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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633531/the-effectiveness-of-aided-augmented-input-techniques-for-persons-with-developmental-disabilities-a-systematic-review
#1
Anna A Allen, Ralf W Schlosser, Kristofer L Brock, Howard C Shane
When working with individuals with little or no functional speech, clinicians often recommend that communication partners use the client's augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) device when speaking to the client. This is broadly known as "augmented input" and is thought to enhance the client's learning of language form and content. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effects of augmented input on communication outcomes in persons with developmental disabilities and persons with childhood apraxia of speech who use aided AAC...
June 21, 2017: Augmentative and Alternative Communication: AAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628578/neuraxial-anesthesia-in-obstetric-patients-receiving-thromboprophylaxis-with-unfractionated-or-low-molecular-weight-heparin-a-systematic-review-of-spinal-epidural-hematoma
#2
Lisa R Leffert, Heloise M Dubois, Alexander J Butwick, Brendan Carvalho, Timothy T Houle, Ruth Landau
Venous thromboembolism remains a major source of morbidity and mortality in obstetrics with an incidence of 29.8/100,000 vaginal delivery hospitalizations; cesarean delivery confers a 4-fold increased risk of thromboembolism when compared with vaginal delivery. Revised national guidelines now stipulate that the majority of women delivering via cesarean and women at risk for ante- or postpartum venous thromboembolism receive mechanical or pharmacological thromboprophylaxis. This practice change has important implications for obstetric anesthesiologists concerned about the risk of spinal epidural hematoma (SEH) among anticoagulated women receiving neuraxial anesthesia...
July 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626440/executive-function-in-adolescence-associations-with-child-and-family-risk-factors-and-self-regulation-in-early-childhood
#3
Donna Berthelsen, Nicole Hayes, Sonia L J White, Kate E Williams
Executive functions are important higher-order cognitive skills for goal-directed thought and action. These capacities contribute to successful school achievement and lifelong wellbeing. The importance of executive functions to children's education begins in early childhood and continues throughout development. This study explores contributions of child and family factors in early childhood to the development of executive function in adolescence. Analyses draw on data from the nationally representative study, Growing up in Australia: The Longitudinal Study of Australian Children...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626259/lao-language-version-of-the-revised-hasegawa-s-dementia-scale
#4
Sengchanh Kounnavong, Khouanchay Soundavong, Syda Xayavong, Nialoun Vongpraserth, Phongsavang Bounsavath, Souphatsone Houatthongkham, Bounfeng Phoummalaysith, Yu Mon Saw, Eiko Yamamoto, Kenji Toba, Nobuyuki Hamajima
With the aging of society, the number of elderly with reduced cognitive function has been increasing worldwide. As a test to measure the cognitive function, the Revised Hasegawa's Dementia Scale (HDS-R) has been used in Japan, Korea, and China. Since there was no HDS-R version for Laotians, the questionnaire and manual were developed through the cooperation of Lao and Japanese researchers. Back-translation was conducted to confirm the accuracy of the translation. The score on the 9-item HDS-R ranges 0 to 30 points, and reduced cognitive function is usually defined as a score of 20 points or lower...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623099/consensus-statement-on-definitions-and-nomenclature-for-robotic-thoracic-surgery
#5
Robert Cerfolio, Brian E Louie, Alexander S Farivar, Mark Onaitis, Bernard J Park
OBJECTIVES: Robotic thoracic operations are increasing, and new robotic systems are imminent. A definition of what constitutes a robotic thoracic operation and a nomenclature to detail the technique used is needed to accurately compare outcomes. METHODS: The American Association of Thoracic Surgeons Guideline Committee appointed an expert consensus writing committee to construct definitions and nomenclature for robotic thoracic surgery. A PubMed search was generated and after vetting and review of the literature a consensus statement was reached...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621962/-language-manipulation-surrogacy-altruism
#6
José Miguel Serrano Ruiz-Calderón
The Newspeak propitiates a change of the sense of the words and next to the double thinking forms the picture of totalitarianism described by Orwell in 1984. The purpose of the Newspeak is to make all other forms of thought impossible. In bioethics the Newspeak is applied, not because Bioethics is a new science but by the manipulative intention. The twentieth-century political language has, according to Orwell, the intention to remove the ″mental image ″ of what really happens. This is clear in the terms ″surrogacy ″...
May 2017: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616000/development-and-validation-of-arabic-version-of-the-hospital-anxiety-and-depression-scale
#7
Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi, Siny Tsang, Ghadah Jumaan AlKahtani, Sumaya Hussain Al-Mousa, Salma Al Musaed, Usama Saleh AlZoraigi, Esraa M Alasfar, Khalid S Doais, Anas Abdulrahman, Khaild Ali Altirkawi
INTRODUCTION: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) is widely used to predict and diagnose hospital anxiety and depression. It has been translated and validated in many languages, but the existing Arabic version was not validated in hospitalized patients. The aim was to translate, culturally adapt, and validate the HADS Questionnaire into Arabic language for in-patient use, especially for surgical wards. METHODS: A systematic translation process was used to translate the original English HADS into Arabic...
May 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612654/a-qualitative-comparison-of-dsm-depression-criteria-to-language-used-by-older-church-going-african-americans
#8
Esther Akinyemi, Daphne C Watkins, Janet Kavanagh, Vicki Johnson-Lawrence, Shana Lynn, Helen C Kales
OBJECTIVE: Depression in late life is associated with substantial suffering, disability, suicide risk, and decreased health-related quality of life. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), a depression diagnosis is derived from a constellation of symptoms that may be described differently by different people. For example, the DSM language may be inadequate in capturing these symptoms in certain populations such as African-Americans, whose rates of depression misdiagnosis is high...
June 14, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612476/association-between-speech-language-general-cognitive-functioning-and-behaviour-problems-in-individuals-with-williams-syndrome
#9
N F Rossi, C M Giacheti
BACKGROUND: Williams syndrome (WS) phenotype is described as unique and intriguing. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between speech-language abilities, general cognitive functioning and behavioural problems in individuals with WS, considering age effects and speech-language characteristics of WS sub-groups. METHODS: The study's participants were 26 individuals with WS and their parents. General cognitive functioning was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale...
July 2017: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595141/the-interplay-of-language-and-visual-perception-in-working-memory
#10
Alessandra S Souza, Zuzanna Skóra
How do perception and language interact to form the representations that guide our thoughts and actions over the short-term? Here, we provide a first examination of this question by investigating the role of verbal labels in a continuous visual working memory (WM) task. Across four experiments, participants retained in memory the continuous color of a set of dots which were presented sequentially (Experiments 1-3) or simultaneously (Experiment 4). At test, they reproduced the colors of all dots using a color wheel...
June 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589810/when-all-is-calm-please-don-t-utter-the-q-word
#11
Jane Bates
'Labour will put a stop to bad language,' I heard in the run-up to the election. Quite right, I thought. All that effing and blinding; totally unnecessary. Then I realised they had said 'bad landlords'. Must make that audiology appointment….
June 7, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578485/thoughts-on-the-importance-of-government-regulated-chinese-medicine-terminology-standardization
#12
Ioannis Solos, Mei Hong, Jie Ding, Jian-Ping Zhu, Li-Guo Chen
The applications of a standardized Chinese medicine (CM) terminology are ultimately the translation and publication of literature, education, as well as scholarly and legal communication. Over the past 20-30 years the amount of published CM literature, including clinical and experimental research, has increased exponentially. In addition, the numbers of professionally trained Western CM scholars and clinicians have been continuously rising, and they are now forming a considerable academic force that should be taken seriously...
June 3, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578222/using-prosody-to-infer-discourse-prominence-in-cochlear-implant-users-and-normal-hearing-listeners
#13
Yi Ting Huang, Rochelle S Newman, Allison Catalano, Matthew J Goupell
Cochlear implants (CIs) provide speech perception to adults with severe-to-profound hearing loss, but the acoustic signal remains severely degraded. Limited access to pitch cues is thought to decrease sensitivity to prosody in CI users, but co-occurring changes in intensity and duration may provide redundant cues. The current study investigates how listeners use these cues to infer discourse prominence. CI users and normal-hearing (NH) listeners were presented with sentences varying in prosody (accented vs...
June 1, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551106/evolution-in-mind-evolutionary-dynamics-cognitive-processes-and-bayesian-inference
#14
REVIEW
Jordan W Suchow, David D Bourgin, Thomas L Griffiths
Evolutionary theory describes the dynamics of population change in settings affected by reproduction, selection, mutation, and drift. In the context of human cognition, evolutionary theory is most often invoked to explain the origins of capacities such as language, metacognition, and spatial reasoning, framing them as functional adaptations to an ancestral environment. However, evolutionary theory is useful for understanding the mind in a second way: as a mathematical framework for describing evolving populations of thoughts, ideas, and memories within a single mind...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541236/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-symptoms-and-cognitive-skills-of-preschool-children
#15
L Thomaidis, A Choleva, M Janikian, G Bertou, A Tsitsika, G Giannakopoulos, D C Anagnostopoulos
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) constitutes a neurobehavioral disorder which may potentially adversely affect children's wellbeing and academic achievement. The onset of symptoms is present prior to 12 years of age, and often the symptoms are evident in the preschool years. In fact, it has been suggested that screening for ADHD symptoms may be initiated as early as four years of age. Preschool children with ADHD have been shown to present with poor pre-academic skills and might be at increased risk for numerous school-related problems, including functional impairment during elementary school years and persistent poor academic performance thereafter...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536548/complementarity-as-generative-principle-a-thought-pattern-for-aesthetic-appreciations-and-cognitive-appraisals-in-general
#16
Yan Bao, Alexandra von Stosch, Mona Park, Ernst Pöppel
In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521557/metacognitive-verb-production-in-adolescents-the-link-to-complex-syntax
#17
Marilyn A Nippold, Laura M Vigeland, Megan W Frantz-Kaspar
Metacognitive verbs (MCVs) such as believe, know and think allow a speaker to describe the thoughts, feelings and perspectives of the self and others. As such, these words reflect the speaker's awareness of differing mental events and activities, or Theory of Mind (ToM). This study investigated the use of MCVs in adolescents with typical language development in relation to the production of complex sentences. It was of interest to determine the frequency with which adolescents used MCVs and to explore the links between MCVs and different types of subordinate clauses...
May 19, 2017: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516472/nasal-decontamination-for-the-prevention-of-surgical-site-infection-in-staphylococcus-aureus-carriers
#18
REVIEW
Zhenmi Liu, Gill Norman, Zipporah Iheozor-Ejiofor, Jason Kf Wong, Emma J Crosbie, Peter Wilson
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection rates in the month following surgery vary from 1% to 5%. Due to the large number of surgical procedures conducted annually, the costs of these surgical site infections (SSIs) can be considerable in financial and social terms. Nasal decontamination using antibiotics or antiseptics is performed to reduce the risk of SSIs by preventing organisms from the nasal cavity being transferred to the skin where a surgical incision will be made. Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) colonises the nasal cavity and skin of carriers and can cause infection in open or unhealed surgical wounds...
May 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516224/psychiatric-behaviors-associated-with-cytoskeletal-defects-in-radial-neuronal-migration
#19
REVIEW
Toshifumi Fukuda, Shigeru Yanagi
Normal development of the cerebral cortex is an important process for higher brain functions, such as language, and cognitive and social functions. Psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism, are thought to develop owing to various dysfunctions occurring during the development of the cerebral cortex. Radial neuronal migration in the embryonic cerebral cortex is a complex process, which is achieved by strict control of cytoskeletal dynamics, and impairments in this process are suggested to cause various psychiatric disorders...
May 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503906/more-than-words-the-role-of-multiword-sequences-in-language-learning-and-use
#20
Morten H Christiansen, Inbal Arnon
The ability to convey our thoughts using an infinite number of linguistic expressions is one of the hallmarks of human language. Understanding the nature of the psychological mechanisms and representations that give rise to this unique productivity is a fundamental goal for the cognitive sciences. A long-standing hypothesis is that single words and rules form the basic building blocks of linguistic productivity, with multiword sequences being treated as units only in peripheral cases such as idioms. The new millennium, however, has seen a shift toward construing multiword linguistic units not as linguistic rarities, but as important building blocks for language acquisition and processing...
May 14, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
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