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microRNA biogenesis pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442996/structural-characteristics-of-simple-rna-repeats-associated-with-disease-and-their-deleterious-protein-interactions
#1
REVIEW
Adam Ciesiolka, Magdalena Jazurek, Karolina Drazkowska, Wlodzimierz J Krzyzosiak
Short Tandem Repeats (STRs) are frequent entities in many transcripts, however, in some cases, pathological events occur when a critical repeat length is reached. This phenomenon is observed in various neurological disorders, such as myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, C9orf72-related amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia (C9ALS/FTD), and polyglutamine diseases, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA). The pathological effects of these repeats are triggered by mutant RNA transcripts and/or encoded mutant proteins, which depend on the localization of the expanded repeats in non-coding or coding regions...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433632/role-of-microrna-130b-in-placental-pgc-1%C3%AE-tfam-mitochondrial-biogenesis-pathway
#2
Shaoning Jiang, April M Teague, Jeanie B Tryggestad, Steven D Chernausek
Diabetes during pregnancy is associated with abnormal placenta mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress, which affect fetal development and offspring long-term health. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism. The molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PGC-1α in placenta in the context of diabetes remain unclear. The present study examined the role of microRNA 130b (miR-130b-3p) in regulating PGC-1α expression and oxidative stress in a placental trophoblastic cell line (BeWo)...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433598/mir-590-5p-a-density-sensitive-microrna-inhibits-tumorigenesis-by-targeting-yap1-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
Chunlin Ou, Zhenqiang Sun, Xiayu Li, Xiaoling Li, Weiguo Ren, Zailong Qin, Xuemei Zhang, Weitang Yuan, Jia Wang, Wentao Yu, Shiwen Zhang, Qiu Peng, Qun Yan, Wei Xiong, Guiyuan Li, Jian Ma
YAP1, a transcription co-activator, mediates the biological functions of the Hippo pathway. YAP1 inactivation is involved in cell-cell contact inhibition. In various tumors, YAP1 is upregulated through multiple mechanisms, and it functions as an oncogene. Here, we provided evidence that YAP1 influenced multiple signaling pathways in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We reported that miR-590-5p directly targets YAP1 and inhibits tumorigenesis in CRC cells both in vitro and in vivo xenograft model. We analyzed different cell densities and found that increased density caused increased expression of miR-590-5p, and decreased expression of its precursors (pri- and pre-miR-590)...
April 19, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428217/microrna-33-regulates-macrophage-autophagy-in-atherosclerosis
#4
Mireille Ouimet, Hasini Ediriweera, Milessa Silva Afonso, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Ragunath Singaravelu, Xianghai Liao, Rachel C Bandler, Karishma Rahman, Edward A Fisher, Katey J Rayner, John P Pezacki, Ira Tabas, Kathryn J Moore
OBJECTIVE: Defective autophagy in macrophages leads to pathological processes that contribute to atherosclerosis, including impaired cholesterol metabolism and defective efferocytosis. Autophagy promotes the degradation of cytoplasmic components in lysosomes and plays a key role in the catabolism of stored lipids to maintain cellular homeostasis. microRNA-33 (miR-33) is a post-transcriptional regulator of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis, yet the complete mechanisms by which miR-33 controls lipid metabolism are unknown...
April 20, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419088/the-snrk2-kinases-modulate-mirna-accumulation-in-arabidopsis
#5
Jun Yan, Pengcheng Wang, Bangshing Wang, Chuan-Chih Hsu, Kai Tang, Hairong Zhang, Yueh-Ju Hou, Yang Zhao, Qiming Wang, Chunzhao Zhao, Xiaohong Zhu, W Andy Tao, Jianming Li, Jian-Kang Zhu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression and play critical roles in growth and development as well as stress responses in eukaryotes. miRNA biogenesis in plants requires a processing complex that consists of the core components DICER-LIKE 1 (DCL1), SERRATE (SE) and HYPONASTIC LEAVES (HYL1). Here we show that inactivation of functionally redundant members of the SnRK2 kinases, which are the core components of abscisic acid (ABA) and osmotic stress signaling pathways, leads to reduction in miRNA accumulation under stress conditions...
April 18, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407097/mircat2-accurate-prediction-of-plant-and-animal-micrornas-from-next-generation-sequencing-datasets
#6
Claudia Paicu, Irina Mohorianu, Matthew Stocks, Ping Xu, Aurore Coince, Martina Billmeier, Tamas Dalmay, Vincent Moulton, Simon Moxon
Motivation: MicroRNAs are a class of _21-22 nucleotide small RNAs which are excised from a stable hairpin-like secondary structure. They have important gene regulatory functions and are involved in many pathways including developmental timing, organogenesis and development in eukaryotes. There are several computational tools for miRNA detection from next-generation sequencing (NGS) datasets. However, many of these tools suffer from high false positive and false negative rates. Here we present a novel miRNA prediction algorithm, miRCat2...
April 12, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400788/the-lin28-let-7-pathway-in-cancer
#7
REVIEW
Julien Balzeau, Miriam R Menezes, Siyu Cao, John P Hagan
Among all tumor suppressor microRNAs, reduced let-7 expression occurs most frequently in cancer and typically correlates with poor prognosis. Activation of either LIN28A or LIN28B, two highly related RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and proto-oncogenes, is responsible for the global post-transcriptional downregulation of the let-7 microRNA family observed in many cancers. Specifically, LIN28A binds the terminal loop of precursor let-7 and recruits the Terminal Uridylyl Transferase (TUTase) ZCCHC11 that polyuridylates pre-let-7, thereby blocking microRNA biogenesis and tumor suppressor function...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388330/yellow-fever-virus-modulates-the-expression-of-key-proteins-related-to-the-microrna-pathway-in-the-human-hepatocarcinoma-cell-line-hepg2
#8
Gustavo Moraes Holanda, Samir Mansour Moraes Casseb, Karla Fabiane Lopes Mello, Pedro Fernando Costa Vasconcelos, Ana Cecília Ribeiro Cruz
Yellow fever is a zoonotic disease caused by the yellow fever virus (YFV) and transmitted by mosquitoes of the family Culicidae. It is well known that cellular and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in modulation of viral and cellular gene expression, as well as immune response, and are considered by the scientific community as possible targets for an effective therapy against viral infections. This regulation may be involved in different levels of infection and clinical symptomatology. We used viral titration techniques, viral kinetics from 24 to 96 hours postinfection (hpi), and analyzed the expression of key proteins related to the miRNA pathway by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
April 7, 2017: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381556/poly-c-binding-protein-1-pcbp1-regulates-skeletal-muscle-differentiation-by-modulating-microrna-processing-in-myoblasts
#9
Ramon A Espinoza-Lewis, Qiumei Yang, Jianming Liu, Zhan-Peng Huang, Xiaoyun Hu, Daiwen Chen, Da-Zhi Wang
Control of muscle cell proliferation and differentiation is essential to proper muscle development, function, and regeneration, and numerous transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators are key to these processes. For example, recent studies have linked microRNAs (miRNAs) to muscle gene expression, development, and disease. The poly(C)-binding protein1 (Pcbp1, hnRNP-E1, or αCP-1) has been reported to bind the 3'UTRs of target genes to regulate mRNA stability and protein translation. However, Pcbp1's biological function in skeletal muscle and general mechanism of action remain largely undetermined...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348234/ketch1-imports-hyl1-to-nucleus-for-mirna-biogenesis-in-arabidopsis
#10
Zhonghui Zhang, Xinwei Guo, Chunxiao Ge, Zeyang Ma, Mengqiu Jiang, Tianhong Li, Hisashi Koiwa, Seong Wook Yang, Xiuren Zhang
MicroRNA (miRNA) is processed from primary transcripts with hairpin structures (pri-miRNAs) by microprocessors in the nucleus. How cytoplasmic-borne microprocessor components are transported into the nucleus to fulfill their functions remains poorly understood. Here, we report KETCH1 (karyopherin enabling the transport of the cytoplasmic HYL1) as a partner of hyponastic leaves 1 (HYL1) protein, a core component of microprocessor in Arabidopsis and functional counterpart of DGCR8/Pasha in animals. Null mutation of ketch1 is embryonic-lethal, whereas knockdown mutation of ketch1 caused morphological defects, reminiscent of mutants in the miRNA pathway...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340815/expression-profile-of-microrna-biogenesis-components-in-renal-transplant-patients
#11
E Celen, M G Ertosun, H Kocak, A Dinckan, B Yoldas
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and the miRNA biogenesis components are potential biomarkers of some prevalent diseases, such as cancer and diabetes. In light of this information, we aimed to investigate the expression profiles of miRNA biogenesis components in renal transplant patients before and after transplantation and how these profiles are related to immunosuppressive treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS: In this study, gene and protein expression profiles of Dicer, Drosha, Pasha (DGCR8), Exportin5 (XPO5), and Argonaute2 (AGO2) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of renal transplant patients were evaluated by means of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot methods before and 3 months after transplantation...
April 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335741/high-throughput-sequencing-of-pituitary-and-hypothalamic-microrna-transcriptome-associated-with-high-rate-of-egg-production
#12
Nan Wu, Qing Zhu, Binlong Chen, Jian Gao, Zhongxian Xu, Diyan Li
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs exist widely in viruses, plants and animals. As endogenous small non-coding RNAs, miRNAs regulate a variety of biological processes. Tissue miRNA expression studies have discovered numerous functions for miRNAs in various tissues of chicken, but the regulation of miRNAs in chicken pituitary and hypothalamic development related to high and low egg-laying performance has remained unclear. RESULTS: In this study, using high-throughput sequencing technology, we sequenced two tissues (pituitary and hypothalamus) in 3 high- and 3 low-rate egg production Luhua chickens at the age of 300 days...
March 23, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330621/synergic-functions-of-mirnas-determine-neuronal-fate-of-adult-neural-stem-cells
#13
Meritxell Pons-Espinal, Emanuela de Luca, Matteo Jacopo Marzi, Ruth Beckervordersandforth, Andrea Armirotti, Francesco Nicassio, Klaus Fabel, Gerd Kempermann, Davide De Pietri Tonelli
Adult neurogenesis requires the precise control of neuronal versus astrocyte lineage determination in neural stem cells. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are critically involved in this step during development, their actions in adult hippocampal neural stem cells (aNSCs) has been unclear. As entry point to address that question we chose DICER, an endoribonuclease essential for miRNA biogenesis and other RNAi-related processes. By specific ablation of Dicer in aNSCs in vivo and in vitro, we demonstrate that miRNAs are required for the generation of new neurons, but not astrocytes, in the adult murine hippocampus...
April 11, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300636/perinatal-protein-malnutrition-alters-expression-of-mirna-biogenesis-genes-xpo5-and-ago2-in-mice-brain
#14
Bruno G Berardino, Estefanía A Fesser, Eduardo T Cánepa
Due to its widespread incidence, maternal malnutrition remains one of the major non-genetic factors affecting the development of newborn's brain. While all nutrients have certain influence on brain maturation, proteins appear to be the most critical for the development of neurological functions. An increasing number of studies point out that the effects of early-life nutritional inadequacy has long lasting effects on the brain and lead to permanent deficits in learning and behavior. Epigenetic mechanisms provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes...
March 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252644/nuclear-drosha-enhances-cell-invasion-via-an-egfr-erk1-2-mmp7-signaling-pathway-induced-by-dysregulated-mirna-622-197-and-their-targets-lamc2-and-cd82-in-gastric-cancer
#15
Liyun Xu, Yixuan Hou, Gang Tu, Yanlin Chen, Yan-E Du, Hailong Zhang, Siyang Wen, Xi Tang, Jiali Yin, Lei Lang, Kexin Sun, Guanglun Yang, Xiaoli Tang, Manran Liu
Drosha is an RNA III-like enzyme that has an aberrant expression in some tumors. Our previous studies showed the aberrant Drosha in gastric tumors. However, the roles of nuclear Drosha, the main regulator of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, in gastric cancer (GC) progression remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that nuclear Drosha is significantly associated with cell invasion of GC and that Drosha silence impedes the tumor invasion. Knockdown of Drosha led to a set of dysregulated miRNAs in GC cells...
March 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238105/emerging-role-of-micrornas-in-mtor-signaling
#16
REVIEW
Yanjie Zhang, Bo Huang, Hui-Yun Wang, Augustus Chang, X F Steven Zheng
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a critical role in the control of cellular growth and metabolism. Hyperactivation of mTOR pathway is common in human cancers, driving uncontrolled proliferation. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of short noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes. Deregulation of miRNAs is a hallmark of cancer. Recent studies have revealed interplays between miRNAs and the mTOR pathway during cancer development. Such interactions appear to provide a fine-tuning of various cellular functions and contribute qualitatively to the behavior of cancer...
February 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229250/role-of-mirnas-in-human-disease-and-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#17
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Belén Pérez, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). They are estimated to target ∼60% of all human protein-coding genes and are involved in regulating key physiological processes and intracellular signaling pathways. They also exhibit tissue specificity, and their dysregulation is linked to the progression of pathology. Identifying disease associated miRNAs and their respective targets provides novel molecular insight into disease, enabling the design of new therapeutic strategies...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218277/mir-203-enhances-let-7-biogenesis-by-targeting-lin28b-to-suppress-tumor-growth-in-lung-cancer
#18
Yong Zhou, Hongwei Liang, Zhicong Liao, Yanbo Wang, Xiuting Hu, Xi Chen, Lin Xu, Zhibin Hu
Human cancers often exhibit increased microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and global aberrant expression of miRNAs; thus, targeting the miRNA biogenesis pathway represents a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we report that miR-203 enhances the biogenesis of tumor suppressor let-7 in lung cancer by directly targeting LIN28B. Specially, we found that the LIN28B protein levels were dramatically increased in lung cancer tissues, but its mRNA levels did not differ significantly, suggesting that a post-transcriptional mechanism is involved in LIN28B regulation...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204845/mirnas-target-databases-developmental-methods-and-target-identification-techniques-with-functional-annotations
#19
REVIEW
Nagendra Kumar Singh
PURPOSE: microRNA (miRNA) regulates diverse biological mechanisms and metabolisms in plants and animals. Thus, the discoveries of miRNA has revolutionized the life sciences and medical research.The miRNA represses and cleaves the targeted mRNA by binding perfect or near perfect or imperfect complementary base pairs by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation during biogenesis process. One miRNA interacts with one or more mRNA genes and vice versa, hence takes part in causing various diseases...
February 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202520/evolution-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-endocrine-resistant-metastatic-breast-cancers-is-mediated-by-stromal-microvesicles
#20
Pasquale Sansone, Marjan Berishaj, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Claudio Ceccarelli, Qing Chang, Antonio Strillacci, Claudia Savini, Lauren Shapiro, Robert L Bowman, Chiara Mastroleo, Sabrina De Carolis, Laura Daly, Alberto Benito-Martin, Fabiana Perna, Nicola Fabbri, John H Healey, Enzo Spisni, Monica Cricca, David Lyden, Massimiliano Bonafé, Jacqueline Bromberg
The hypothesis that microvesicle-mediated miRNA transfer converts noncancer stem cells into cancer stem cells (CSC) leading to therapy resistance remains poorly investigated. Here we provide direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, by demonstrating how microvesicles derived from cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) transfer miR-221 to promote hormonal therapy resistance (HTR) in models of luminal breast cancer. We determined that CAF-derived microvesicles horizontally transferred miR-221 to tumor cells and, in combination with hormone therapy, activated an ER(lo)/Notch(hi) feed-forward loop responsible for the generation of CD133(hi) CSCs...
April 15, 2017: Cancer Research
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