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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813204/prefrontal-cortex-and-neurological-impairments-of-active-thought
#1
Tim Shallice, Lisa Cipolotti
This article reviews the effects of lesions to the frontal cortex on the ability to carry out active thought, namely, to reason, think flexibly, produce strategies, and formulate and realize plans.Wediscuss how and why relevant neuropsychological studies should be carried out. The relationships between active thought and both intelligence and language are considered. The following basic processes necessary for effective active thought are reviewed: concentration, set switching, inhibiting potentiated responses, and monitoring and checking...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803597/somali-latino-and-hmong-parents-perceptions-and-approaches-about-raising-healthy-weight-children-a-community-based-participatory-research-study
#2
Chrisa Arcan, Kathleen A Culhane-Pera, Shannon Pergament, Maira Rosas-Lee, Mai Bao Xiong
OBJECTIVE: Immigrants in the USA are confronted with health disparities, including childhood obesity and obesity-related chronic diseases. We aimed to identify perceptions of childhood body weight, approaches to raising healthy children and desires for supportive programmes of Somali, Latino and Hmong (SLM) parents in the Twin Cities, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN: Using community-based participatory research, ten focus groups (FG) were conducted with sixty-seven parents (n 28 Somali, three FG; n 19 Latino, four FG; n 20 Hmong, three FG) of 3-12-year-old children in their native language...
August 14, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802915/neurological-evaluation-of-the-selection-stage-of-metaphor-comprehension-in-individuals-with-and-without-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Brea Chouinard, Joanne Volden, Ivor Cribben, Jacqueline Cummine
Because of their difficulties with figurative language in conversation, it is commonly thought that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not understand figurative meaning. However, recent research indicates that individuals with and without ASD are similar in the first two stages of metaphor comprehension, up to and including successful generation of the figurative meaning. In the current study, we used a sentence decision task to evaluate the subsequent stage of metaphor comprehension, the selection stage, which requires suppression/inhibition of the unintended meaning as part of selecting the intended meaning...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797529/voice-specialized-speech-language-pathologist-s-criteria-for-discharge-from-voice-therapy
#4
Amanda I Gillespie, Jackie Gartner-Schmidt
OBJECTIVE: No standard protocol exists to determine when a patient is ready and able to be discharged from voice therapy. The aim of the present study was to determine what factors speech-language pathologists (SLPs) deem most important when discharging a patient from voice therapy. A second aim was to determine if responses differed based on years of voice experience. METHODS: Step 1: Seven voice-specialized SLPs generated a list of items thought to be relevant to voice therapy discharge...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789831/how-linguistic-metaphor-scaffolds-reasoning
#5
REVIEW
Paul H Thibodeau, Rose K Hendricks, Lera Boroditsky
Language helps people communicate and think. Precise and accurate language would seem best suited to achieve these goals. But a close look at the way people actually talk reveals an abundance of apparent imprecision in the form of metaphor: ideas are 'light bulbs', crime is a 'virus', and cancer is an 'enemy' in a 'war'. In this article, we review recent evidence that metaphoric language can facilitate communication and shape thinking even though it is literally false. We first discuss recent experiments showing that linguistic metaphor can guide thought and behavior...
August 5, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782098/measuring-generalised-expectancies-for-negative-mood-regulation-in-china-the-chinese-language-negative-mood-regulation-scale
#6
Guofang Wang, Jack Mearns, Xiaohui Yang, Peng Han, Salvatore J Catanzaro
Negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE) represent people's confidence that they can alleviate their negative affect or induce a positive emotional state through thought or action. NMRE predict coping behaviour and mood outcomes for individuals under stress. Since 1990, much research documents the reliability and validity of the English language Negative Mood Regulation (NMR) scale as a measure of NMRE. The current research reports two studies developing a Chinese language translation of the NMR (NMR-C) scale that goes beyond literal translation to be a culturally sensitive measure of NMRE in China...
August 6, 2017: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774271/validity-and-reliability-of-a-malay-version-of-the-brief-illness-perception-questionnaire-for-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#7
Boon-How Chew, Rimke C Vos, Monique Heijmans, Sazlina Shariff-Ghazali, Aaron Fernandez, Guy E H M Rutten
BACKGROUND: Illness perceptions involve the personal beliefs that patients have about their illness and may influence health behaviours considerably. Since an instrument to measure these perceptions for Malay population in Malaysia is lacking, we translated and examined the psychometric properties of the Malay version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (MBIPQ) in adult patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: The MBIPQ has nine items, all use a 0-10 response scale, except the ninth item about causal factors, which is an open-ended item...
August 3, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772189/learning-abstract-visual-concepts-via-probabilistic-program-induction-in-a-language-of-thought
#8
Matthew C Overlan, Robert A Jacobs, Steven T Piantadosi
The ability to learn abstract concepts is a powerful component of human cognition. It has been argued that variable binding is the key element enabling this ability, but the computational aspects of variable binding remain poorly understood. Here, we address this shortcoming by formalizing the Hierarchical Language of Thought (HLOT) model of rule learning. Given a set of data items, the model uses Bayesian inference to infer a probability distribution over stochastic programs that implement variable binding...
July 31, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760549/cognitive-deficits-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-insights-from-a-meta-review-and-comparison-with-deficits-observed-in-copd-insomnia-and-sleep-deprivation
#9
REVIEW
Michelle Olaithe, Romola S Bucks, David R Hillman, Peter R Eastwood
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a nocturnal breathing disorder that is associated with cognitive impairment. The primary determinants of cognitive deficits in OSA are thought to be sleep disruption and blood gas abnormalities. Cognitive impairment is also seen in other disorders that are characterised primarily by sleep disturbance (e.g., sleep restriction/deprivation, insomnia) or hypoxia/hypercarbia (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)). Assessment of the cognitive deficits observed in these other disorders could help better define the mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in OSA...
March 30, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759586/apology-in-cases-of-medical-error-disclosure-thoughts-based-on-a-preliminary-study
#10
Sonia Dahan, Dominique Ducard, Laurence Caeymaex
BACKGROUND: Disclosing medical errors is considered necessary by patients, ethicists, and health care professionals. Literature insists on the framing of this disclosure and describes the apology as appropriate and necessary. However, this policy seems difficult to put into practice. Few works have explored the function and meaning of the apology. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the role ascribed to apology in communication between healthcare professionals and patients when disclosing a medical error, and to discuss these findings using a linguistic and philosophical perspective...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758203/haloperidol-for-psychosis-induced-aggression-or-agitation-rapid-tranquillisation
#11
REVIEW
Edoardo G Ostinelli, Melanie J Brooke-Powney, Xue Li, Clive E Adams
BACKGROUND: Haloperidol used alone is recommended to help calm situations of aggression or agitation for people with psychosis. It is widely accessible and may be the only antipsychotic medication available in limited-resource areas. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether haloperidol alone is an effective treatment for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation, wherein clinicians are required to intervene to prevent harm to self and others. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (26th May 2016)...
July 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752910/antioxidants-for-female-subfertility
#12
REVIEW
Marian G Showell, Rebecca Mackenzie-Proctor, Vanessa Jordan, Roger J Hart
BACKGROUND: A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are thought to reduce the oxidative stress brought on by these conditions. Currently, limited evidence suggests that antioxidants improve fertility, and trials have explored this area with varied results...
July 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749236/are-males-and-females-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-more-similar-than-we-thought
#13
Joanna L Mussey, Nicole C Ginn, Laura G Klinger
Differences in behavioral and cognitive profiles have been suggested to potentially impact the presentation of social and communication symptoms in females with autism spectrum disorder. This study examined gender differences in age of diagnosis, cognitive profiles, social communication symptomatology, and autism spectrum disorder symptom severity in a community-based sample of 566 males and 113 females with autism spectrum disorder ranging in age from 1 year, 9 months to 56 years, 4 months. Results suggest either very small or no gender differences in age at diagnosis, intelligence quotient, cognitive profiles, or autism spectrum disorder symptom severity...
August 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748485/early-onset-first-episode-psychosis-dimensional-structure-of-symptoms-clinical-subtypes-and-related-neurodevelopmental-markers
#14
Maria Giuseppina Petruzzelli, Lucia Margari, Andrea Bosco, Francesco Craig, Roberto Palumbi, Francesco Margari
Despite the growing interest in a dimensional approach to the assessment of symptoms and clinically relevant phenomena in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, very few studies, to date, have examined the dimensional structure of symptoms in early onset first episode psychosis. In the present study, we assessed a sample of 60 children and adolescents of both sexes with first episode schizophrenia spectrum psychosis. A principal component analysis (PCA) of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was performed and the factors obtained were used to carry out a cluster analysis...
July 26, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746756/de-scenting-extinction-the-promise-of-de-extinction-may-hasten-continuing-extinctions
#15
Claudio Campagna, Daniel Guevara, Bernard Le Boeuf
Among the most egregious and discouraging problems of conservation is the rapidly escalating human-caused species extinction rate. "De-extinction" refers to the application of certain cutting-edge techniques for the supposed recovery of lost species and gives the impression that scientists, enlightened and empowered by the miracles of technology, are coming to the rescue. "De-extinction" is the latest example of a long play of language that has given conservation efforts a tragically false sense of accomplishment and has worsened the conservation crisis...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737868/languaje-what-makes-us-humans
#16
Horacio Lejarraga
Pediatrician carry out the surveillance of language in preschool children as one of the components of child development (language, fine and gross motor skills, etc.). However, language is more than that. The process of transformation of the magic meaning on the word present in the initial stages of human evolution (Myth period) into a new, symbolic meaning as representative of the object (Logos period) took around 40,000 years. With the mastering of language, man was capable of thinking; from then onwards, these two functions, thought and language, became inextricably linked, the evolved hand in hand...
August 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721443/a-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-based-tractographic-study-into-the-anatomical-subdivision-and-cortical-connectivity-of-the-ventral-external-capsule-uncinate-and-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicles
#17
Sandip S Panesar, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Christopher P Deibert, David Fernandes-Cabral, Vijayakrishna Rowthu, Pinar Celtikci, Emrah Celtikci, William D Hula, Sudhir Pathak, Juan C Fernández-Miranda
PURPOSE: The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) are major fronto-capsular white matter pathways. IFOF connects frontal areas of the brain to parieto-occipital areas. UF connects ventral frontal areas to anterior temporal areas. Both fascicles are thought to subserve higher language and emotion roles. Controversy pertaining to their connectivity and subdivision persists in the literature, however. METHODS: High-definition fiber tractography (HDFT) is a non-tensor tractographic method using diffusion spectrum imaging data...
July 18, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716621/healthcare-professionals-attitudes-about-physician-assisted-death-an-analysis-of-their-justifications-and-the-roles-of-terminology-and-patient-competency
#18
Derek W Braverman, Brian S Marcus, Paul G Wakim, Mark R Mercurio, Gary S Kopf
CONTEXT: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are crucial to physician-assisted death (PAD) provision. OBJECTIVES: To quantitatively assess the favorability of justifications for or against PAD legalization among HCPs, the effect of the terms "suicide" and "euthanasia" on their views, and their support for three forms of PAD. METHODS: Our questionnaire presented three cases: physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia for a competent patient, and euthanasia for an incompetent patient with an advance directive for euthanasia...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714704/planes-of-phenomenological-experience-the-psychology-of-deafness-as-an-early-example-of-american-gestalt-psychology-1928-1940
#19
Marion A Schmidt
When, in 1928, the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts, opened a psychological research division, it was nothing unusual in a time fascinated with the sciences of education. Yet with its longstanding ties to Northampton's Smith College, the school was able to secure the collaboration of eminent Gestalt psychologist Kurt Koffka, who, in turn, engaged 2 more German-speaking emigrants, Margarete Eberhardt and social psychologist Fritz Heider, and Heider's American wife Grace Moore Heider. This collaboration has seen little attention from historians, who have treated Koffka's and Heider's time in Northampton as a transitory phase...
July 17, 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714100/why-is-it-so-hard-to-reach-agreement-on-terminology-the-case-of-developmental-language-disorder-dld
#20
Dorothy V M Bishop
A recent project entitled CATALISE used the Delphi method to reach a consensus on terminology for unexplained language problems in children. 'Developmental language disorder' (DLD) was the term agreed by a panel of 57 experts. Here I reflect on points of difficulty that arose when attempting to reach a consensus, using qualitative information from comments made by panel members to illustrate the kinds of argument used. One issue of debate was the use of labels, in particular the term 'disorder', which was seen as having both pros and cons...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
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