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Language and thought

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046206/-clinical-and-genetic-analyses-of-a-family-with-atypical-nonketotic-hyperglycinemia-caused-by-compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-the-gldc-gene
#1
Tie-Jia Jiang, Jing-Jing Jiang, Jia-Lu Xu, Jing Zhen, Pei-Fang Jiang, Feng Gao
Nonketotic hyperglycinemia (NKH) is an autosomal recessive hereditary disease caused by a defect in the glycine cleavage system and is classified into typical and atypical NKH. Atypical NKH has complex manifestations and is difficult to diagnose in clinical practice. This article reports a family of NKH. The parents had normal phenotypes, and the older brother and the younger sister developed this disease in the neonatal period. The older brother manifested as intractable epilepsy, severe spastic diplegia, intellectual disability, an increased level of glycine in blood and cerebrospinal fluid, an increased glycine/creatinine ratio in urine, and an increased ratio of glycine concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and blood...
October 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043655/above-on-or-shang-language-and-spatial-representations-among-english-mandarin-bilinguals
#2
Wei Xing Toh, Lidia Suárez
This study investigated if exposure to spatial language could affect spatial cognition in English-Mandarin bilinguals by focusing on contact/noncontact distinctions, an area that has been a source of contention in the language-and-thought literature. Sixty-three participants were first primed with sentences containing spatial terms (e.g., above, on) before performing a spatial decision task. Approximately half of the participants (n = 33) were primed in English; for the remaining participants (n = 30), primes comprising Mandarin spatial terms-which mark spatial distinctions differently than in English (e...
October 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025925/strength-of-temporal-white-matter-pathways-predicts-semantic-learning
#3
Pablo Ripollés, Davina Biel, Claudia Peñaloza, Jörn Kaufmann, Josep Marco-Pallarés, Toemme Noesselt, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word-learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber-tracking...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994473/preliminary-thoughts-on-the-neurobiology-of-innate-unconscious-structures-and-the-psychodynamics-of-language-acquisition
#4
Susan Mizen
This paper builds upon Britton's recent writing on 'models in the mind', in which he gives an account of preverbal metaphoric structures based on object relations (Britton 2015). These correspond with Jung's theory of innate unconscious structures. These innate models are considered alongside current linguistic theory following Chomsky and post-Chomskyan views about language acquisition. Neuroscience evidence linking language and abstract thinking with structures involved in tool use are presented. The implications of these findings, and our understanding of the relational context within which language, metaphor and abstract thought are acquired, will be discussed along with the failures of symbolization and verbal communication common amongst those with severe narcissistic disorders...
November 2017: Journal of Analytical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992541/pastoral-power-in-hiv-prevention-converging-rationalities-of-care-in-christian-and-medical-practices-in-papua-new-guinea
#5
P Shih, H Worth, J Travaglia, A Kelly-Hanku
In his conceptualisation of pastoral power, Michel Foucault argues that modern healthcare practices derive a specific power technique from pastors of the early Christian church. As experts in a position of authority, pastors practise the care of others through implicitly guiding them towards thoughts and actions that effect self-care, and towards a predefined realm of acceptable conduct, thus having a regulatory effect. This qualitative study of healthcare workers from two Christian faith-based organisations in Papua New Guinea examines the pastoral rationalities of HIV prevention practices which draw together globally circulated modern medical knowledge and Christian teachings in sexual morality for implicit social regulation...
September 29, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988171/post-trauma-coping-in-the-context-of-significant-adversity-a-qualitative-study-of-young-people-living-in-an-urban-township-in-south-africa
#6
Rachel M Hiller, Sarah L Halligan, Mark Tomlinson, Jackie Stewart, Sarah Skeen, Hope Christie
OBJECTIVE: Compared with knowledge of the post-trauma needs of young people living in developed countries, little is known about the needs of those in low-middle-income countries. Such information is crucial, particularly as young people in these environments can be at increased risk of experiencing trauma, coupled with less available resources for formal support. The aim of this study was to explore post-trauma coping and support-seeking of young people living in a high-adversity settlement in South Africa...
October 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982319/sexual-dysfunction-in-epilepsy-and-the-role-of-anti-epileptic-drugs
#7
Mahinda Yogarajah, Marco Mula
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction is very common in patients with epilepsy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to review the published literature around sexual dysfunction in epilepsy, and particularly the role played by anti-convulsant drugs. METHOD: We searched all related articles on PubMed using the search terms sexual dysfunction, various AEDs and epilepsy, and restricted the search to English language articles. RESULTS: The most common manifestations of sexual dysfunction in patients with epilepsy are hyposexuality and erectile dysfunction...
October 4, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969902/production-of-verbs-related-to-body-movement-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-als-and-parkinson-s-disease-pd
#8
Katheryn A Q Cousins, Sharon Ash, Murray Grossman
Theories of grounded cognition propose that action verb knowledge relies in part on motor processing regions, including premotor cortex. Accordingly, impaired action verb knowledge in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and Parkinson's Disease (PD) is thought to be due to motor system degeneration. Upper motor neuron disease in ALS degrades the motor cortex and related pyramidal motor system, while disease in PD is centered in the basal ganglia and can spread to frontostriatal areas that are important to language functioning...
September 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958986/how-the-understanding-research-evidence-web-based-video-series-from-the-national-collaborating-centre-for-methods-and-tools-contributes-to-public-health-capacity-to-practice-evidence-informed-decision-making-mixed-methods-evaluation
#9
Linda Chan, Jeannie Mackintosh, Maureen Dobbins
BACKGROUND: The National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools (NCCMT) offers workshops and webinars to build public health capacity for evidence-informed decision-making. Despite positive feedback for NCCMT workshops and resources, NCCMT users found key terms used in research papers difficult to understand. The Understanding Research Evidence (URE) videos use plain language, cartoon visuals, and public health examples to explain complex research concepts. The videos are posted on the NCCMT website and YouTube channel...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949306/adult-attachment-style-and-suicidality
#10
Mario Miniati, Antonio Callari, Stefano Pini
BACKGROUND: There is evidence in the literature that adverse early attachment experiences and subsequent attachment insecurities during adulthood would lead to pessimism, low self-esteem, hopelessness and, ultimately, to suicide risk. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This paper aims to review finding on the link between attachment style and suicidality. We searched the literature using the database of the U.S. National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI)-MedLine/Pubmed system from January 1992 until December 2016...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947117/making-a-measurable-difference-in-advanced-huntington-disease-care
#11
Carol Brown Moskowitz, Ashwini K Rao
Neurologists' role in the care of people with advanced Huntington disease (HD) (total functional capacity <7), often limited by a lack of clinical research to support good practice, includes the following: (1) provide comprehensive health records to an interdisciplinary care staff before admission to a more intense care setting (home health services, day program, assisted living, group home, long-term skilled nursing facility, palliative care); (2) consult with and refer to rehabilitation (occupational therapy, physical therapy, speech and language pathology), behavioral and psychiatric professionals for problem-solving strategies, which must be reviewed with direct care staff before implementation; (3) encourage and support qualitative and quantitative interdisciplinary research studies, and randomized controlled studies of nonpharmacologic interventions; and (4) assist in the development of meaningful measures to further document what works to provide a good quality of life for the patient and family and a comfortable thoughtful approach to a good death...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942349/metaphorical-interpretations-of-the-educator-student-relationship-an-innovation-in-nursing-educational-research
#12
Zenobia C Y Chan, Wai Tong Chien, Saras Henderson
Previous research has shown that collecting and analysing metaphors is a useful strategy in seeking data that are difficult to collect via verbal interviews or that cannot be represented by statistics. This study explored nursing students' perceptions of the educator-student relationship using metaphorical interpretation. A qualitative study with a personal essay approach was adopted. A total of 124 students were recruited from a nursing school in Hong Kong. A personal essay form was distributed to the participants...
September 18, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923462/competing-perspectives-on-frames-of-reference-in-language-and-thought
#13
Peggy Li, Linda Abarbanell
A study found that Dutch-speaking children who prefer an egocentric (left/right) reference frame when describing spatial relationships, and Hai||om-speaking children who use a geocentric (north/south) frame had difficulty recreating small-scale spatial arrays using their language-incongruent system (Haun, Rapold, Janzen, & Levinson, 2011). In five experiments, we reconciled these results with another study showing that English (egocentric) and Tseltal Mayan (geocentric) speakers can flexibly use both systems (Abarbanell, 2010; Li, Abarbanell, Gleitman, & Papafragou, 2011)...
September 15, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917697/trajectories-of-brain-system-maturation-from-childhood-to-older-adulthood-implications-for-lifespan-cognitive-functioning
#14
Raluca Petrican, Margot J Taylor, Cheryl L Grady
The human brain's intrinsic functional architecture reflects behavioural history and can help elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying age-related cognitive changes. To probe this issue, we used resting state (N = 586) and behavioural (N = 255) data from a lifespan sample and tested the interactions among ten intrinsic neural systems, derived from a well-established whole-brain parcellation. Our results revealed three distinguishable profiles, whose expression strengthened with increasing age and which characterized developmental differences in connectivity within the ten systems, between networks thought to underlie cognitive control and non-control systems, and among the non-control networks...
September 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917336/-the-reconstruction-of-meaning-in-dementia
#15
REVIEW
Philippe Thomas, Gérard Chandès, Cyril Hazif-Thomas
Dementia brings about progressive cognitive deterioration, combining memory problems, language difficulties and thought disorders. While there is currently no treatment for the organic disorders causing the dementia, help can be given to patients to slow down the regressive processes. Psychological mediations exist to support patients in their efforts to make sense of their environment.
September 2017: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916330/brains-language-and-the-argumentative-mind-in-western-and-eastern-societies-the-fertile-differences-between-western-eastern-argumentative-traditions
#16
REVIEW
Jordi Vallverdú
The philosophical differences between Western and Eastern philosophy not only derive from general cultural ideas about reality, but as Nisbet writes (2003), are also methodological, ontological, and cognitively driven. Thus, we can see that strategies of thought and theory-generation are constrained and enabled by conceptual levels, and that the existence of differences and within these levels may be pragmatically combined in fruitful ways. At this point, I remark that there is not a single way to connect biology and culture, but at least we need to admit that brains allow the existence of minds and that these create languages, which also organize the world symbolically following a long set of (sometimes interconnected) heuristics...
September 12, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904561/understanding-mind-body-interaction-from-the-perspective-of-east-asian-medicine
#17
Ye-Seul Lee, Yeonhee Ryu, Won-Mo Jung, Jungjoo Kim, Taehyung Lee, Younbyoung Chae
OBJECTIVE: Attempts to understand the emotion have evolved from the perspective of an independent cognitive system of the mind to that of an interactive response involving the body. This study aimed to quantify and visualize relationships between different emotions and bodily organ systems from the perspective of East Asian medicine. METHODS: Term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) method was used to quantify the significance of Five Viscera and the gallbladder relative to seven different emotions through the classical medical text of DongUiBoGam...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889870/the-use-of-handwriting-examinations-beyond-the-traditional-court-purpose
#18
REVIEW
Anna Agius, Kylie Jones, Rochelle Epple, Marie Morelato, Sébastien Moret, Scott Chadwick, Claude Roux
Traditionally, forensic science has predominantly focused its resources and objectives on addressing court related questions. However, this view restricts the contribution of forensic science to one function and results in lost opportunities as investigative and intelligence roles are often overlooked. A change of perspective and expansion of the contributions of forensic science is required to take advantage of the benefits of abductive and inductive thought processes throughout the investigative and intelligence functions...
September 2017: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887759/factors-contributing-to-chronic-ankle-instability-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-systematic-reviews
#19
REVIEW
Cassandra Thompson, Siobhan Schabrun, Rick Romero, Andrea Bialocerkowski, Jaap van Dieen, Paul Marshall
BACKGROUND: Many factors are thought to contribute to chronic ankle instability (CAI). Multiple systematic reviews have synthesised the available evidence to identify the primary contributing factors. However, readers are now faced with several systematic reviews that present conflicting findings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to establish the statistical significance and effect size of primary factors contributing to CAI and to identify likely reasons for inconsistencies in the literature...
September 8, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870378/-think-aloud-and-near-live-usability-testing-of-two-complex-clinical-decision-support-tools
#20
Safiya Richardson, Rebecca Mishuris, Alexander O'Connell, David Feldstein, Rachel Hess, Paul Smith, Lauren McCullagh, Thomas McGinn, Devin Mann
OBJECTIVES: Low provider adoption continues to be a significant barrier to realizing the potential of clinical decision support. "Think Aloud" and "Near Live" usability testing were conducted on two clinical decision support tools. Each was composed of an alert, a clinical prediction rule which estimated risk of either group A Streptococcus pharyngitis or pneumonia and an automatic order set based on risk. The objective of this study was to further understanding of the facilitators of usability and to evaluate the types of additional information gained from proceeding to "Near Live" testing after completing "Think Aloud"...
October 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
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