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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676529/implicit-learning-seems-to-come-naturally-for-children-with-autism-but-not-for-children-with-specific-language-impairment-evidence-from-behavioral-and-erp-data
#1
Fenny S Zwart, Constance Th W M Vissers, Roy P C Kessels, Joseph H R Maes
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and specific language impairment (SLI) are two neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by deficits in verbal and nonverbal communication skills. These skills are thought to develop largely through implicit-or automatic-learning mechanisms. The aim of the current paper was to investigate the role of implicit learning abilities in the atypical development of communication skills in ASD and SLI. In the current study, we investigated Response Times (RTs) and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) during implicit learning on a Serial Reaction Time (SRT) task in a group of typically developing (TD) children (n = 17), a group of autistic children (n = 16), and a group of children with SLI (n = 13)...
April 20, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673408/long-term-scar-quality-after-hydrosurgical-versus-conventional-debridement-of-deep-dermal-burns-hycon-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Catherine M Legemate, Harold Goei, Esther Middelkoop, Irma M M H Oen, Tim H J Nijhuis, Kelly A A Kwa, Paul P M van Zuijlen, Gerard I J M Beerthuizen, Marianne K Nieuwenhuis, Margriet E van Baar, Cornelis H van der Vlies
BACKGROUND: Deep dermal burns require tangential excision of non-viable tissue and skin grafting to improve wound healing and burn-scar quality. Tangential excision is conventionally performed with a knife, but during the last decade hydrosurgery has become popular as a new tool for tangential excision. Hydrosurgery is generally thought to be a more precise and controlled manner of burn debridement leading to preservation of viable tissue and, therefore, better scar quality. Although scar quality is considered to be one of the most important outcomes in burn surgery today, no randomized controlled study has compared the effect of these two common treatment modalities with scar quality as a primary outcome...
April 19, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669089/what-works-and-does-not-work-in-a-self-management-intervention-for-people-with-chronic-pain-qualitative-systematic-review-and-meta-synthesis
#3
Hemakumar Devan, Leigh Hale, Dagmar Hempel, Barbara Saipe, Meredith A Perry
Background: Self-management interventions fostering self-efficacy improve the well-being of people with chronic pain. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize the enablers (what works) and barriers (what does not) of incorporating self-management strategies for people in everyday life after completion of a pain self-management intervention. Data Sources: Major electronic databases (MEDLINE, AMED, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and Google Scholar) were searched from inception to July 2016...
May 1, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666600/the-temporal-prediction-of-stress-in-speech-and-its-relation-to-musical-beat-perception
#4
REVIEW
Eleonora J Beier, Fernanda Ferreira
While rhythmic expectancies are thought to be at the base of beat perception in music, the extent to which stress patterns in speech are similarly represented and predicted during on-line language comprehension is debated. The temporal prediction of stress may be advantageous to speech processing, as stress patterns aid segmentation and mark new information in utterances. However, while linguistic stress patterns may be organized into hierarchical metrical structures similarly to musical meter, they do not typically present the same degree of periodicity...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658414/over-time-the-right-results-will-emerge
#5
Marlene Behrmann, Jacob Geskin
Scientific research involves going beyond the well-trodden and well-tested ideas and theories that form the core of scientific knowledge. During the time scientists are working things out, some results will be right, and others will be wrong. Over time, the right results will emerge. Lisa Randall (Frank B. Baird, Jr. Professor of Science, Physics Department, Harvard University) We are grateful to all the commentators for the important and thoughtful comments raised in response to the Geskin and Behrmann (G & B) literature survey...
February 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614850/factor-analysis-of-delirium-in-elderly-using-the-korean-version-of-delirium-rating-scale-revised-98
#6
Gahye Noh, Insun Kwon, Miji Lee, So Hyun Ahn, Jeong Lan Kim
Objective: This study aimed to identify the core symptoms of delirium, particularly in elderly people associated with major risk factors, using the Korean version of the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98. Methods: The study sample consisted of 200 patients (mean age: 72.7±3.9 years, male: 68.5%) who had been diagnosed with delirium. Exploratory factor analysis was used to investigate the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the goodness of fit of the results...
April 5, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614774/the-brain-intestinal-mucosa-appendix-microbiome-brain-loop
#7
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611481/human-oral-defensins-antimicrobial-peptides-a-future-promising-antimicrobial-drug
#8
Zohaib Khurshid, Muhammad S Zafar, Mustafa Naseem, Rabia Sannam Khan, Shariq Najeeb
The nature and structural composition of antimicrobial peptides are derived from their innate immune response and they are active against various bacteria, fungi and other microorganisms. The aim of this paper was to pool up the literature on the features of human oral defensins antimicrobial peptides. The defensins showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and various fungi and viruses. As with their other properties like antiviral, antifungal and antibacterial, human defensins peptides are thought to have a unique amino acid-based structure with Disulphide Bridge which makes them synthesize chemically or naturally with the help of these bacteria...
April 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608727/genetic-ancestry-of-hadza-and-sandawe-peoples-reveals-ancient-population-structure-in-africa
#9
Daniel Shriner, Fasil Tekola-Ayele, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N Rotimi
The Hadza and Sandawe populations in present-day Tanzania speak languages containing click sounds and therefore thought to be distantly related to southern African Khoisan languages. We analyzed genome-wide genotype data for individuals sampled from the Hadza and Sandawe populations in the context of a global data set of 3,528 individuals from 163 ethno-linguistic groups. We found that Hadza and Sandawe individuals share ancestry distinct from and most closely related to Omotic ancestry; share Khoisan ancestry with populations such as ≠Khomani, Karretjie, and Ju/'hoansi in southern Africa; share Niger-Congo ancestry with populations such as Yoruba from Nigeria and Luhya from Kenya, consistent with migration associated with the Bantu Expansion; and share Cushitic ancestry with Somali, multiple Ethiopian populations, the Maasai population in Kenya, and the Nama population in Namibia...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608230/comparisons-of-self-and-proxy-report-on-health-related-factors-in-people-with-intellectual-disability
#10
Haleigh M Scott, Susan M Havercamp
BACKGROUND: The intellectual disability field has learned about the lives of people with intellectual disabilities (ID), largely from the perspective of their family and caregivers. Information from caregivers has been critical to scientific advancement, especially when caregivers are engaged on behalf of individuals with significant language impairment. On the other hand, the perspective of individuals with ID themselves is critical for internal subjective content such as thoughts and feelings...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600439/assessment-of-dietary-calcium-intake-of-university-students-a-pilot-study-in-turkey
#11
Semra Navruz-Varlı, Süleyman Köse, Tuğba Tatar, Sabriye Arslan, Eda Köksal
The aim of this study was to adapt the rapid assessment method (RAM) and International Osteoporosis Foundation Food Frequency Questionnaire (IOF FFQ) tools, used for the assessment of daily calcium intake in university students, and to compare the data obtained using 24-h recall (24-HR) data. There was a moderate positive correlation between the RAM and IOF. PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: Calcium is an essential mineral that plays vital roles in metabolism and it is very important to accurately assess the amount of calcium intake on the diet...
March 30, 2018: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590533/three-unresolved-issues-in-human-morality
#12
Jerome Kagan
This article discusses three major, but related, controversies surrounding the idea of morality. Is the complete pattern of features defining human morality unique to this species? How context dependent are moral beliefs and the emotions that often follow a violation of a moral standard? What developmental sequence establishes a moral code? This essay suggests that human morality rests on a combination of cognitive and emotional processes that are missing from the repertoires of other species. Second, the moral evaluation of every behavior, whether by self or others, depends on the agent, the action, the target of the behavior, and the context...
March 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588873/community-s-emergency-preparedness-for-flood-hazards-in-dire-dawa-town-ethiopia-a-qualitative-study
#13
Luche Tadesse Ejeta
Background: Emergency preparedness at all levels (individuals and communities) is the corner stone of effective response to the increasing trends of global disasters due to man-made and natural hazards. It is determined by different factors, including (among others) past direct and indirect exposures to hazards. This study was carried out in Dire Dawa town, Ethiopia, which in the past experienced frequent flooding events, yet dearth of information exists about preparedness in the area...
February 21, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566616/toward-understanding-through-hermeneutic-letterwriting
#14
Linda Nyholm, Lisbet Nyström, Unni Å Lindström
The authors present letterwriting as a hermeneutic research method in that it contributes to the methodological development within the hermeneutical research tradition in caring science. The hermeneutic methodology is inspired by Hans-Georg Gadamer. Hermeneutic letterwriting in accordance with Gadamer's thought is a form of dialogue in writing, where what is truthful about the thing itself is unveiled with the help of the language. Hermeneutic letterwriting is presented in five steps. As a method, hermeneutic letterwriting is appropriate for complex caring science issues, and it offers new opportunities for attaining a deeper understanding of the world of caring...
April 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559816/perception-of-academic-stress-among-health-science-preparatory-program-students-in-two-saudi-universities
#15
Saleh Alsulami, Zaid Al Omar, Mohammed S Binnwejim, Fahad Alhamdan, Amr Aldrees, Abdulkarim Al-Bawardi, Meshary Alsohim, Mohammed Alhabeeb
The Health Science Preparatory Program (HSPP) is a special program that aims to enhance the educational preparedness of students for participation in a health sciences career. Students spend their first university year in a combined extensive teaching program before they can be assigned to a particular health science specialty. It is thought that students enrolled in a highly competitive environment such as HSPP with a long list of potential stressors, including developmental, academic overload, language barriers and competition, are more disposed to stress and stress-related complications...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559372/a-double-dissociation-between-two-psychotic-phenotypes-periodic-catatonia-and-cataphasia
#16
Foucher Jack René, Zhang Yi Fan, Roser Mathilde, Lamy Julien, De Sousa Paulo Loureiro, Weibel Sébastien, Vidailhet Pierre, Mainberger Olivier, Berna Fabrice
Schizophrenia as a single liability model was confronted to the multiple psychotic phenotypes model proposed by the Wernicke-Kleist-Leonhard school, focusing on two: periodic catatonia (PC) and cataphasia (C). Both are stable and heritable psychotic phenotypes with no crossed liability and are coming with the buildup of specific residual symptoms: impairment of psychomotricity for PC and a specific disorganization of thought and language in C. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was used as a biomarker. We attempted to refute the single phenotype model by looking at relevant and specific rCBF anomalies for PC and C, that would exceed anomalies in common relative to controls (CTR), i...
March 17, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558722/the-basic-reproductive-ratio-as-a-link-between-acquisition-and-change-in-phonotactics
#17
Andreas Baumann, Nikolaus Ritt
Language acquisition and change are thought to be causally connected. We demonstrate a method for quantifying the strength of this connection in terms of the 'basic reproductive ratio' of linguistic constituents. It represents a standardized measure of reproductive success, which can be derived both from diachronic and from acquisition data. By analyzing phonotactic English data, we show that the results of both types of derivation correlate, so that phonotactic acquisition indeed predicts phonotactic change, and vice versa...
March 17, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555375/neuroestrogens-rapidly-shape-auditory-circuits-to-support-communication-learning-and-perception-evidence-from-songbirds
#18
REVIEW
Daniel M Vahaba, Luke Remage-Healey
Steroid hormones, such as estrogens, were once thought to be exclusively synthesized in the ovaries and enact transcriptional changes over the course of hours to days. However, estrogens are also locally synthesized within neural circuits, wherein they rapidly (within minutes) modulate a range of behaviors, including spatial cognition and communication. Here, we review the role of brain-derived estrogens (neuroestrogens) as modulators within sensory circuits in songbirds. We first present songbirds as an attractive model to explore how neuroestrogens in auditory cortex modulate vocal communication processing and learning...
March 16, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540106/preliminary-validation-of-a-free-to-use-brief-assessment-of-adult-intelligence-for-research-purposes-the-matrix-matching-test
#19
Graham Pluck
The concept of intelligence as a measurable trait of intellectual function continues to be an important issue in psychology. Traditionally, a core field of differential psychology and widely employed in applied settings, it is also important in various research fields. Here, I describe development of a new assessment of general intelligence of adults that has no language component and can be administered in about 10 minutes. A total sample of 176 adult participants, from various settings, was assessed with a set of matrix tasks that involved either visuospatial (fluid) or semantic (crystallized) reasoning...
January 1, 2018: Psychological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527126/suggestion-persuasion-and-work-psychotherapies-in-communist-europe
#20
Sarah Marks
This article traces what recent research and primary sources tell us about psychotherapy in Communist Europe, and how it survived both underground and above the surface. In particular, I will elaborate on the psychotherapeutic techniques that were popular across the different countries and language cultures of the Soviet sphere, with a particular focus upon the Cold War period. This article examines the literature on the mixed fortunes of psychoanalysis and group therapies in the region. More specifically, it focuses upon the therapeutic modalities such as work therapy, suggestion and rational therapy, which gained particular popularity in the Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe...
2018: European Journal of Psychotherapy & Counselling
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