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Language and thought

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455946/abstract-semantics-in-the-motor-system-an-event-related-fmri-study-on-passive-reading-of-semantic-word-categories-carrying-abstract-emotional-and-mental-meaning
#1
Felix R Dreyer, Friedemann Pulvermüller
Previous research showed that modality-preferential sensorimotor areas are relevant for processing concrete words used to speak about actions. However, whether modality-preferential areas also play a role for abstract words is still under debate. Whereas recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest an involvement of motor cortex in processing the meaning of abstract emotion words as, for example, 'love', other non-emotional abstract words, in particular 'mental words', such as 'thought' or 'logic', are believed to engage 'amodal' semantic systems only...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455031/whole-word-frequency-and-inflectional-paradigm-size-facilitate-estonian-case-inflected-noun-processing
#2
Kaidi Lõo, Juhani Järvikivi, R Harald Baayen
Estonian is a morphologically rich Finno-Ugric language with nominal paradigms that have at least 28 different inflected forms but sometimes more than 40. For languages with rich inflection, it has been argued that whole-word frequency, as a diagnostic of whole-word representations, should not be predictive for lexical processing. We report a lexical decision experiment, showing that response latencies decrease both with frequency of the inflected form and its inflectional paradigm size. Inflectional paradigm size was also predictive of semantic categorization, indicating it is a semantic effect, similar to the morphological family size effect...
February 15, 2018: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452328/louis-victor-leborgne-tan
#3
REVIEW
Nasser Mohammed, Devi Prasad Patra, Anil Nanda
Louis Victor Leborgne was a patient of Paul Broca. "Monsieur Leborgne" as Paul Broca would call him was also known around in the hospital by the nickname, "Tan," His neurological condition left him with a difficulty in speaking and he could only speak the word "Tan". Leborgne spent nearly half of his entire life in the hospital. He was initially admitted into the psychiatry division of the hospital and was later transferred under the care of Broca towards the end of his life. The story of the Leborgne sits in the crossroads of human thoughts that led to the discovery of cerebral localization...
February 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450249/towards-an-understanding-of-self-directed-language-as-a-mechanism-of-behavior-change-a-novel-strategy-for-eliciting-client-language-under-laboratory-conditions
#4
Benjamin O Ladd, Tracey A Garcia, Kristen G Anderson
Introduction: Change talk (CT) and sustain talk (ST) are thought to reflect underlying motivation and be important mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs). However, greater specificity and experimental rigor is needed to establish CT and ST as MOBCs. Testing the effects of self-directed language under laboratory conditions is one promising avenue. The current study presents a replication and extension of research examining the feasibility for using simulation tasks to elicit self-directed language...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435732/a-discursive-review-of-the-textual-use-of-trapped-in-environmental-migration-studies-the-conceptual-birth-and-troubled-teenage-years-of-trapped-populations
#5
REVIEW
Sonja Ayeb-Karlsson, Christopher D Smith, Dominic Kniveton
First mooted in 2011, the concept of Trapped Populations referring to people unable to move from environmentally high-risk areas broadened the study of human responses to environmental change. While a seemingly straightforward concept, the underlying discourses around the reasons for being 'trapped', and the language describing the concept have profound influences on the way in which policy and practice approaches the needs of populations at risk from environmental stresses and shocks. In this article, we apply a Critical Discourse Analysis to the academic literature on the subject to reveal some of the assumptions implicit within discussing 'trapped' populations...
February 12, 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390169/antibiotics-for-asymptomatic-bacteriuria-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#6
REVIEW
Julien Coussement, Anne Scemla, Daniel Abramowicz, Evi V Nagler, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic bacteriuria, defined as bacteriuria without signs or symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI), occurs in 17% to 51% of kidney transplant recipients and is thought to increase the risk for a subsequent UTI. No consensus exists on the role of antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in kidney transplantation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of treating asymptomatic bacteriuria in kidney transplant recipients with antimicrobial agents to prevent symptomatic UTI, all-cause mortality and the indirect effects of UTI (acute rejection, graft loss, worsening of graft function)...
February 1, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389194/gender-congruency-from-a-neutral-point-of-view-the-roles-of-gender-classes-and-conceptual-connotations
#7
Andrea Bender, Sieghard Beller, Karl Christoph Klauer
The question of whether language affects thought is long-standing, with grammatical gender being one of the most contended instances. Empirical evidence focuses on the gender congruency effect, according to which referents of masculine nouns are conceptualized more strongly as male and those of feminine nouns more strongly as female. While some recent studies suggest that this effect is driven by conceptual connotations rather than grammatical properties, research remains theoretically inconclusive because of the confounding of grammatical gender and conceptual connotations in gendered (masculine or feminine) nouns...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383880/an-analysis-of-stigma-and-suicide-literacy-in-responses-to-suicides-broadcast-on-social-media
#8
Ang Li, Xiaoxiao Huang, Dongdong Jiao, Bridianne O'Dea, Tingshao Zhu, Helen Christensen
INTRODUCTION: Broadcasting a suicide attempt on social media has become a public concern in China. Stigmatizing attitudes around such broadcast can limit help-seeking and increase the likelihood of death. To reduce stigmatizing attitudes, this paper aims to detect stigma expressions in social media posts through language use patterns and then identify suicide literacy in responses to such broadcast. METHODS: Firstly, to examine linguistic patterns of stigma expressions, 6632 Weibo posts with keywords were collected and analyzed...
January 31, 2018: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380126/the-new-tnm-based-staging-of-breast-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Gábor Cserni, Ewa Chmielik, Bálint Cserni, Tibor Tot
This review describes the changes that have been implemented in the Tumor-Node-Metastasis (TNM)-based staging of breast cancers by the new, 8th editions of the relevant Union for International Cancer Control (UICC) and American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) publications. After giving a background for TNM being the common language of cancer staging and related activities like cancer treatment and registration, it summarizes not only the changes but reviews some highlights important for pathologists, and lists and comments on the differences between the publications and diagnostic practices based on them...
January 27, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368534/patient-satisfaction-in-an-outpatient-vein-surgery-office-a-comparison-of-english-and-spanish-speaking-patients
#10
Benjamin Vincent, Vijaya Thakur, Anjani Thakur
Background In spite of an increasing Latino population and accompanying rise in demand for health care, not much is known about patient-satisfaction in Spanish-speaking patients and how to improve patient-satisfaction when using interpreters. We sought to compare patient-satisfaction with vein surgery office visits between English-speaking and Spanish-speaking patients. Methods Directly before and after the office visit, 126 patients completed a socio-demographic survey, a five-point ordinal rating survey of physician and interpreter satisfaction with the encounter...
January 1, 2018: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364077/einstein-time-and-the-unconscious
#11
Gerald J Gargiulo
This paper discusses how we interpret and experience time and how such experiences affect our understanding of the topographical as well as the structural models. Following the thought of both ancient Hindu teachings (the Upanishads) and contemporary findings from quantum mechanics, the paper frames the discussion within a unitary experience of both mind and everyday experience. The function and role of clinical interpretations are also discussed. Following the tradition articulated in Roy Schaffer's action language model as well as insights from existentialism, the paper offers a deeper appreciation of individual agency and its role in self-understanding and personal growth...
February 2018: Psychoanalytic Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360785/exploring-facilitators-and-barriers-to-initiation-and-completion-of-the-human-papillomavirus-hpv-vaccine-series-among-parents-of-girls-in-a-safety-net-system
#12
Sean T O'Leary, Steven Lockhart, Juliana Barnard, Anna Furniss, Miriam Dickinson, Amanda F Dempsey, Shannon Stokley, Steven Federico, Michael Bronsert, Allison Kempe
Objective: To assess, among parents of predominantly minority, low-income adolescent girls who had either not initiated (NI) or not completed (NC) the HPV vaccine series, attitudes and other factors important in promoting the series, and whether attitudes differed by language preference. Design/Methods: From August 2013-October 2013, we conducted a mail survey among parents of girls aged 12-15 years randomly selected from administrative data in a Denver safety net system; 400 parents from each group (NI and NC) were targeted...
January 23, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358369/a-neurochemical-hypothesis-for-the-origin-of-hominids
#13
Mary Ann Raghanti, Melissa K Edler, Alexa R Stephenson, Emily L Munger, Bob Jacobs, Patrick R Hof, Chet C Sherwood, Ralph L Holloway, C Owen Lovejoy
It has always been difficult to account for the evolution of certain human characters such as language, empathy, and altruism via individual reproductive success. However, the striatum, a subcortical region originally thought to be exclusively motor, is now known to contribute to social behaviors and "personality styles" that may link such complexities with natural selection. We here report that the human striatum exhibits a unique neurochemical profile that differs dramatically from those of other primates...
January 22, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357989/does-visual-letter-similarity-modulate-masked-form-priming-in-young-readers-of-arabic
#14
Manuel Perea, Reem Abu Mallouh, Ahmed Mohammed, Batoul Khalifa, Manuel Carreiras
We carried out a masked priming lexical decision experiment to study whether visual letter similarity plays a role during the initial phases of word processing in young readers of Arabic (fifth graders). Arabic is ideally suited to test these effects because most Arabic letters share their basic shape with at least one other letter and differ only in the number/position of diacritical points (e.g., ض - ص ;ظ - ط ;غ - ع ;ث - ت - ن ب ;ذ - د ;خ - ح - ج ;ق - ف ;ش - س ;ز - ر). We created two one-letter-different priming conditions for each target word, in which a letter from the consonantal root was substituted by another letter that did or did not keep the same shape (e...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355936/auditory-structural-connectivity-in-preterm-and-healthy-term-infants-during-the-first-postnatal-year
#15
Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Annika C Linke, Charlotte Herzmann, Conor J Wild, Hester Duffy, David S C Lee, Victor K Han, Rhodri Cusack
Assessing language development in the first postnatal year is difficult, as receptive and expressive skills are rudimentary. Although outward manifestations of change are limited, the auditory language system is thought to undergo critical development at this age, as the foundations are laid for the rapid onset of spoken language in the second and third years. We recruited 11 infants, 7 healthy controls (gestational age = 40.69 ± 0.56; range from 40 to 41.43) and preterm babies (gestational age = 28...
January 22, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352153/biology-culture-co-evolution-in-finite-populations
#16
Bart de Boer, Bill Thompson
Language is the result of two concurrent evolutionary processes: biological and cultural inheritance. An influential evolutionary hypothesis known as the moving target problem implies inherent limitations on the interactions between our two inheritance streams that result from a difference in pace: the speed of cultural evolution is thought to rule out cognitive adaptation to culturally evolving aspects of language. We examine this hypothesis formally by casting it as as a problem of adaptation in time-varying environments...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345224/therapy-interventions-for-children-with-neurodisabilities-a-qualitative-scoping-study
#17
Bryony Beresford, Susan Clarke, Jane Maddison
BACKGROUND: Therapy interventions emerged four times in the top 10 research priorities in a James Lind Alliance research prioritisation exercise for children with neurodisabilities (Morris C, Simkiss D, Busk M, Morris M, Allard A, Denness J, et al. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership. BMJ Open 2015;5:e006233). The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) commissioned this study as part of an information-gathering exercise in response to this...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325914/micro-cultural-customization-of-organ-donation-propagation-messages
#18
Anke Dunkel, Kent Nakamoto, Peter J Schulz
OBJECTIVE: Organ transplantation is plagued by limited availability of organs. This study investigated the effect of messages promoting organ donation which were customized according to the language-defined micro-cultures in Switzerland. METHODS: Community-, informative-, and emotional-oriented messages were carried by conventional flyers. A 3 × 3 between-subjects experiment was conducted with short- and long-term willingness to donate, long-term signing of organ donation card and long-term interpersonal communication on organ donation as outcome variables...
December 29, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324761/cross-linguistic-regularities-and-learner-biases-reflect-core-mechanics
#19
Brent Strickland, Emmanuel Chemla
Recent research in infant cognition and adult vision suggests that the mechanical object relationships may be more salient and naturally attention grabbing than similar but non-mechanical relationships. Here we examine two novel sources of evidence from language related to this hypothesis. In Experiments 1 and 2, we show that adults preferentially infer that the meaning of a novel preposition refers to a mechanical as opposed to a non-mechanical relationship. Experiments 3 and 4 examine cross-linguistic adpositions obtained on a large scale from machines or from experts, respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299691/knowing-left-from-right-asymmetric-functional-connectivity-during-resting-state
#20
Mathijs Raemaekers, Wouter Schellekens, Natalia Petridou, Nick F Ramsey
The functional organization of left and right hemispheres is different, and hemispheric asymmetries are thought to underlie variations in brain function across individuals. In this study, we assess how differences between hemispheres are reflected in Asymmetric Functional Connectivity (AFC), which provides a full description of how the brain's connectivity structure during resting state differs from that of the same brain mirrored over the longitudinal fissure. In addition, we assess how AFC varies across subjects...
January 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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