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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897039/use-of-nanotechnology-for-improved-pharmacokinetics-and-activity-of-immunogenic-cell-death-inducers-used-in-cancer-chemotherapy
#1
Martyna Janicka, Jerzy Gubernator
Immunogenic cell death inducers (ICD inducers) are a diverse group of therapeutic molecules capable of eliciting an adaptive immune response against the antigens present on the surface of dying cancer cells. Most of these molecules suffer from low bioavailability, high toxicity and poor pharmacokinetics which limit their application. It is believed that nanotechnology, in particular nano-sized nanocarriers, can address most of the issues that limit the use of ICD inducers. Area covered: The mechanism of action of ICD inducers and their limitations is discussed...
November 29, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896772/characterization-of-a-protein-interactome-by-co-immunoprecipitation-and-shotgun-mass-spectrometry
#2
Giuseppina Maccarrone, Juan Jose Bonfiglio, Susana Silberstein, Christoph W Turck, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
Identifying the partners of a given protein (the interactome) may provide leads about the protein's function and the molecular mechanisms in which it is involved. One of the alternative strategies used to characterize protein interactomes consists of co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) followed by shotgun mass spectrometry. This enables the isolation and identification of a protein target in its native state and its interactome from cells or tissue lysates under physiological conditions. In this chapter, we describe a co-IP protocol for interactome studies that uses an antibody against a protein of interest bound to protein A/G plus agarose beads to isolate a protein complex...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890731/mechanisms-of-cdc42-mediated-rat-msc-differentiation-on-micro-nano-textured-topography
#3
Guangwen Li, Yanyan Song, Mengqi Shi, Yuanhong Du, Wei Wang, Yumei Zhang
Micro/nano-textured titanium surface topography promotes osteoblast differentiation and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. However, the response of rat bone mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to micro/nano-textured topography, and the underlying mechanisms of its effects, are not well understood. We hypothesized that cell division cycle 42 protein (Cdc42), a key member of the Rho GTPases family, may regulate rat MSCs morphology and osteogenic differentiation by micro/nano-textured topography, and that crosstalk between Cdc42 and Wnt/ β -catenin is the underlying mechanism...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888928/analytical-prediction-of-sub-surface-thermal-history-in-translucent-tissue-phantoms-during-plasmonic-photo-thermotherapy-pptt
#4
Purbarun Dhar, Anup Paul, Arunn Narasimhan, Sarit K Das
Knowledge of thermal history and/or distribution in biological tissues during laser based hyperthermia is essential to achieve necrosis of tumour/carcinoma cells. A semi-analytical model to predict sub-surface thermal distribution in translucent, soft, tissue mimics has been proposed. The model can accurately predict the spatio-temporal temperature variations along depth and the anomalous thermal behaviour in such media, viz. occurrence of sub-surface temperature peaks. Based on optical and thermal properties, the augmented temperature and shift of the peak positions in case of gold nanostructure mediated tissue phantom hyperthermia can be predicted...
December 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888094/nano-analyses-of-wear-particles-from-metal-on-metal-and-non-metal-on-metal-dual-modular-neck-hip-arthroplasty
#5
Zhidao Xia, Benjamin F Ricciardi, Zhao Liu, Christopher von Ruhland, Mike Ward, Alex Lord, Louise Hughes, Steven R Goldring, Edward Purdue, David Murray, Giorgio Perino
Increased failure rates due to metallic wear particle-associated adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR) is a significant clinical problem in resurfacing and total hip arthroplasty. Retrieved periprosthetic tissue of 53 cases with corrosion/conventional metallic wear particles from 285 revision operations for ALTR was selected for nano-analyses. Three major classes of hip implants associated with ALTR, metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty (MoM HRA) and large head total hip replacement (MoM LHTHA) and non-metal-on-metal dual modular neck total hip replacement (Non-MoM DMNTHA) were included...
November 22, 2016: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885807/loading-of-bmp2-related-peptide-onto-three-dimensional-nano-hydroxyapatite-scaffolds-accelerates-mineralization-in-critical-sized-cranial-bone-defects
#6
Tingfang Sun, Kui Zhou, Man Liu, Xiaodong Guo, Yanzhen Qu, Wei Cui, ZengWu Shao, Xianglin Zhang, Shuyun Xu
Extrusion free-forming, as a rapid prototyping technique, is extensively applied in fabricating ceramic material in bone tissue engineering. To improve the osteoinductivity of nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) scaffold fabricated by extrusion free-forming, in this study, we incorporated a new peptide (P28) and optimized the superficial microstructure after shaping by controlling the sintering temperature. P28, a novel bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2)-related peptide, was designed in this study. Analysis of the structure, physicochemical properties, and release kinetics of P28 from nHA sintered at temperatures ranging from 1000 °C to 1400 °C revealed that nHA sintered at 1000 °C had higher porosity, preferable pore size, and better capacity to control P28 release than that sintered at other temperatures...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880892/electrospinning-versus-microfluidic-spinning-of-functional-fibers-for-biomedical-applications
#7
REVIEW
Jie Cheng, Yesl Jun, Jianhua Qin, Sang-Hoon Lee
Micro- or nanofiber-based materials have extensive applications in biomedical fields due to their capability to mimic many aspects of physiological microenvironment in vivo. Fabricating micro- or nanofibers using biocompatible and biodegradable materials is becoming of great interest in the area of biomaterials and tissue engineering. Among the various technologies, electrospinning and microfluidic spinning are the two promising approaches to produce fibers at micro- and nano-scale. Choosing an appropriate spinning method is critical important for a specific application...
January 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873325/dynamic-nanomechanical-analysis-of-the-vocal-fold-structure-in-excised-larynges
#8
Gregory R Dion, Paulo G Coelho, Stephanie Teng, Malvin N Janal, Milan R Amin, Ryan C Branski
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Quantification of clinical outcomes after vocal fold (VF) interventions is challenging with current technology. High-speed digital imaging and optical coherence tomography (OCT) of excised larynges assess intact laryngeal function, but do not provide critical biomechanical information. We developed a protocol to quantify tissue properties in intact, excised VFs using dynamic nanomechanical analysis (nano-DMA) to obtain precise biomechanical properties in the micrometer scale...
November 22, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870847/creating-high-resolution-multiscale-maps-of-human-tissue-using-multi-beam-sem
#9
André F Pereira, Daniel J Hageman, Tomasz Garbowski, Christof Riedesel, Ulf Knothe, Dirk Zeidler, Melissa L Knothe Tate
Multi-beam scanning electron microscopy (mSEM) enables high-throughput, nano-resolution imaging of macroscopic tissue samples, providing an unprecedented means for structure-function characterization of biological tissues and their cellular inhabitants, seamlessly across multiple length scales. Here we describe computational methods to reconstruct and navigate a multitude of high-resolution mSEM images of the human hip. We calculated cross-correlation shift vectors between overlapping images and used a mass-spring-damper model for optimal global registration...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870141/periodontal-tissue-engineering-by-nano-beta-tricalcium-phosphate-scaffold-and-fibroblast-growth-factor-2-in-one-wall-infrabony-defects-of-dogs
#10
K Ogawa, H Miyaji, A Kato, Y Kosen, T Momose, T Yoshida, E Nishida, S Miyata, S Murakami, H Takita, B Fugetsu, T Sugaya, M Kawanami
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Nanoparticle bioceramics are being investigated for biomedical applications. We fabricated a regenerative scaffold comprising type I collagen and beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) nanoparticles. Fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) is a bioeffective signaling molecule that stimulates cell proliferation and wound healing. This study examined the effects, on bioactivity, of a nano-β-TCP/collagen scaffold loaded with FGF-2, particularly on periodontal tissue wound healing...
December 2016: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865991/recent-advances-in-multiaxial-electrospinning-for-drug-delivery
#11
REVIEW
Abdurizzagh Khalf, Sundararajan V Madihally
Electrospun fibers have seen an insurgence in biomedical applications due to their unique characteristics. Coaxial and triaxial electrospinning techniques have added new impetus via fabrication of multilayered nano and micro-size fibers. These techniques offer the possibility of forming fibers with features such as blending, reinforced core, porous and hollow structure. The unique fabrication process can be used to tailor the mechanical properties, biological properties and release of various factors, which can potentially be useful in various controlled drug delivery applications...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865958/development-of-bone-like-zirconium-oxide-nanoceramic-modified-chitosan-based-porous-nanocomposites-for-biomedical-application
#12
Arundhati Bhowmick, Nilkamal Pramanik, Piyali Jana, Tapas Mitra, Arumugam Gnanamani, Manas Das, Patit Paban Kundu
Here, zirconium oxide nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were incorporated for the first time in organic-inorganic hybrid composites containing chitosan, poly(ethylene glycol) and nano-hydroxypatite (CS-PEG-HA) to develop bone-like nanocomposites for bone tissue engineering application. These nanocomposites were characterized by FT-IR, XRD, TEM combined with SAED. SEM images and porosity measurements revealed highly porous structure having pore size of less than 1μm to 10μm. Enhanced water absorption capacity and mechanical strengths were obtained compared to previously reported CS-PEG-HA composite after addition of 0...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862940/chitosan-nhac-plga-microsphere-vehicle-for-sustained-release-of-rhbmp-2-and-its-derived-synthetic-oligopeptide-for-bone-regeneration
#13
Yanhui Ji, Mingbo Wang, Weiqiang Liu, Changsheng Chen, Wei Cui, Tingfang Sun, Qingling Feng, Xiaodong Guo
Both of the osteogenic factor and the suitable delivery system in bone tissue engineering are essential for bone regeneration. In this study, we manufactured two kinds of composite vehicles for sustained release of rhBMP-2 and its derived synthetic oligopeptide (Peptide-24, abbreviated as P24) for osteogenesis and bone defect repair. The composite vehicle was based on cross-linked chitosan, nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHAC), and poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid microsphere. The physicochemical properties of the composite vehicles (abbreviated as CS/nHAC/PLGA-MS) were investigated...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859871/antheraea-pernyi-silk-sericin-mediating-biomimetic-nucleation-and-growth-of-hydroxylapatite-crystals-promoting-bone-matrix-formation
#14
Zhuang Jiayao, Zhou Guanshan, Zhang Jinchi, Chen Yuyin, Zhu Yongqiang
Bone biomineralization is well-regulated processes mediated by extracellular matrix proteins. The materials that can direct nucleation of hydroxylapatite (HAp) crystals and assembly of well-structured material-minerals complex are the key to mimicking the natural mineralization. This study used sericin from Antheraea pernyi (A.pernyi), non-mulberry silkworm cocoon as template to mediate nucleation of HAp crystals. Here we find out that AS (Antheraea pernyi sericin) can nucleate the formation HAp crystals in simulated body fluid verified by XRD and FTIR observations...
November 18, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855336/targeting-distinct-myeloid-cell-populations-in%C3%A2-vivo-using-polymers-liposomes-and-microbubbles
#15
Can Ergen, Felix Heymann, Wa'el Al Rawashdeh, Felix Gremse, Matthias Bartneck, Ulf Panzer, Robert Pola, Michal Pechar, Gert Storm, Nicole Mohr, Matthias Barz, Rudolf Zentel, Fabian Kiessling, Christian Trautwein, Twan Lammers, Frank Tacke
Identifying intended or accidental cellular targets for drug delivery systems is highly relevant for evaluating therapeutic and toxic effects. However, limited knowledge exists on the distribution of nano- and micrometer-sized carrier systems at the cellular level in different organs. We hypothesized that clinically relevant carrier materials, differing in composition and size, are able to target distinct myeloid cell subsets that control inflammatory processes, such as macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes and dendritic cells...
November 9, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853976/tapered-tip-capillary-electrophoresis-nano-electrospray-ionization-mass-spectrometry-for-ultrasensitive-proteomics-the-mouse-cortex
#16
Sam B Choi, Marta Zamarbide, M Chiara Manzini, Peter Nemes
Ultrasensitive characterization of the proteome raises the potential to understand how differential gene expression orchestrates cell heterogeneity in the brain. Here, we report a microanalytical capillary electrophoresis nano-flow electrospray ionization (CE-nanoESI) interface for mass spectrometry to enable the measurement of limited amounts of proteins in the mouse cortex. Our design integrates a custom-built CE system to a tapered-tip metal emitter in a co-axial sheath-flow configuration. This interface can be constructed in <15 min using readily available components, facilitating broad adaptation...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853793/nano-mechanical-signature-of-brain-tumours
#17
Gabriele Ciasca, Tanya Enny Sassun, Eleonora Minelli, Manila Antonelli, Massimiliano Papi, Antonio Santoro, Felice Giangaspero, Roberto Delfini, Marco De Spirito
Glioblastoma (GBM) and meningothelial meningioma (MM) are the most frequent malignant and benign brain lesions, respectively. Mechanical cues play a major role in the progression of both malignancies that is modulated by the occurrence of aberrant physical interactions between neoplastic cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we investigate the nano-mechanical properties of human GBM and MM tissues by atomic force microscopy. Our measures unveil the mechanical fingerprint of the main hallmark features of both lesions, such as necrosis in GBM and dural infiltration in MM...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846403/magnetic-hyperthermia-enhances-cell-toxicity-with-respect-to-exogenous-heating
#18
Beatriz Sanz, M Pilar Calatayud, Teobaldo E Torres, Mónica L Fanarraga, M Ricardo Ibarra, Gerardo F Goya
Magnetic hyperthermia is a new type of cancer treatment designed for overcoming resistance to chemotherapy during the treatment of solid, inaccessible human tumors. The main challenge of this technology is increasing the local tumoral temperature with minimal side effects on the surrounding healthy tissue. This work consists of an in vitro study that compared the effect of hyperthermia in response to the application of exogenous heating (EHT) sources with the corresponding effect produced by magnetic hyperthermia (MHT) at the same target temperatures...
November 9, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845933/feasibility-study-of-compton-cameras-for-x-ray-fluorescence-computed-tomography-with-humans
#19
Don Vernekohl, Moiz Ahmad, Garry Chinn, Lei Xing
X-ray fluorescence imaging is a promising imaging technique able to depict the spatial distributions of low amounts of molecular agents in vivo. Currently, the translation of the technique to preclinical and clinical applications is hindered by long scanning times as objects are scanned with flux-limited narrow pencil beams. The study presents a novel imaging approach combining x-ray fluorescence imaging with Compton imaging. Compton cameras leverage the imaging performance of XFCT and abolish the need for pencil beam excitation...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843018/phytotoxicity-uptake-and-transformation-of-nano-ceo2-in-sand-cultured-romaine-lettuce
#20
Peng Zhang, Yuhui Ma, Shutong Liu, Guohua Wang, Junzhe Zhang, Xiao He, Jing Zhang, Yukui Rui, Zhiyong Zhang
Toxicity and uptake of nano-CeO2 (nCeO2) in edible vegetables are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we grew romaine lettuce in sand amended with nCeO2. At high concentrations (1000 and 2000 mg/kg), nCeO2 diminished the chlorophyll content by 16.5% and 25.8%, respectively, and significantly inhibited the biomass production. nCeO2 (≥100 mg/kg) altered antioxidant enzymatic activities and malondialdehyde levels in the plants. nCeO2 (≥500 mg/kg) triggered a remarkable increase of nitrate-N level in the shoots, which can be converted to toxic nitrite in humans thereby posed risk to human health...
November 11, 2016: Environmental Pollution
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