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microRNA biogenesis pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330621/synergic-functions-of-mirnas-determine-neuronal-fate-of-adult-neural-stem-cells
#1
Meritxell Pons-Espinal, Emanuela de Luca, Matteo Jacopo Marzi, Ruth Beckervordersandforth, Andrea Armirotti, Francesco Nicassio, Klaus Fabel, Gerd Kempermann, Davide De Pietri Tonelli
Adult neurogenesis requires the precise control of neuronal versus astrocyte lineage determination in neural stem cells. While microRNAs (miRNAs) are critically involved in this step during development, their actions in adult hippocampal neural stem cells (aNSCs) has been unclear. As entry point to address that question we chose DICER, an endoribonuclease essential for miRNA biogenesis and other RNAi-related processes. By specific ablation of Dicer in aNSCs in vivo and in vitro, we demonstrate that miRNAs are required for the generation of new neurons, but not astrocytes, in the adult murine hippocampus...
March 10, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300636/perinatal-protein-malnutrition-alters-expression-of-mirna-biogenesis-genes-xpo5-and-ago2-in-mice-brain
#2
Bruno G Berardino, Estefanía A Fesser, Eduardo T Cánepa
Due to its widespread incidence, maternal malnutrition remains one of the major non-genetic factors affecting the development of newborn's brain. While all nutrients have certain influence on brain maturation, proteins appear to be the most critical for the development of neurological functions. An increasing number of studies point out that the effects of early-life nutritional inadequacy has long lasting effects on the brain and lead to permanent deficits in learning and behavior. Epigenetic mechanisms provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes...
March 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252644/nuclear-drosha-enhances-cell-invasion-via-an-egfr-erk1-2-mmp7-signaling-pathway-induced-by-dysregulated-mirna-622-197-and-their-targets-lamc2-and-cd82-in-gastric-cancer
#3
Liyun Xu, Yixuan Hou, Gang Tu, Yanlin Chen, Yan-E Du, Hailong Zhang, Siyang Wen, Xi Tang, Jiali Yin, Lei Lang, Kexin Sun, Guanglun Yang, Xiaoli Tang, Manran Liu
Drosha is an RNA III-like enzyme that has an aberrant expression in some tumors. Our previous studies showed the aberrant Drosha in gastric tumors. However, the roles of nuclear Drosha, the main regulator of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, in gastric cancer (GC) progression remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that nuclear Drosha is significantly associated with cell invasion of GC and that Drosha silence impedes the tumor invasion. Knockdown of Drosha led to a set of dysregulated miRNAs in GC cells...
March 2, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238105/emerging-role-of-micrornas-in-mtor-signaling
#4
REVIEW
Yanjie Zhang, Bo Huang, Hui-Yun Wang, Augustus Chang, X F Steven Zheng
Mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase that plays a critical role in the control of cellular growth and metabolism. Hyperactivation of mTOR pathway is common in human cancers, driving uncontrolled proliferation. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of short noncoding RNAs that regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes. Deregulation of miRNAs is a hallmark of cancer. Recent studies have revealed interplays between miRNAs and the mTOR pathway during cancer development. Such interactions appear to provide a fine-tuning of various cellular functions and contribute qualitatively to the behavior of cancer...
February 25, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229250/role-of-mirnas-in-human-disease-and-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#5
Ana Rivera-Barahona, Belén Pérez, Eva Richard, Lourdes R Desviat
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression posttranscriptionally by base pairing with target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). They are estimated to target ∼60% of all human protein-coding genes and are involved in regulating key physiological processes and intracellular signaling pathways. They also exhibit tissue specificity, and their dysregulation is linked to the progression of pathology. Identifying disease associated miRNAs and their respective targets provides novel molecular insight into disease, enabling the design of new therapeutic strategies...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218277/mir-203-enhances-let-7-biogenesis-by-targeting-lin28b-to-suppress-tumor-growth-in-lung-cancer
#6
Yong Zhou, Hongwei Liang, Zhicong Liao, Yanbo Wang, Xiuting Hu, Xi Chen, Lin Xu, Zhibin Hu
Human cancers often exhibit increased microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and global aberrant expression of miRNAs; thus, targeting the miRNA biogenesis pathway represents a novel strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we report that miR-203 enhances the biogenesis of tumor suppressor let-7 in lung cancer by directly targeting LIN28B. Specially, we found that the LIN28B protein levels were dramatically increased in lung cancer tissues, but its mRNA levels did not differ significantly, suggesting that a post-transcriptional mechanism is involved in LIN28B regulation...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204845/mirnas-target-databases-developmental-methods-and-target-identification-techniques-with-functional-annotations
#7
REVIEW
Nagendra Kumar Singh
PURPOSE: microRNA (miRNA) regulates diverse biological mechanisms and metabolisms in plants and animals. Thus, the discoveries of miRNA has revolutionized the life sciences and medical research.The miRNA represses and cleaves the targeted mRNA by binding perfect or near perfect or imperfect complementary base pairs by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation during biogenesis process. One miRNA interacts with one or more mRNA genes and vice versa, hence takes part in causing various diseases...
February 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202520/evolution-of-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-endocrine-resistant-metastatic-breast-cancers-is-mediated-by-stromal-microvesicles
#8
Pasquale Sansone, Marjan Berishaj, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Claudio Ceccarelli, Qing Chang, Antonio Strillacci, Claudia Savini, Lauren Shapiro, Robert Bowman, Chiara Mastroleo, Sabrina De Carolis, Laura Daly, Alberto Benito-Martin, Fabiana Perna, Nicola Fabbri, John H Healey, Enzo Spisni, Monica Cricca, David Lyden, Massimiliano Bonafé, Jacqueline Bromberg
The hypothesis that microvesicle (MV)-mediated microRNA transfer converts non-cancer stem cells into cancer stem cells (CSCs) leading to therapy resistance remains poorly investigated. Here we provide direct evidence supporting this hypothesis, by demonstrating how MV derived from cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) transfer miR-221 to promote hormonal therapy resistance (HTR) in models of luminal breast cancer. We determined that CAF-derived MV horizontally transferred miR221 to tumor cells and, in combination with hormone therapy activated an ERlo/Notchhi feed-forward loop responsible for the generation of CD133hi CSC...
February 15, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174252/trbp-maintains-mammalian-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-properties-by-acting-as-a-novel-transcriptional-coactivator-of-the-notch-signaling-pathway
#9
Sung-Hyun Byun, Juwan Kim, Dasol Han, Mookwang Kwon, Jae Youl Cho, Hui Xuan Ng, Samuel J Pleasure, Keejung Yoon
Transactivation response element RNA-binding protein (TRBP; TARBP2) is known to play important roles in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication and microRNA biogenesis. However, recent studies implicate TRBP in a variety of biological processes as a mediator of cross-talk between signal transduction pathways. Here, we provide the first evidence that TRBP is required for efficient neurosphere formation and for the expression of neural stem cell markers and Notch target genes in primary neural progenitor cells in vitro Consistent with this, introduction of TRBP into the mouse embryonic brain in utero increased the fraction of cells expressing Sox2 in the ventricular zone...
March 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174021/biogenesis-and-function-of-ago-associated-rnas
#10
REVIEW
Iben Daugaard, Thomas Birkballe Hansen
Numerous sophisticated high-throughput sequencing technologies have been developed over the past decade, and these have enabled the discovery of a diverse catalog of small non-coding (nc)RNA molecules that function as regulatory entities by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently the best-described class of post-transcriptional regulators that follow a specific biogenesis pathway characterized by Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer processing. However, more exotic miRNA-like species that bypass particular steps of the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway continue to emerge, with one of the most recent additions being the agotrons, which escape both Drosha/DGCR8- and Dicer-processing...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104803/microrna-processing-enzymes-are-essential-for-survival-and-function-of-mature-retinal-pigmented-epithelial-cells-in-mice
#11
Thomas R Sundermeier, Sanae Sakami, Bhubanananda Sahu, Scott J Howell, Songqi Gao, Zhiqian Dong, Marcin Golczak, Akiko Maeda, Krzysztof Palczewski
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible vision loss. The neovascular or "wet" form of AMD can be treated to varying degrees with anti-angiogenic drugs, but geographic atrophy (GA) is an advanced stage of the more prevalent "dry" form of AMD for which there is no effective treatment. Development of GA has been linked to loss of the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzyme DICER1 in the mature retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE). This loss results in the accumulation of toxic transcripts of Alu transposable elements, which activate the NLRP3 inflammasome and additional downstream pathways that compromise the integrity and function of the RPE...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103887/microrna-expression-patterns-and-signalling-pathways-in-the-development-and-progression-of-childhood-solid-tumours
#12
REVIEW
Anna L Leichter, Michael J Sullivan, Michael R Eccles, Aniruddha Chatterjee
The development of childhood solid tumours is tied to early developmental processes. These tumours may be complex and heterogeneous, and elucidating the aberrant mechanisms that alter the early embryonic environment and lead to disease is essential to our understanding of how these tumours function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are vital regulators of gene expression at all stages of development, and their crosstalk via developmental signalling pathways is essential for orchestrating regulatory control in processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of cells...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095716/circrnas-a-regulator-of-cellular-stress
#13
Joseph W Fischer, Anthony K L Leung
Circular RNAs (CircRNAs) were first identified as a viroid and later found to also be an endogenous RNA splicing product in eukaryotes. In recent years, a series of RNA-sequencing analyses from a diverse range of eukaryotes have shed new light on these eukaryotic circRNAs, revealing dynamic expression patterns in various developmental stages and physiological conditions. In this review, we focus on circRNAs implicated in stress response pathways and explore potential mechanisms underlying their regulation. To date, circRNAs have been shown to act as scaffolds in the assembly of protein complexes, sequester proteins from native subcellular localization, activate transcription of parental genes, inhibit RNA-protein interactions, and function as regulators of microRNA activity...
January 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087411/aspirin-prevents-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-endothelial-cell-dysfunction-by-regulating-the-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-mir-155-enos-pathway-role-of-a-mir-155-enos-axis-in-preeclampsia
#14
Joohwan Kim, Kyu-Sun Lee, Ji-Hee Kim, Dong-Keon Lee, Minsik Park, Seunghwan Choi, Wonjin Park, Suji Kim, Yoon Kyung Choi, Jong Yun Hwang, Jongseon Choe, Moo-Ho Won, Dooil Jeoung, Hansoo Lee, Sungwoo Ryoo, Kwon-Soo Ha, Young-Guen Kwon, Young-Myeong Kim
Preeclampsia is an inflammatory disease with endothelial cell dysfunction that occurs via decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase/nitric oxide (eNOS/NO) activity. Aspirin reduces the incidence of hypertensive pregnancy complications. However, the underlying mechanism has not been clearly explained. Here, we found that tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, microRNA (miR)-155, and eNOS levels as well as endothelial redox phenotype were differentially regulated in preeclamptic patients, implying the involvement of TNF-α- and redox signal-mediated miR-155 biogenesis and eNOS downregulation in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia...
March 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074552/validation-of-microrna-pathway-polymorphisms-in-esophageal-adenocarcinoma-survival
#15
Olusola O Faluyi, Lawson Eng, Xin Qiu, Jiahua Che, Qihuang Zhang, Dangxiao Cheng, Nanjiao Ying, Alvina Tse, Qin Kuang, Lorin Dodbiba, Daniel J Renouf, Sharon Marsh, Sevtap Savas, Helen J Mackay, Jennifer J Knox, Gail E Darling, Rebecca K S Wong, Wei Xu, Abul Kalam Azad, Geoffrey Liu
Polymorphisms in miRNA and miRNA pathway genes have been previously associated with cancer risk and outcome, but have not been studied in esophageal adenocarcinoma outcomes. Here, we evaluate candidate miRNA pathway polymorphisms in esophageal adenocarcinoma prognosis and attempt to validate them in an independent cohort of esophageal adenocarcinoma patients. Among 231 esophageal adenocarcinoma patients of all stages/treatment plans, 38 candidate genetic polymorphisms (17 biogenesis, 9 miRNA targets, 5 pri-miRNA, 7 pre-miRNA) were genotyped and analyzed...
February 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010188/the-in-vivo-genetic-toolkit-for-studying-expression-and-functions-of-drosophila-melanogaster-micrornas
#16
Hina Iftikhar, Janna N Schultzhaus, Chloe J Bennett, Ginger E Carney
Since the initial reports that a group of small RNAs, now known as microRNAs (miRNAs), regulates gene expression without being translated into proteins, there has been an explosion of studies on these important expression modulators. Drosophila melanogaster has proven to be one of the most amenable animal models for investigations of miRNA biogenesis and gene regulatory activities. Here, we highlight the publicly available genetic tools and strategies for in vivo functional studies of miRNA activity in D. melanogaster...
February 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006752/regulation-of-mirnas-by-herbal-medicine-an-emerging-field-in-cancer-therapies
#17
REVIEW
Ali Mohammadi, Behzad Mansoori, Behzad Baradaran
MicroRNAs' expression profiles have recently gained major attention as far as cancer research is concerned. MicroRNAs are able to inhibit target gene expression via binding to the 3' UTR of target mRNA, resulting in target mRNA cleavage or translation inhibition. MicroRNAs play significant parts in a myriad of biological processes; studies have proven, on the other hand, that aberrant microRNA expression is, more often than not, associated with the growth and progression of cancers. MicroRNAs could act as oncogenes (oncomir) or tumor suppressors and can also be utilized as biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, and cancer therapy...
February 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999330/dysregulated-microrna-expression-profiles-and-potential-cellular-circulating-and-polymorphic-biomarkers-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma
#18
REVIEW
Gabrielle Bradshaw, Heidi G Sutherland, Larisa M Haupt, Lyn R Griffiths
A large number of studies have focused on identifying molecular biomarkers, including microRNAs (miRNAs) to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of the most common subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma and Follicular Lymphoma. NHL is difficult to diagnose and treat with many cases becoming resistant to chemotherapy, hence the need to identify improved biomarkers to aid in both diagnosis and treatment modalities. This review summarises more recent research on the dysregulated miRNA expression profiles found in NHL, as well as the regulatory role and biomarker potential of cellular and circulating miRNAs found in tissue and serum, respectively...
December 17, 2016: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973704/crosstalk-between-hippo-signalling-and-mirnas-in-tumour-progression
#19
REVIEW
Nianshuang Li, Chuan Xie, Nonghua Lu
The Hippo signalling pathway co-ordinately modulates cell regeneration and organ size, and its deregulation contributes to tumourigenesis through many cellular processes, including over-proliferation, apoptosis resistance, and cell migration. Recent discoveries have shed new light on how microRNAs (miRNAs) are closely linked to the Hippo pathway in tumour progression. Hippo signalling has been reported to affect widespread miRNA biogenesis. In turn, several miRNAs regulate Hippo signalling, which contributes to carcinogenesis...
December 14, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957388/microrna-biogenesis-pathway-genes-polymorphisms-and-cancer-risk-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
Jieyu He, Jun Zhao, Wenbo Zhu, Daxun Qi, Lina Wang, Jinfang Sun, Bei Wang, Xu Ma, Qiaoyun Dai, Xiaojin Yu
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) may promote the development and progression of human cancers. Therefore, components of the miRNA biogenesis pathway may play critical roles in human cancer. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) or mutations in genes involved in the miRNA biogenesis pathway may alter levels of gene expression, affecting disease susceptibility. Results of previous studies on genetic variants in the miRNA biogenesis pathway and cancer risk were inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis is needed to assess the associations of these genetic variants with human cancer risk...
2016: PeerJ
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