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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789373/voltage-gated-calcium-influx-modifies-cholinergic-inhibition-of-inner-hair-cells-in-the-immature-rat-cochlea
#1
Stephen Zachary, Nathaniel Nowak, Pankhuri Vyas, Luke Bonanni, Paul Albert Fuchs
Until postnatal day 12, inner hair cells of the rat cochlea are invested with both afferent and efferent synaptic connections. With the onset of hearing at P12, the efferent synapses disappear, and afferent (ribbon) synapses operate with greater efficiency. This change coincides with increased expression of voltage-gated potassium channels, the loss of calcium-dependent electrogenesis, and the onset of graded receptor potentials driven by sound. The transient efferent synapses include near-membrane postsynaptic cisterns thought to regulate calcium influx through the hair cell's α9α10-nAChR that activates small conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) channels...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782441/how-do-hearing-aid-owners-respond-to-hearing-aid-problems
#2
Rebecca J Bennett, Ariane Laplante-Lévesque, Robert H Eikelboom
BACKGROUND: Although hearing aids can improve hearing and communication, problems that arise following the acquisition of hearing aids can result in their disuse. This study aimed to gather perspectives of hearing aid owners and hearing health care clinicians about how hearing aid owners respond to problems that arise following hearing aid fitting, and then use these perspectives to generate a conceptual framework to better understand these responses. METHODS: Seventeen hearing aid owners and 21 hearing health care clinicians generated, sorted, and rated statements regarding how hearing aid owners respond to problems associated with hearing aid use...
May 18, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780970/three-challenges-for-future-research-on-cochlear-implants
#3
REVIEW
David B Pisoni, William G Kronenberger, Michael S Harris, Aaron C Moberly
Cochlear implants (CIs) often work very well for many children and adults with profound sensorineural (SNHL) hearing loss. Unfortunately, while many CI patients display substantial benefits in recognizing speech and understanding spoken language following cochlear implantation, a large number of patients achieve poor outcomes. Understanding and explaining the reasons for poor outcomes following implantation is a very challenging research problem that has received little attention despite the pressing clinical significance...
December 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775147/intraoperative-cochlear-nerve-mapping-with-the-mobile-cochlear-nerve-compound-action-potential-tracer-in-vestibular-schwannoma-surgery
#4
Nobuyuki Watanabe, Takuya Ishii, Kazuhiko Fujitsu, Shogo Kaku, Teruo Ichikawa, Kosuke Miyahara, Tomu Okada, Shin Tanino, Yasuhiro Uriu, Yuichi Murayama
OBJECTIVE The authors describe the usefulness and limitations of the cochlear nerve compound action potential (CNAP) mobile tracer (MCT) that they developed to aid in cochlear nerve mapping during vestibular schwannoma surgery (VSS) for hearing preservation. METHODS This MCT device requires no more than 2 seconds for stable placement on the nerve to obtain the CNAP and thus is able to trace the cochlear nerve instantaneously. Simultaneous bipolar and monopolar recording is possible. The authors present the outcomes of 18 consecutive patients who underwent preoperative useful hearing (defined as class I or II of the Gardner-Robertson classification system) and underwent hearing-preservation VSS with the use of the MCT...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773946/utility-of-the-care-dependency-scale-in-predicting-care-needs-and-health-risks-of-elderly-patients-admitted-to-a-geriatric-unit-a-cross-sectional-study-of-200-consecutive-patients
#5
Halina Doroszkiewicz, Matylda Sierakowska, Marta Muszalik
Objective: The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of the Polish version of the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) in predicting care needs and health risks of elderly patients admitted to a geriatric unit. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 200 geriatric patients aged ≥60 years, chronologically admitted to a geriatrics unit in Poland. The study was carried out using the Polish version of the CDS questionnaire to evaluate biopsychosocial needs and the level of care dependency...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761033/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-congenital-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#6
Divya A Chari, Dylan K Chan
Purpose of Review: The aim of this report is to review current literature regarding the work-up and management of congenital sensorineural hearing loss. Recent Findings: Diagnostic evaluation of a newborn with sensorineural hearing loss begins with a complete audiologic evaluation and comprehensive history and physical exam. This review presents a diagnostic algorithm for the work-up of congenital hearing loss, focusing on the three following modalities: cytomegalovirus testing, genetic evaluation, and imaging...
December 2017: Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753452/exploring-the-acceptability-of-using-low-friction-bedding-for-patients-with-burns-qualitative-results-from-the-silkie-study
#7
K Whale, J C Ingram, S George, F Spickett-Jones, A Sack, A E Young
BACKGROUND: Skin grafts following deep burns are needed to ensure healing. Grafts that fail and require re-grafting cause significant distress to patients and additional costs for the NHS. Shearing, which leads to graft loss, may be reduced through the use of low-friction bedding. A feasibility study was conducted to assess proof of concept for the use of low-friction bedding for patients with burns. Patient, parent and staff views on the acceptability of this material were explored through semi-structured interviews...
May 9, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749042/miscommunication-in-doctor-patient-communication
#8
Rose McCabe, Patrick G T Healey
The effectiveness of medical treatment depends on the quality of the patient-clinician relationship. It has been proposed that this depends on the extent to which the patient and clinician build a shared understanding of illness and treatment. Here, we use the tools of conversation analysis (CA) to explore this idea in the context of psychiatric consultations. The CA "repair" framework provides an analysis of the processes people use to deal with problems in speaking, hearing, and understanding. These problems are especially critical in the treatment of psychosis where patients and health care professionals need to communicate about the disputed meaning of hallucinations and delusion...
April 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749039/repair-the-interface-between-interaction-and-cognition
#9
Saul Albert, J P de Ruiter
Conversational repair is the process people use to detect and resolve problems of speaking, hearing, and understanding. Through repair, participants in social interaction display how they establish and maintain communication and mutual understanding. We argue that repair provides a crucial theoretical interface for research between diverse approaches to studying human interaction. We provide an overview of conversation analytic findings about repair in order to encourage further cross-disciplinary research involving both detailed inductive inquiry and more theory-driven experimental approaches...
April 2018: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748054/functional-and-anatomical-outcome-of-inside-out-technique-for-cholesteatoma-surgery
#10
Priyanka Chamoli, Chandra Veer Singh, Sheetal Radia, Anand K Shah
BACKGROUND: To study the efficacy of inside-out technique in completely eradicating the cholesteatoma from middle ear and mastoid, preservation of hearing & and quality of life post mastoidectomy with regards to recurrent discharge, wax, granulations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Non-randomized, prospective, observational study performed at the Department of ENT in our hospital. In the study we included 100 patients presenting with chronic suppurative otitis media with cholesteatoma, they underwent inside out mastoidectomy and were followed up till the end of the study to evaluate the efficacy of inside out mastoidectomy in eradicating the disease from the middle ear cleft...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747961/the-protective-effect-of-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-treatment-against-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#11
Ahmet Mutlu, Fatma Ceyda Akin Ocal, Seyra Erbek, Levent Ozluoglu
OBJECTIVE: NIHL is a common problem, and steroids are the most effective treatment option. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of the synthetic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) analogues, which induce endogenous steroid secretion, against noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and to compare their effectiveness with that of steroid treatment. METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into four subgroups as follows: group 1 (n=6) control, group 2 (n=6) saline, group 3 (n=6) dexamethasone (2mg/kg/day intramuscularly [IM]), group 4 (n=6) ACTH analogue (0,4mg/kg/day IM), respectively...
May 7, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744729/supra-threshold-hearing-and-fluctuation-profiles-implications-for-sensorineural-and-hidden-hearing-loss
#12
REVIEW
Laurel H Carney
An important topic in contemporary auditory science is supra-threshold hearing. Difficulty hearing at conversational speech levels in background noise has long been recognized as a problem of sensorineural hearing loss, including that associated with aging (presbyacusis). Such difficulty in listeners with normal thresholds has received more attention recently, especially associated with descriptions of synaptopathy, the loss of auditory nerve (AN) fibers as a result of noise exposure or aging. Synaptopathy has been reported to cause a disproportionate loss of low- and medium-spontaneous rate (L/MSR) AN fibers...
May 9, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729446/hearing-loss-in-autoimmune-disorders-prevalence-and-therapeutic-options
#13
REVIEW
Patrizia Mancini, Francesca Atturo, Alessia Di Mario, Portanova Ginevra, Massimo Ralli, Armando De Virgilio, Marco de Vincentiis, Antonio Greco
The objective of this study was to review our current knowledge relative to the correlation between sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and autoimmune diseases, focusing on the prevalence of hearing loss in different pathologies and possible therapeutic approaches. A review of the literature on hearing loss in different forms of autoimmune disease has been carried out, with emphasis on incidence and prevalence of SNHL. Therapeutic protocols have been assessed including both conservative medical and rehabilitative methods...
May 2, 2018: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728185/surgical-timing-for-bilateral-simultaneous-cochlear-implants-when-is-best
#14
Sebastiano Franchella, Roberto Bovo, Luigia Bandolin, Flavia Gheller, Silvia Montino, Daniele Borsetto, Sara Ghiselli, Alessandro Martini
INTRODUCTION: Hearing loss is considered the most common congenital disease and the prevalence of neonatal deafness can be estimated between 1 and 2 cases per 1000 live births. Infant deafness must be diagnosed as early as possible and an effective therapeutic intervention needs to be carried out in order to avoid the serious consequences of hearing deprivation during the evolutionary period: alterations in the development of central auditory pathways and lack of language acquisition...
June 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723069/prosodic-and-segmental-aspects-of-nonword-repetition-in-4-to-6-year-old-children-who-are-deaf-and-hard-of-hearing-compared-to-controls-with-normal-hearing
#15
Simon Sundström, Ulrika Löfkvist, Björn Lyxell, Christina Samuelsson
Children who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH) are at an increased risk of speech and language deficits. Nonword repetition (NWR) is a potential predictor of problems with phonology, grammar and lexicon in DHH children. The aim of the present study was to examine repetition of prosodic features and segments in nonwords by DHH children compared to children with normal hearing (NH) and to relate NWR performance to measures of language ability and background variables. In this cross-sectional study, 14 Swedish-speaking children with mild-profound sensorineural hearing loss, aged 4-6 years, and 29 age-matched controls with NH and typical language development participated...
May 3, 2018: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720274/aerobic-bacteria-associated-with-chronic-suppurative-otitis-media-in-angola
#16
Fabian Uddén, Matuba Filipe, Åke Reimer, Maria Paul, Erika Matuschek, John Thegerström, Sven Hammerschmidt, Tuula Pelkonen, Kristian Riesbeck
BACKGROUND: Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is an important cause of hearing loss in children and constitutes a serious health problem globally with a strong association to resource-limited living conditions. Topical antibiotics combined with aural toilet is the first-hand treatment for CSOM but antimicrobial resistance and limited availability to antibiotics are obstacles in some areas. The goal of this study was to define aerobic pathogens associated with CSOM in Angola with the overall aim to provide a background for local treatment recommendations...
May 3, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710271/children-s-acoustic-and-linguistic-adaptations-to-peers-with-hearing-impairment
#17
Sonia Granlund, Valerie Hazan, Merle Mahon
Purpose: This study aims to examine the clear speaking strategies used by older children when interacting with a peer with hearing loss, focusing on both acoustic and linguistic adaptations in speech. Method: The Grid task, a problem-solving task developed to elicit spontaneous interactive speech, was used to obtain a range of global acoustic and linguistic measures. Eighteen 9- to 14-year-old children with normal hearing (NH) performed the task in pairs, once with a friend with NH and once with a friend with a hearing impairment (HI)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710116/baseline-cognition-assessment-among-patients-with-oropharyngeal-cancer-using-promis-and-nih-toolbox
#18
Parul Sinha, Alex W K Wong, Dorina Kallogjeri, Jay F Piccirillo
Importance: Cognitive dysfunction (CD) is recognized by the American Cancer Society as a treatment effect in head and neck cancer, but the extent of this problem at baseline in oropharyngeal cancer (OPC), the most common subsite in current practice, to our knowledge has never been studied. Objective: To assess the baseline cognition of patients with OPC using National Institutes of Health (NIH)-sponsored instruments of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) and NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB)...
April 18, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708487/referral-and-diagnosis-of-developmental-auditory-processing-disorder-in-a-large-united-states-hospital-based-audiology-service
#19
David R Moore, Stephanie L Sieswerda, Maureen M Grainger, Alexandra Bowling, Nicholette Smith, Audrey Perdew, Susan Eichert, Sandra Alston, Lisa W Hilbert, Lynn Summers, Li Lin, Lisa L Hunter
BACKGROUND: Children referred to audiology services with otherwise unexplained academic, listening, attention, language, or other difficulties are often found to be audiometrically normal. Some of these children receive further evaluation for auditory processing disorder (APD), a controversial construct that assumes neural processing problems within the central auditory nervous system. This study focuses on the evaluation of APD and how it relates to diagnosis in one large pediatric audiology facility...
May 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708061/use-of-a-deep-recurrent-neural-network-to-reduce-wind-noise-effects-on-judged-speech-intelligibility-and-sound-quality
#20
Mahmoud Keshavarzi, Tobias Goehring, Justin Zakis, Richard E Turner, Brian C J Moore
Despite great advances in hearing-aid technology, users still experience problems with noise in windy environments. The potential benefits of using a deep recurrent neural network (RNN) for reducing wind noise were assessed. The RNN was trained using recordings of the output of the two microphones of a behind-the-ear hearing aid in response to male and female speech at various azimuths in the presence of noise produced by wind from various azimuths with a velocity of 3 m/s, using the "clean" speech as a reference...
January 2018: Trends in Hearing
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