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microRNA biogenesis pathway

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114080/a-role-for-the-f-box-protein-hawaiian-skirt-in-plant-microrna-function
#1
Patricia L M Lang, Michael D Christie, Ezgi S Dogan, Rebecca Schwab, Jörg Hagmann, Anna-Lena Van de Weyer, Detlef Weigel, Emanuele Scacchi
As regulators of gene expression in multicellular organisms, microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for growth and development. While a plethora of factors involved in their biogenesis and action in Arabidopsis thaliana has been described, these processes and their fine-tuning are not fully understood. Here, we used plants expressing an artificial miRNA target mimic (MIM) to screen for negative regulators of miR156. We identified a new mutant allele of the F-box gene HAWAIIAN SKIRT (HWS; At3G61590), hws-5, as a suppressor of the MIM156-induced developmental and molecular phenotypes...
November 7, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109687/low-intensity-ultrasound-induced-anti-inflammatory-effects-are-mediated-by-several-new-mechanisms-including-gene-induction-immunosuppressor-cell-promotion-and-enhancement-of-exosome-biogenesis-and-docking
#2
Qian Yang, Gayani K Nanayakkara, Charles Drummer, Yu Sun, Candice Johnson, Ramon Cueto, Hangfei Fu, Ying Shao, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Peng Tang, Li-Wen Liu, Shuping Ge, Xiao-Dong Zhou, Mohsin Khan, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Background: Low-intensity ultrasound (LIUS) was shown to be beneficial in mitigating inflammation and facilitating tissue repair in various pathologies. Determination of the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of LIUS allows to optimize this technique as a therapy for the treatment of malignancies and aseptic inflammatory disorders. Methods: We conducted cutting-edge database mining approaches to determine the anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by LIUS. Results: Our data revealed following interesting findings: (1) LIUS anti-inflammatory effects are mediated by upregulating anti-inflammatory gene expression; (2) LIUS induces the upregulation of the markers and master regulators of immunosuppressor cells including MDSCs (myeloid-derived suppressor cells), MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells), B1-B cells and Treg (regulatory T cells); (3) LIUS not only can be used as a therapeutic approach to deliver drugs packed in various structures such as nanobeads, nanospheres, polymer microspheres, and lipidosomes, but also can make use of natural membrane vesicles as small as exosomes derived from immunosuppressor cells as a novel mechanism to fulfill its anti-inflammatory effects; (4) LIUS upregulates the expression of extracellular vesicle/exosome biogenesis mediators and docking mediators; (5) Exosome-carried anti-inflammatory cytokines and anti-inflammatory microRNAs inhibit inflammation of target cells via multiple shared and specific pathways, suggesting exosome-mediated anti-inflammatory effect of LIUS feasible; and (6) LIUS-mediated physical effects on tissues may activate specific cellular sensors that activate downstream transcription factors and signaling pathways...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063445/il-17-exerts-anti-apoptotic-effect-via-mir-155-5p-downregulation-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#3
Dominika Ksiazek-Winiarek, Piotr Szpakowski, Malgorzata Turniak, Janusz Szemraj, Andrzej Glabinski
Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune, neurodegenerative disease, affecting mostly young adults and resulting in progressive disability. It is a multifactorial disorder, with important involvement of both cellular and epigenetic components. Among the epigenetic factors, microRNAs are currently intensively investigated in the context of multiple sclerosis. It has been shown that their biogenesis and function may be regulated by various cytokines. IL-17, a hallmark cytokine of Th17 cells, has been thought to function predominantly as a pro-inflammatory factor, leading to increased disease symptoms...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042235/splicing-factors-as-regulators-of-mirna-biogenesis-links-to-human-disease
#4
REVIEW
Madara Ratnadiwakara, Monika Mohenska, Minna-Liisa Änkö
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally by fine-tuning mRNA levels and translation during development and in adult tissues. miRNAs are transcribed as parts of longer precursors that undergo multiple processing steps before the mature miRNAs reach their target mRNAs in the cytoplasm. In addition to Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer that are the essential components of the miRNA processing pathway, a range of other RNA binding proteins have recently been implicated in miRNA biogenesis...
October 19, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020972/sumo1-modification-of-khsrp-regulates-tumorigenesis-by-preventing-the-tl-g-rich-mirna-biogenesis
#5
Haihua Yuan, Rong Deng, Xian Zhao, Ran Chen, Guofang Hou, Hailong Zhang, Yanli Wang, Ming Xu, Bin Jiang, Jianxiu Yu
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators involved in diverse physiological and pathological processes including cancer. SUMO (small ubiquitin-like modifier) is a reversible protein modifier. We recently found that SUMOylation of TARBP2 and DGCR8 is involved in the regulation of the miRNA pathway. KHSRP is a single stranded nucleic acid binding protein with roles in transcription and mRNA decay, and it is also a component of the Drosha-DGCR8 complex promoting the miRNA biogenesis...
October 11, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018797/micrornas-make-the-call-in-cancer-personalized-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Simone Detassis, Margherita Grasso, Valerio Del Vescovo, Michela A Denti
Since their discovery and the advent of RNA interference, microRNAs have drawn enormous attention because of their ubiquitous involvement in cellular pathways from life to death, from metabolism to communication. It is also widely accepted that they possess an undeniable role in cancer both as tumor suppressors and tumor promoters modulating cell proliferation and migration, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and tumor cell invasion and metastasis. Moreover, microRNAs can even affect the tumor surrounding environment influencing angiogenesis and immune system activation and recruitment...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942151/molecular-characterization-of-mitochondrial-zucchini-and-its-relation-to-nuage-pirna-pathway-components-in-bombyx-mori-ovary-derived-bmn4-cells
#7
Anandrao Ashok Patil, Tsuneyuki Tatsuke, Hiroaki Mon, Jae Man Lee, Daisuke Morokuma, Masato Hino, Takahiro Kusakabe
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that associate with PIWI subfamily proteins, which play an important role in transposon silencing in animal germ cell. The piRNAs biogenesis is divided into two major pathways: primary and secondary, and both pathways are independent of double-stranded RNA-processing enzyme Dicer, which processes the single-stranded RNA transcripts in microRNA (miRNA) and siRNA (small interfering RNA) pathway. Primary piRNAs are processed from long non-coding RNA precursors transcribed from piRNA clusters...
November 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939211/mirnas-nanomachines-that-micromanage-the-pathophysiology-of-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Shilpy Sharma, Abraham B Mathew, Jeetender Chugh
Diabetes mellitus (DM) refers to a combination of heterogeneous complex metabolic disorders that are associated with episodes of hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance occurring as a result of defects in insulin secretion, action, or both. The prevalence of DM is increasing at an alarming rate, and there exists a need to develop better therapeutics and prognostic markers for earlier detection and diagnosis. In this review, after giving a brief introduction of diabetes mellitus and microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway, we first describe various in vitro and animal model systems that have been developed to study diabetes...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939056/ectopic-overexpression-of-mcpip1-impairs-adipogenesis-by-modulating-micrornas
#9
Magdalena Losko, Agata Lichawska-Cieslar, Maria Kulecka, Agnieszka Paziewska, Izabela Rumienczyk, Michal Mikula, Jolanta Jura
Adipogenesis is a process of preadipocyte differentiation that requires action of numerous factors. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1-induced protein 1 (MCPIP1) possesses the N-terminus of the PilT protein (PilT N-terminus or PIN domain) that has RNase properties. This protein degrades transcripts coding for inflammation and differentiation - related proteins. Moreover, MCPIP1 is a broad suppressor of the miRNA biogenesis. We previously found that MCPIP1 degrades transcript encoding CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta (C/EBPβ) and influences adipogenesis...
September 20, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886711/structure-and-functional-impact-of-seed-region-variant-in-mir-499-gene-family-in-bronchial-asthma
#10
Eman A Toraih, Mohammad H Hussein, Essam Al Ageeli, Eman Riad, Nouran B AbdAllah, Ghada M Helal, Manal S Fawzy
BACKGROUND: Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) have been evolved to master numerous cellular processes. Genetic variants within microRNA seed region might influence microRNA biogenesis and function. The study aimed at determining the role of microRNA-499 (MIR-499) gene family polymorphism as a marker for susceptibility and progression of bronchial asthma and to analyze the structural and functional impact of rs3746444 within the seed region. METHODS: Genotyping for 192 participants (96 patients and 96 controls) in the discovery phase and 319 subjects (115 patients and 204 controls) in the replication phase was performed via Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction technology...
September 8, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886127/genome-wide-mirna-response-to-anacardic-acid-in-breast-cancer-cells
#11
David J Schultz, Penn Muluhngwi, Negin Alizadeh-Rad, Madelyn A Green, Eric C Rouchka, Sabine J Waigel, Carolyn M Klinge
MicroRNAs are biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets for breast cancer. Anacardic acid (AnAc) is a dietary phenolic lipid that inhibits both MCF-7 estrogen receptor α (ERα) positive and MDA-MB-231 triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell proliferation with IC50s of 13.5 and 35 μM, respectively. To identify potential mediators of AnAc action in breast cancer, we profiled the genome-wide microRNA transcriptome (microRNAome) in these two cell lines altered by the AnAc 24:1n5 congener. Whole genome expression profiling (RNA-seq) and subsequent network analysis in MetaCore Gene Ontology (GO) algorithm was used to characterize the biological pathways altered by AnAc...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882225/animal-models-to-study-microrna-function
#12
Arpita S Pal, Andrea L Kasinski
The discovery of the microRNAs, lin-4 and let-7 as critical mediators of normal development in Caenorhabditis elegans and their conservation throughout evolution has spearheaded research toward identifying novel roles of microRNAs in other cellular processes. To accurately elucidate these fundamental functions, especially in the context of an intact organism, various microRNA transgenic models have been generated and evaluated. Transgenic C. elegans (worms), Drosophila melanogaster (flies), Danio rerio (zebrafish), and Mus musculus (mouse) have contributed immensely toward uncovering the roles of multiple microRNAs in cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, pathways that are severely altered in human diseases such as cancer...
2017: Advances in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880477/exosomes-as-new-players-in-metabolic-organ-cross-talk
#13
REVIEW
Claudiane Guay, Romano Regazzi
Blood glucose homeostasis requires a constant communication between insulin-secreting and insulin-sensitive cells. A wide variety of circulating factors, including hormones, cytokines and chemokines work together to orchestrate the systemic response of metabolic organs to changes in the nutritional state. Failure in the coordination between these organs can lead to a rise in blood glucose levels and to the appearance of metabolic disorders such as diabetes mellitus. Exosomes are small extracellular vesicles (EVs) that are produced via the endosomal pathway and are released from the cells upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane...
September 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835265/conservation-and-divergence-of-small-rna-pathways-and-micrornas-in-land-plants
#14
Chenjiang You, Jie Cui, Hui Wang, Xinping Qi, Li-Yaung Kuo, Hong Ma, Lei Gao, Beixin Mo, Xuemei Chen
BACKGROUND: As key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes, small RNAs have been characterized in many seed plants, and pathways for their biogenesis, degradation, and action have been defined in model angiosperms. However, both small RNAs themselves and small RNA pathways are not well characterized in other land plants such as lycophytes and ferns, preventing a comprehensive evolutionary perspective on small RNAs in land plants. RESULTS: Using 25 representatives from major lineages of lycophytes and ferns, most of which lack sequenced genomes, we characterized small RNAs and small RNA pathways in these plants...
August 23, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829792/effect-of-endurance-exercise-on-micrornas-in-myositis-skeletal-muscle-a-randomized-controlled-study
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Jessica F Boehler, Marshall W Hogarth, Matthew D Barberio, James S Novak, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Kristy J Brown, Li Alemo Munters, Ingela Loell, Yi-Wen Chen, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Helene Alexanderson, Ingrid E Lundberg, Kanneboyina Nagaraju
OBJECTIVE: To identify changes in skeletal muscle microRNA expression after endurance exercise and associate the identified microRNAs with mRNA and protein expression to disease-specific pathways in polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) patients. METHODS: Following a parallel clinical trial design, patients with probable PM or DM, exercising less than once a week, and on stable medication for at least one month were randomized into two groups at Karolinska University Hospital: a 12-week endurance exercise group (n = 12) or a non-exercised control group (n = 11)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811264/protein-coding-genes-as-hosts-for-noncoding-rna-expression
#16
REVIEW
Vincent Boivin, Gabrielle Deschamps-Francoeur, Michelle S Scott
With the emergence of high-throughput sequence characterization methods and the subsequent improvements in gene annotations, it is becoming increasingly clear that a large proportion of eukaryotic protein-coding genes (as many as 50% in human) serve as host genes for non-coding RNA genes. Amongst the most extensively characterized embedded non-coding RNA genes, small nucleolar RNAs and microRNAs represent abundant families. Encoded individually or clustered, in sense or antisense orientation with respect to their host and independently expressed or dependent on host expression, the genomic characteristics of embedded genes determine their biogenesis and the extent of their relationship with their host gene...
August 12, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769895/micrornas-as-important-players-in-host-adenovirus-interactions
#17
REVIEW
Diogo Piedade, José M Azevedo-Pereira
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are powerful regulators of gene expression and fine-tuning genes in all tissues. Cellular miRNAs can control 100s of biologic processes (e.g., morphogenesis of embryonic structures, differentiation of tissue-specific cells, and metabolic control in specific cell types) and have been involved in the regulation of nearly all cellular pathways. Inherently to their involvement in different physiologic processes, miRNAs deregulation has been associated with several diseases. Moreover, several viruses have been described as either, avoid and block cellular miRNAs or synthesize their own miRNA to facilitate infection and pathogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740544/interleukin-32%C3%AE-inhibits-endothelial-inflammation-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-activation-and-atherosclerosis-by-upregulating-timp3-and-reck-through-suppressing-microrna-205-biogenesis
#18
Dong Ju Son, Yu Yeon Jung, Young Sik Seo, Heonyong Park, Dong Hun Lee, Sanghyeon Kim, Yoon-Seok Roh, Sang Bae Han, Do Young Yoon, Jin Tae Hong
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a multifaceted cytokine that promotes inflammation and regulates vascular endothelial cell behavior. Although some IL-32 isoforms have been reported to contribute to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, the functional role of IL-32α in vascular inflammation and atherogenesis has not been studied. Methods: IL-32α function was assessed in cells with transient IL-32α overexpression or treated with recombinant human IL-32α by western blotting and mRNA expression analysis. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and migration was examined by BrdU incorporation and wound healing assays, respectively...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738828/unraveling-multifaceted-contributions-of-small-regulatory-rnas-to-photomorphogenic-development-in-arabidopsis
#19
Meng-Chun Lin, Huang-Lung Tsai, Sim-Lin Lim, Shih-Tong Jeng, Shu-Hsing Wu
BACKGROUND: Post-transcriptional control of gene expression mediated by small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) is vital for growth and development of diverse organisms. The biogenesis of sRNAs is regulated by both positive and negative regulators known to regulate photomorphogenic development. Two microRNAs (miRNAs), miR157 and miR319, also regulate photomorphogenesis. However, genome-wide profiling of sRNAs and their regulation of target genes during photomorphogenesis has been missing. We provide a comprehensive view of sRNA-controlled gene expression in this developmental process...
July 24, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729028/micrornas-as-key-effectors-in-the-p53-network
#20
Frauke Goeman, Sabrina Strano, Giovanni Blandino
The guardian of the genome p53 is embedded in a fine-spun network of MicroRNAs. p53 is able to activate or repress directly the transcription of MicroRNAs that are participating in the tumor-suppressive mission of p53. On the other hand, the expression of p53 is under tight control of MicroRNAs that are either targeting directly p53 or factors that are modifying its protein level or activity. Although the most important function of p53 is suggested to be transcriptional regulation, there are several nontranscriptional functions described...
2017: International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology
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