief epileptic seizures which present in childhood and adolescence. Depending on clinical features and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings they are divided into typical, atypical absences, and absences with special features. Typical absences are characterised by sudden loss of awareness and an EEG typically shows generalised spike wave discharges at three cycles per second...
February 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177266/social-ecology-of-resilience-and-sumud-of-palestinians
#6
Mohammad Marie, Ben Hannigan, Aled Jones
The aim of this article is to provide an overview of theoretical perspectives and practical research knowledge in relation to 'resilience', the resilience of Palestinians in particular and the related concept of 'Sumud'. 'Sumud' is a Palestinian idea that is interwoven with ideas of personal and collective resilience and steadfastness. It is also a socio-political concept and refers to ways of surviving in the context of occupation, chronic adversity, lack of resources and limited infrastructure. The concept of 'resilience' has deep roots, going back at least to the 10th century when Arabic scholars suggested strategies to cope with life adversity...
November 1, 2016: Health (London)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167382/child-language-and-parent-discipline-mediate-the-relation-between-family-income-and-false-belief-understanding
#7
Virginia Tompkins, Jessica A R Logan, Daniel F Blosser, Kaylin Duffy
Achieving false belief understanding is an important cognitive milestone that allows children to understand that thoughts and reality can differ. Researchers have found that low-income children score significantly lower than middle-income children on false belief understanding but have not examined why this difference exists. We hypothesized that children's language and parent discipline mediate the income-false belief relation. Participants were 174 3- to 6-year-olds. False belief understanding was significantly correlated with family income, children's vocabulary, parents' self-reported discussion of children's behavior, discussion of emotions, and power assertion...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167313/prosociality-from-early-adolescence-to-young-adulthood-a-longitudinal-study-of-individuals-with-a-history-of-language-impairment
#8
Umar Toseeb, Andrew Pickles, Kevin Durkin, Nicola Botting, Gina Conti-Ramsden
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal research into the development of prosociality contributes vitally to understanding of individual differences in psychosocial outcomes. Most of the research to date has been concerned with prosocial behaviour in typically developing young people; much less has been directed to the course of development in individuals with developmental disorders. AIMS: This study reports a longitudinal investigation of prosocial behaviour in young people with language impairment (LI), and compares trajectories of development to typically developing age-matched peers (AMPs)...
February 3, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161598/language-facilitates-introspection-verbal-mind-wandering-has-privileged-access-to-consciousness
#9
Mikaël Bastian, Sébastien Lerique, Vincent Adam, Michael S Franklin, Jonathan W Schooler, Jérôme Sackur
Introspection and language are the cognitive prides of humankind, but their interactions in healthy cognition remain unclear. Episodes of mind-wandering, where personal thoughts often go unnoticed for some time before being introspected, offer a unique opportunity to study the role of language in introspection. In this paper, we show that inner speech facilitates awareness of mind-wandering. In two experiments, we either interfered with verbal working memory, via articulatory suppression (Exp. 1), or entrained it, via presentation of verbal material (Exp...
February 2, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161511/phonemic-clicks-and-the-mapping-asymmetry-how-language-emerged-and-speech-developed
#10
REVIEW
Riny Huijbregts
Language must have existed before human populations became separated (all descendant populations have language) but language did not emerge until long after these population divergences occurred (behavioral modernity only showed then). Distinguishing capacity for language from externalized language resolves the apparent paradox. Speech emerged only after the capacity for language became fixated. This accords well with a fundamental property of human language. Rules mapping to meaning rely on structural properties only, while rules mapping to sound are (also) sensitive to linear order, reflecting properties of sensorimotor modalities...
February 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161510/the-material-record-and-the-antiquity-of-language
#11
REVIEW
Ian Tattersall
One view of language origins sees it as ancient and selection-driven; the other as recent and emergent. Such disagreement occurs because language is ephemeral, detectable only by indirect proxies. Because internalized language and symbolic thought are tightly linked, the best archaeological proxies for language are symbolic objects. Nothing indicates convincingly that any hominid behaved symbolically prior to Homo sapiens, which originated 200 kyr ago but started behaving symbolically only 100 kyr later. Most probably the necessary neural underpinnings arose exaptively in the extensive developmental reorganization that gave rise to anatomically distinctive Homo sapiens, and were recruited subsequently via a necessarily behavioral stimulus...
February 1, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158201/children-show-right-lateralized-effects-of-spoken-word-form-learning
#12
Anni Nora, Leena Karvonen, Hanna Renvall, Tiina Parviainen, Jeong-Young Kim, Elisabet Service, Riitta Salmelin
It is commonly thought that phonological learning is different in young children compared to adults, possibly due to the speech processing system not yet having reached full native-language specialization. However, the neurocognitive mechanisms of phonological learning in children are poorly understood. We employed magnetoencephalography (MEG) to track cortical correlates of incidental learning of meaningless word forms over two days as 6-8-year-olds overtly repeated them. Native (Finnish) pseudowords were compared with words of foreign sound structure (Korean) to investigate whether the cortical learning effects would be more dependent on previous proficiency in the language rather than maturational factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141715/-when-the-prescription-pad-is-not-enough-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-management-2-0
#13
Jenny Radesky, Arathi Reddy, Naomi Steiner, Marilyn Augustyn
Jose is a 13-year-old boy who presents to his primary care provider after struggling in school for many years. When he was in the first grade, he was diagnosed at a tertiary center with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Multiple medication trials have produced few benefits and many side effects including poor sleep, morbid thoughts, lack of motivation, and, according to his parents, "he seemed like a robot."He comes now for his annual physical in April, and the parents tell you that the school is threatening that he be retained in the seventh grade...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131010/electrophysiological-basis-of-reading-related-phonological-impairment-in-chinese-speakers-with-schizophrenia-an-erp-study
#14
Jiuju Wang, Qi Liu, Taeko N Wydell, Jinmin Liao, Fang Wang, Wenxiang Quan, Ju Tian, Pengfei Wang, Jin Liu, Wentian Dong
It has been reported in alphabetic languages that individuals with schizophrenia showed language-related cognitive impairments including phonological deficits, which were in turn associated with clinical symptoms such as auditory hallucinations and thought disorders. To date, however, the phonological deficits involved in schizophrenia in Chinese and its neural basis have not been well established. In order to establish such a relationship we conducted a behavioral study using lexical tone judgment and digit span tasks as well as an event-related potential (ERP) study with an auditory oddball paradigm, in particular, for P300 effects, the event-related brain potential (ERP) index of discrimination...
January 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127525/strategies-typically-developing-writers-use-for-translating-thought-into-the-next-sentence-and-evolving-text-implications-for-assessment-and-instruction
#15
Jasmin Niedo Jones, Virginia Wise Berninger
Three new approaches to writing assessment are introduced. First, strategies for generating the very next sentence are assessed in reference to the local level as well as the evolving text level of composing in progress. Second, strategies for translating thought into written language are coded with transcription (spelling) skill-low, average, or high-held constant. Third, instead of describing composing skill in reference to a single normed score for age or grade in a standardization sample at a static time in development, translation is studied longitudinally when children are in grades 1, 3, and 5 (ages 6, 8, 10) or grades 3, 5, and 7 (ages 8, 10, 12)...
August 2016: Open J Mod Linguist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126069/validity-evidence-for-the-adaptation-of-the-state-mindfulness-scale-for-physical-activity-sms-pa-in-spanish-youth
#16
Sarah Ullrich-French, Juan González Hernández, María D Hidalgo Montesinos
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness is an increasingly popular construct with promise in enhancing multiple positive health outcomes. Physical activity is an important behavior for enhancing overall health, but no Spanish language scale exists to test how mindfulness during physical activity may facilitate physical activity motivation or behavior. This study examined the validity of a Spanish adaption of a new scale, the State Mindfulness Scale for Physical Activity, to assess mindfulness during a specific experience of physical activity...
February 2017: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120319/sexual-communication-and-domestication-may-give-rise-to-the-signal-complexity-necessary-for-the-emergence-of-language-an-indication-from-songbird-studies
#17
Kazuo Okanoya
For language to be a vehicle of thought, protolanguage must develop a degree of complexity that allows for the syntactic manipulation of symbol sequences. Thus, before language emerged, a process in which signals became complex must have occurred. Here, we submit a scenario describing the process in which courtship songs gained in complexity during the course of domestication of Bengalese finches. By comparing domesticated Bengalese finches with their wild strain, white-rumped munias, we found that female preferences for complex songs were coupled with domesticated relaxed environments to give rise to song complexity...
January 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114772/a-linguistic-signature-of-psychological-distancing-in-emotion-regulation
#18
Erik C Nook, Jessica L Schleider, Leah H Somerville
Effective emotion regulation is critical for mental health and well-being, rendering insight into underlying mechanisms that facilitate this crucial skill invaluable. We combined principles of cognitive linguistics and basic affective science to test whether shifting components of one's language might foster effective emotion regulation. In particular, we explored bidirectional relations between emotion regulation and linguistic signatures of psychological distancing. In Study 1, we assessed whether people spontaneously distance their language (i...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114381/patterns-of-multiple-risk-exposures-for-low-receptive-vocabulary-growth-4-8-years-in-the-longitudinal-study-of-australian-children
#19
Daniel Christensen, Catherine L Taylor, Stephen R Zubrick
Risk exposures and predictions of child development outcomes typically estimate the independent effects of individual exposures. As a rule though, children are not exposed piecemeal to individual or single risks but, rather, they are exposed to clusters of risk. Many of these clusters of risks are better thought of as comprising a developmental "circumstance" with a substantial duration, over which period, additional risk exposures also accumulate. In this paper we examined the distribution of 16 single risk exposures for low language ability using latent class analysis across a sample of approximately 4000 children from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108912/the-concepts-of-hope-and-fear-in-the-islamic-thought-implications-for-spiritual-health
#20
Fatemeh Bahmani, Mitra Amini, Seyed Ziaeddin Tabei, Mohamad Bagher Abbasi
The Holy Qur'ān and medieval Islamic writings have many references to "hope" (rajā) and "fear" (khawf) as both single and paired concepts. However, a comprehensive analytical study on these two notions from an Islamic point of view still seems lacking. Both paper and electronic documents related to Islamic and Qur'ānic literature are being used in this study. Also Web resources are searched for keywords of fear, hope and Islam in three languages of Arabic, English and Persian, including Tanzil.net, Almaany...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
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