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Nano tissue

Nancy M Lee, Cevat Erisken, Thomas Iskratsch, Michael Sheetz, William N Levine, Helen H Lu
Physiologically relevant models of wound healing are essential for understanding the biology of connective tissue repair and healing. They can also be used to identify key cellular processes and matrix characteristics critical for the design of soft tissue grafts. Modeling the various stages of repair post tendon injury, polymer meshes of varying fiber diameter (nano-1 (390 nm) < nano-2 (740 nm) < micro (1420 nm)) were produced. Alignment was also introduced in the nano-2 group to model matrix undergoing biological healing rather than scar formation...
October 12, 2016: Biomaterials
T Z Li, F Gong, B Y Zhang, J D Sun, T Zhang, L Kong, Y Y Xue, M Tang
Objective: To explore the acute toxic effect and the cumulative target organ of silver nitrate and nano-silver with two different particle diameters in rats. Methods: Thirty-six adult SD rats were divided into small particle size nano-silver group (SNS), large particle size nano-silver group (LNS), silver nitrate group (SN), and control group (C) according to the random number table, with 9 rats in each group. The rats of the four groups were respectively injected with 10 mg/mL nano-silver solution (particle diameter of 20 nm, prepared by saline) in silver dose of 30 mg/kg by tail vein for once, 10 mg/mL nano-silver solution (particle diameter of 100 nm, prepared by saline) in silver dose of 30 mg/kg, 1...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Bernard Omolo, Mingli Yang, Fang Yin Lo, Michael J Schell, Sharon Austin, Kellie Howard, Anup Madan, Timothy J Yeatman
BACKGROUND: The KRAS gene is mutated in about 40 % of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases, which has been clinically validated as a predictive mutational marker of intrinsic resistance to anti-EGFR inhibitor (EGFRi) therapy. Since nearly 60 % of patients with a wild type KRAS fail to respond to EGFRi combination therapies, there is a need to develop more reliable molecular signatures to better predict response. Here we address the challenge of adapting a gene expression signature predictive of RAS pathway activation, created using fresh frozen (FF) tissues, for use with more widely available formalin fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Genomics
N R Datta, S Krishnan, D E Speiser, E Neufeld, N Kuster, S Bodis, H Hofmann
Effective multimodal cancer management requires the optimal integration of diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. Radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy, alone or in combination, are integral parts of various cancer treatment protocols. Hyperthermia at 39-45°C is a potent radiosensitiser and has been shown to improve therapeutic outcomes in various tumours through its synergy with chemotherapy. Gene silencing approaches, using small interfering RNAs and microRNAs, are also being explored in clinical trials in oncology...
October 3, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Giuseppe Dionisio, Per Kryger, Tove Steenberg
Beauveria bassiana is an entomopathogenic fungus that grows both in vivo and in vitro. In vivo it can colonize live insect hosts, and tissue digestion occurs by secreted hydrolytic exoenzymes. It can also colonize dead insect tissue provided this is free from competing microorganisms. Depending on whether the host is alive or dead the expression (quality/quantity) of the exoenzymes may vary. We have grown several isolates of B. bassiana in shaking flasks for 120 h at 25 °C in order to evaluate the maximal exoenzyme production using two diet regimes...
October 14, 2016: Insects
Yanping Cheng, Masahiko Shibuya, Jenn McGregor, Gerard B Conditt, Geng-Hua Yi, Greg L Kaluza, William Gray, Manish Doshi, Prakash Sojitra, Juan F Granada
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological efficacy of a novel lower-dose (2.5 µg/mm2) encapsulated paclitaxel nanocrystal-coated balloon (Nano-PCB) in the familial hypercholesterolaemic swine (FHS) model of iliofemoral in-stent restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nano-PCB pharmacokinetics were assessed in 20 femoral arteries (domestic swine). Biological efficacy was evaluated in ten FHS: 14 days following bare metal stent implantation each stent segment was randomised to a clinically available PCB (IN...
October 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
Anji Anura, Debanjan Das, Mousumi Pal, Ranjan Rashmi Paul, Soumen Das, Jyotirmoy Chatterjee
Oral sub-mucous fibrosis (OSF), a potentially malignant disorder, exhibits extensive remodeling of extra-cellular matrix in the form of sub-epithelial fibrosis which is a possible sequel of assaults from different oral habit related irritants. It has been assumed that micro/nanobio-mechanical imbalance experienced in the oral mucosa due to fibrosis may be deterministic for malignant potential (7-13%) of this pathosis. Present study explores changes in mechanobiological attributes of sub-epithelial connective tissue of OSF and the normal counterpart...
September 20, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Stefano Perni, Polina Prokopovich
The efficient delivery of therapeutic molecules to the cartilage of joints is major obstacle in developing useful therapeutic interventions; hence, a targeted drug delivery system for this tissue is critical. We have overcome the challenge by developing a system that employs electrostatic attraction between the negatively charged constituents of cartilage and a positively charged polymer, Poly-beta amino esters (PBAEs). We have demonstrated cartilage uptake of Dexamethasone (DEX) covalently bound to the PBAE was doubled and retention in tissues prolonged compared to the equivalent dose of the commercial drug formulation...
October 13, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Elham Ajorlou, Ahmad Yari Khosroushahi
PURPOSE: The dawn of the state-of-the-art methods of cancer treatments, nano-based delivery systems, has dispensed with the mainstream chemotherapy for being inadequate in yielding productive results and the numerous reported side effects. The popularity of this complementary approach in the course of the last two decades has been primarily attributed to its capacity to elevate the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs as well as removing the impassable delivery barriers in solid tumors with the minimal damage to the normal tissues...
October 15, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Louis T Curtis, Hermann B Frieboes
Although extensive research effort and resources have been dedicated to the development of nanotherapeutics to treat cancer, few formulations have reached clinical application. A major reason is that the large number of parameters available to tune nanotherapy characteristics coupled with the variability in tumor tissue precludes evaluation of complex interactions through experimentation alone. In order to optimize the nanotechnology design and gain further insight into these phenomena, mathematical modeling and computational simulation have been applied to complement empirical work...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiao-Qing Wang, Zhou-Na Li, Qi-Ming Wang, Zhonggao Gao, Zhe-Hu Jin
Keloids were characterized by excessive growth of fibrous tissues, and shared several pathological characteristics with cancer. They did put physical and emotional stress on patients in that keloids could badly change appearance of patients. N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4HPR) showed cytotoxic activity on a wide variety of invasive-growth cells. Our work was aim to prepare N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide-loaded lipid microbubbles (4HPR-LM) combined with ultrasound for anti-keloid therapy. 4HPR-loaded liposomes (4HPR-L) were first prepared by film evaporation method, and then 4HPR-LM were manufactured by mixing 4HPR-L and perfluoropentane (PFP) with ultrasonic cavitation method...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Liposome Research
Ka Hei Chan, Rahul Krishnan, Michael Alexander, Jonathan Rt Lakey
The islets of Langerhans are endocrine tissue clusters that secrete hormones that regulate the body's glucose, carbohydrate and fat metabolism, the most important of which is insulin, a hormone secreted by β cells within the islets. In certain instances, a person's own immune system attacks and destroys them leading to the development of Type 1 diabetes (T1D), a lifelong condition that needs daily insulin administration to maintain health and prolong survival. Islet transplantation is a surgical procedure that has demonstrated the ability to normalize blood sugar levels for up to a few years, but the need for chronic immunosuppression relegates it to a last resort that is often only used sparingly, and in seriously-ill patients...
October 10, 2016: Cell Transplantation
Simona Ghiani, Martina Capozza, Claudia Cabella, Alessandra Coppo, Luigi Miragoli, Chiara Brioschi, Roberta Bonafè, Alessandro Maiocchi
The current study was performed to evaluate the in vivo efficiency of a new nano-sized contrast agent called paramagnetic Solid Lipid Nanoparticles, pSLNs, having promising relaxivity properties for Magnetic Resonance Imaging application. Good stability and stealth properties towards macrophage uptake have been demonstrated. An in vivo MRI study resulted in an improved signal enhancement in the tumor tissue particularly when folate as targeting ligand was used to decorate the nanoparticles surface. Afterwards, the biodistribution of pSLNs in several organs was investigated...
October 5, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Jiayin Fu, Changjiang Fan, Wei Shan Lai, Dongan Wang
The transport of nutrients and oxygen by vascular networks into engineered tissue constructs is critical to their successful integration into host tissues. Hydrogel has achieved some promising results as scaffolds for vascularization. However, the vascularization of hydrogel is still constrained by its inherent submicron- or nano-sized pores. In this study, two gelatin-based micro-cavitary gel (Gel-MCG) constructs with varying densities of micro-cavities were developed with a photocrosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (Gel-MA) precursor and porogenic gelatin microspheres (MS), and their functions in supporting vascularization within hydrogels were evaluated with endothelial progenitor outgrowth cells (EPOCs)...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Materials
Serena Mazzucchelli, Alessandro Ravelli, Fausto Gigli, Mauro Minoli, Fabio Corsi, Pierangela Ciuffreda, Roberta Ottria
This study describes the development of simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous analysis of doxorubicin and its major metabolite, doxorubicinol, in mouse plasma, urine and tissues. The calibration curves were linear over the range 5-250 ng/ml for doxorubicin and 1.25-25 ng/ml for doxorubicinol in plasma and tumor, over the range 25-500 ng/ml for doxorubicin and 1.25-25 ng/ml for doxorubicinol in liver and kidney, and over the range 25-1000 ng/ml for doxorubicin and doxorubicinol in urine...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Pengfan Gao, Yuqing Wu, Lixin Wu
The synergistic self-assembly of biomolecules with polyoxometalates (POMs) has recently been considered as an effective approach to construct nano-biomaterials with diverse structures and morphologies towards applications in drug delivery, controlled release, tissue engineering scaffolds, and biomineralization, due to the unique features of the clusters in addition to many well-known inorganic nanoparticles. This review presents an overview of recent work focusing on the noncovalent co-assembly of peptides and POMs as well as their biological applications...
October 5, 2016: Soft Matter
Fei Xiong, Jilai Tian, Ke Hu, Xiawen Zheng, Jianfei Sun, Caiyun Yan, Juan Yao, Lina Song, Yu Zhang, Ning Gu
Leukemia, unlike solid tumors, has no definite shape and spreads throughout the whole circulatory system, therefore the therapy of leukemia requires medication to stay longer in the circulatory system. Anisotropic nanoparticles, showing longer blood circulating life than that of isotropic nanoparticles reported in previous research, meet the demands of leukemia therapy. Based on this strategy, superparamagnetic anisotropic nano-assemblies (SANs) were fabricated and loaded with vincristine (VCR) to form VCR-SANs...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
M Golasik, M Herman, W Piekoszewski
Owing to the widespread use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in various food, household and cosmetic products and in industry, the number of publications concerned with the potential toxic effects and health risks related to this substance in both bulk and nano form is steadily increasing. On the other hand, there is also a third form of titanium, ionic, which is produced by the biodegradation of Ti alloy implants. Thus, the growing population of implant recipients should raise concerns about the impact of soluble Ti on human health...
September 29, 2016: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
Dilek Colak, Ayodele A Alaiya, Namik Kaya, Nzioka P Muiya, Olfat AlHarazi, Zakia Shinwari, Editha Andres, Nduna Dzimiri
AIMS: The disease pathways leading to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are still elusive. The present study investigated integrated global transcriptional and translational changes in human DCM for disease biomarker discovery. METHODS: We used identical myocardial tissues from five DCM hearts compared to five non-failing (NF) donor hearts for both transcriptome profiling using the ABI high-density oligonucleotide microarrays and proteome expression with One-Dimensional Nano Acquity liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry on the Synapt G2 system...
2016: PloS One
Omer Aydin, Eli Vlaisavljevich, Yasemin Yuksel Durmaz, Zhen Xu, Mohamed E H ElSayed
We have developed acoustically-activated nanodroplets (NDs) using an amphiphilic triblock copolymer, which self-assembles and encapsulates different perfluorocarbon including perfluoropentane (PFP) and perfluorohexane (PFH). Applying histotripsy waves (i.e. short, high pressure, ultrasound pulses) to solution of PFP- and PFH-NDs generated bubbles clouds at a significantly reduced acoustic pressure compared to the cavitation pressure observed for histotripsy treatment alone. In this report, we summarize the results of combining histotripsy waves at low frequency (345 and 500 kHz) with PFP-NDs and PFH-NDs on the ablation of PC-3 and C4-2B prostate cancer cells...
October 3, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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