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microRNA biogenesis pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258963/secretory-micrornas-as-biomarkers-of-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Kazuharu Kai, Rachel L Dittmar, Subrata Sen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression predominantly by inhibiting transcription and/or promoting degradation of target mRNAs also in addition to being involved in non-canonical mechanisms regulating transcription, translation and cell signaling processes. Extracellular secretory miRNAs, either in complex with specific proteins or encapsulated in microvesicles called exosomes, are transported between cells as means of intercellular communication. Secretory miRNAs in circulation remain functional after delivery to recipient cells, regulating target genes and their corresponding signaling pathways...
December 16, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250093/xap5-circadian-timekeeper-positively-regulates-resistance-to-powdery-mildew8-1-mediated-immunity-in-arabidopsis
#2
Yong-Ju Xu, Yang Lei, Ran Li, Ling-Li Zhang, Zhi-Xue Zhao, Jing-Hao Zhao, Jing Fan, Yan Li, Hui Yang, Jing Shang, Shunyuan Xiao, Wen-Ming Wang
Ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis RESISTANCE TO POWDERY MILDEW8.1 (RPW8.1) boosts pattern-triggered immunity leading to enhanced resistance to different pathogens in Arabidopsis and rice. However, the underlying regulatory mechanism remains largely elusive. Here, we report that XAP5 CIRCADIAN TIMEKEEPER (XCT, At2g21150) positively regulates RPW8.1-mediated cell death and disease resistance. Forward genetic screen identified the b3-17 mutant that exhibited less cell death and susceptibility to powdery mildew and bacterial pathogens...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244865/the-arabidopsis-thaliana-f-box-gene-hawaiian-skirt-is-a-new-player-in-the-microrna-pathway
#3
Xuebin Zhang, Dasuni Jayaweera, Janny L Peters, Judit Szecsi, Mohammed Bendahmane, Jeremy A Roberts, Zinnia H González-Carranza
In Arabidopsis, the F-box HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS) protein is important for organ growth. Loss of function of HWS exhibits pleiotropic phenotypes including sepal fusion. To dissect the HWS role, we EMS-mutagenized hws-1 seeds and screened for mutations that suppress hws-1 associated phenotypes. We identified shs-2 and shs-3 (suppressor of hws-2 and 3) mutants in which the sepal fusion phenotype of hws-1 was suppressed. shs-2 and shs-3 (renamed hst-23/hws-1 and hst-24/hws-1) carry transition mutations that result in premature terminations in the plant homolog of Exportin-5 HASTY (HST), known to be important in miRNA biogenesis, function and transport...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241457/impaired-regeneration-in-calpain-3-null-muscle-is-associated-with-perturbations-in-mtorc1-signaling-and-defective-mitochondrial-biogenesis
#4
Mehmet E Yalvac, Jakkrit Amornvit, Cilwyn Braganza, Lei Chen, Syed-Rehan A Hussain, Kimberly M Shontz, Chrystal L Montgomery, Kevin M Flanigan, Sarah Lewis, Zarife Sahenk
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) have suggested that calpain-3 (CAPN3) mutations result in aberrant regeneration in muscle. METHODS: To gain insight into pathogenesis of aberrant muscle regeneration in LGMD2A, we used a paradigm of cardiotoxin (CTX)-induced cycles of muscle necrosis and regeneration in the CAPN3-KO mice to simulate the early features of the dystrophic process in LGMD2A. The temporal evolution of the regeneration process was followed by assessing the oxidative state, size, and the number of metabolic fiber types at 4 and 12 weeks after last CTX injection...
December 14, 2017: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233922/deep-experimental-profiling-of-microrna-diversity-deployment-and-evolution-across-the-drosophila-genus
#5
Jaaved Mohammed, Alex S Flynt, Alexandra M Panzarino, Md Mosharrof Hussein Mondal, Matthew DeCruz, Adam Siepel, Eric C Lai
To assess miRNA evolution across the Drosophila genus, we analyzed several billion small RNA reads across 12 fruit fly species. These data permit comprehensive curation of species- and clade-specific variation in miRNA identity, abundance, and processing. Among well-conserved miRNAs, we observed unexpected cases of clade-specific variation in 5' end precision, occasional antisense loci, and putatively noncanonical loci. We also used strict criteria to identify a large set (649) of novel, evolutionarily restricted miRNAs...
December 12, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177640/heat-stress-alters-genome-wide-profiles-of-circular-rnas-in-arabidopsis
#6
Ting Pan, Xiuqiang Sun, Yangxuan Liu, Hui Li, Guangbin Deng, Honghui Lin, Songhu Wang
1599 novel circRNAs and 1583 heat stress-specific circRNAs were identified in Arabidopsis. Heat stress enhanced accumulation of circRNAs remarkably. Heat stress altered the sizes of circRNAs, numbers of circularized exons and alterative circularization events. A putative circRNA-mediated ceRNA networks under heat stress was established. Heat stress retards plant growth and destabilizes crop yield. The noncoding RNAs were demonstrated to be involved in plant response to heat stress. As a newly-characterized class of noncoding RNAs, circular RNAs (circRNAs) play important roles in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation...
November 24, 2017: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171328/emerging-roles-of-drosha-beyond-primary-microrna-processing
#7
Dooyoung Lee, Chanseok Shin
DROSHA is the catalytic subunit of the Microprocessor complex, which initiates microRNA (miRNA) maturation in the nucleus by recognizing and cleaving hairpin precursors embedded in primary transcripts. However, accumulating evidence suggests that not all hairpin substrates of DROSHA are associated with the generation of functional small RNAs. By targeting those hairpins, DROSHA regulates diverse aspects of RNA metabolism across the transcriptome, serves as a line of defense against the expression of potentially deleterious elements, and permits cell fate determination and differentiation...
November 24, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114080/a-role-for-the-f-box-protein-hawaiian-skirt-in-plant-microrna-function
#8
Patricia L M Lang, Michael D Christie, Ezgi S Dogan, Rebecca Schwab, Jörg Hagmann, Anna-Lena Van de Weyer, Detlef Weigel, Emanuele Scacchi
As regulators of gene expression in multicellular organisms, microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for growth and development. While a plethora of factors involved in their biogenesis and action in Arabidopsis thaliana has been described, these processes and their fine-tuning are not fully understood. Here, we used plants expressing an artificial miRNA target mimic (MIM) to screen for negative regulators of miR156. We identified a new mutant allele of the F-box gene HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS; At3G61590), hws-5, as a suppressor of the MIM156-induced developmental and molecular phenotypes...
November 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109687/low-intensity-ultrasound-induced-anti-inflammatory-effects-are-mediated-by-several-new-mechanisms-including-gene-induction-immunosuppressor-cell-promotion-and-enhancement-of-exosome-biogenesis-and-docking
#9
Qian Yang, Gayani K Nanayakkara, Charles Drummer, Yu Sun, Candice Johnson, Ramon Cueto, Hangfei Fu, Ying Shao, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Peng Tang, Li-Wen Liu, Shuping Ge, Xiao-Dong Zhou, Mohsin Khan, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Background: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) was shown to be beneficial in mitigating inflammation and facilitating tissue repair in various pathologies. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS allows to optimize this technique as a therapy for the treatment of malignancies and aseptic inflammatory disorders. Methods: We conducted cutting-edge database mining approaches to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by LIUS. Results: Our data revealed following interesting findings: (1) LIUS anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by upregulating anti-inflammatory gene expression; (2) LIUS induces the upregulation of the markers and master regulators of immunosuppressor cells including MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells), MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), B1-B cells and Treg (regulatory T cells); (3) LIUS not only can be used as a therapeutic approach to deliver drugs packed in various structures such as nanobeads, nanospheres, polymer microspheres, and lipidosomes, but also can make use of natural membrane vesicles as small as exosomes derived from immunosuppressor cells as a novel mechanism to fulfill its anti-inflammatory effects; (4) LIUS upregulates the expression of extracellular vesicle/exosome biogenesis mediators and docking mediators; (5) Exosome-carried anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory microRNAs inhibit inflammation of target cells via multiple shared and specific pathways, suggesting exosome-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of LIUS feasible; and (6) LIUS-mediated physical effects on tissues may activate specific cellular sensors that activate downstream transcription factors and signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063445/il-17-exerts-anti-apoptotic-effect-via-mir-155-5p-downregulation-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#10
Dominika Ksiazek-Winiarek, Piotr Szpakowski, Malgorzata Turniak, Janusz Szemraj, Andrzej Glabinski
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease, affecting mostly young adults and resulting in progressive disability. It is a multifactorial disorder, with important involvement of both cellular and epigenetic components. Among the epigenetic factors, microRNAs are currently intensively investigated in the context of multiple sclerosis. It has been shown that their biogenesis and function may be regulated by various cytokines. IL-17, a hallmark cytokine of Th17 cells, has been thought to function predominantly as a pro-inflammatory factor, leading to increased disease symptoms...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042235/splicing-factors-as-regulators-of-mirna-biogenesis-links-to-human-disease
#11
REVIEW
Madara Ratnadiwakara, Monika Mohenska, Minna-Liisa Änkö
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by fine-tuning mRNA levels and translation during development and in adult tissues. miRNAs are transcribed as parts of longer precursors that undergo multiple processing steps before the mature miRNAs reach their target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. In addition to Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer that are the essential components of the miRNA processing pathway, a range of other RNA binding proteins have recently been implicated in miRNA biogenesis...
October 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020972/sumo1-modification-of-khsrp-regulates-tumorigenesis-by-preventing-the-tl-g-rich-mirna-biogenesis
#12
Haihua Yuan, Rong Deng, Xian Zhao, Ran Chen, Guofang Hou, Hailong Zhang, Yanli Wang, Ming Xu, Bin Jiang, Jianxiu Yu
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cancer. SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) is a reversible protein modifier. We recently found that SUMOylation of TARBP2 and DGCR8 is involved in the regulation of the miRNA pathway. KHSRP is a single stranded nucleic acid binding protein with roles in transcription and mRNA decay, and it is also a component of the Drosha-DGCR8 complex promoting the miRNA biogenesis...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018797/micrornas-make-the-call-in-cancer-personalized-medicine
#13
REVIEW
Simone Detassis, Margherita Grasso, Valerio Del Vescovo, Michela A Denti
Since their discovery and the advent of RNA interference, microRNAs have drawn enormous attention because of their ubiquitous involvement in cellular pathways from life to death, from metabolism to communication. It is also widely accepted that they possess an undeniable role in cancer both as tumor suppressors and tumor promoters modulating cell proliferation and migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Moreover, microRNAs can even affect the tumor surrounding environment influencing angiogenesis and immune system activation and recruitment...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942151/molecular-characterization-of-mitochondrial-zucchini-and-its-relation-to-nuage-pirna-pathway-components-in-bombyx-mori-ovary-derived-bmn4-cells
#14
Anandrao Ashok Patil, Tsuneyuki Tatsuke, Hiroaki Mon, Jae Man Lee, Daisuke Morokuma, Masato Hino, Takahiro Kusakabe
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that associate with PIWI subfamily proteins, which play an important role in transposon silencing in animal germ cell. The piRNAs biogenesis is divided into two major pathways: primary and secondary, and both pathways are independent of double-stranded RNA-processing enzyme Dicer, which processes the single-stranded RNA transcripts in microRNA (miRNA) and siRNA (small interfering RNA) pathway. Primary piRNAs are processed from long non-coding RNA precursors transcribed from piRNA clusters...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939211/mirnas-nanomachines-that-micromanage-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Shilpy Sharma, Abraham B Mathew, Jeetender Chugh
Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a combination of heterogeneous complex metabolic disorders that are associated with episodes of hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance occurring as a result of defects in insulin secretion, action, or both. The prevalence of DM is increasing at an alarming rate, and there exists a need to develop better therapeutics and prognostic markers for earlier detection and diagnosis. In this review, after giving a brief introduction of diabetes mellitus and microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway, we first describe various in vitro and animal model systems that have been developed to study diabetes...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939056/ectopic-overexpression-of-mcpip1-impairs-adipogenesis-by-modulating-micrornas
#16
Magdalena Losko, Agata Lichawska-Cieslar, Maria Kulecka, Agnieszka Paziewska, Izabela Rumienczyk, Michal Mikula, Jolanta Jura
Adipogenesis is a process of preadipocyte differentiation that requires action of numerous factors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) possesses the N-terminus of the PilT protein (PilT N-terminus or PIN domain) that has RNase properties. This protein degrades transcripts coding for inflammation and differentiation - related proteins. Moreover, MCPIP1 is a broad suppressor of the miRNA biogenesis. We previously found that MCPIP1 degrades transcript encoding CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta (C/EBPβ) and influences adipogenesis...
September 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886711/structure-and-functional-impact-of-seed-region-variant-in-mir-499-gene-family-in-bronchial-asthma
#17
Eman A Toraih, Mohammad H Hussein, Essam Al Ageeli, Eman Riad, Nouran B AbdAllah, Ghada M Helal, Manal S Fawzy
BACKGROUND: Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) have been evolved to master numerous cellular processes. Genetic variants within microRNA seed region might influence microRNA biogenesis and function. The study aimed at determining the role of microRNA-499 (MIR-499) gene family polymorphism as a marker for susceptibility and progression of bronchial asthma and to analyze the structural and functional impact of rs3746444 within the seed region. METHODS: Genotyping for 192 participants (96 patients and 96 controls) in the discovery phase and 319 subjects (115 patients and 204 controls) in the replication phase was performed via Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction technology...
September 8, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886127/genome-wide-mirna-response-to-anacardic-acid-in-breast-cancer-cells
#18
David J Schultz, Penn Muluhngwi, Negin Alizadeh-Rad, Madelyn A Green, Eric C Rouchka, Sabine J Waigel, Carolyn M Klinge
MicroRNAs are biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Anacardic acid (AnAc) is a dietary phenolic lipid that inhibits both MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell proliferation with IC50s of 13.5 and 35 μM, respectively. To identify potential mediators of AnAc action in breast cancer, we profiled the genome-wide microRNA transcriptome (microRNAome) in these two cell lines altered by the AnAc 24:1n5 congener. Whole genome expression profiling (RNA-seq) and subsequent network analysis in MetaCore Gene Ontology (GO) algorithm was used to characterize the biological pathways altered by AnAc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882225/animal-models-to-study-microrna-function
#19
Arpita S Pal, Andrea L Kasinski
The discovery of the microRNAs, lin-4 and let-7 as critical mediators of normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and their conservation throughout evolution has spearheaded research toward identifying novel roles of microRNAs in other cellular processes. To accurately elucidate these fundamental functions, especially in the context of an intact organism, various microRNA transgenic models have been generated and evaluated. Transgenic C. elegans (worms), Drosophila melanogaster (flies), Danio rerio (zebrafish), and Mus musculus (mouse) have contributed immensely toward uncovering the roles of multiple microRNAs in cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, pathways that are severely altered in human diseases such as cancer...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880477/exosomes-as-new-players-in-metabolic-organ-cross-talk
#20
REVIEW
Claudiane Guay, Romano Regazzi
Blood glucose homeostasis requires a constant communication between insulin-secreting and insulin-sensitive cells. A wide variety of circulating factors, including hormones, cytokines and chemokines work together to orchestrate the systemic response of metabolic organs to changes in the nutritional state. Failure in the coordination between these organs can lead to a rise in blood glucose levels and to the appearance of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are produced via the endosomal pathway and are released from the cells upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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