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Stroke risk factors

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749197/cardiovascular-benefits-and-safety-of-non-insulin-medications-used-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
Srikanth Yandrapalli, George Jolly, Adam Horblitt, Abdallah Sanaani, Wilbert S Aronow
Diabetes mellitus is a growing in exponential proportions. If the current growth trend continues, it may result in every third adult in the United States having diabetes mellitus by 2050, and every 10(th) adult worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) confers a 2- to 3-fold increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events compared with non-diabetic patients, and CV mortality is responsible for around 80% mortality in this population. Patients with T2DM can have other features of insulin resistance-metabolic syndrome like hypertension, lipid abnormalities, and obesity which are all associated with increased CV disease and stroke risk even in the absence of T2DM...
July 27, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748495/evidence-for-interactions-between-homocysteine-and-genistein-insights-into-stroke-risk-and-potential-treatment
#2
Zyta Banecka-Majkutewicz, Leszek Kadziński, Michał Grabowski, Sylwia Bloch, Rajmund Kaźmierkiewicz, Joanna Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Magdalena Gabig-Cimińska, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Alicja Węgrzyn, Bogdan Banecki
Elevated plasma homocysteine (2-amino-4-sulfanylbutanoic acid) level is a risk factor for stroke. Moreover, it has been suggested that high levels of homocysteine in the acute phase of an ischemic stroke can predict mortality, especially in stroke patients with the large-vessel atherosclerosis subtype. In clinical studies, supplementation with genistein (5, 7-dihydroxy-3- (4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) decreased plasma homocysteine levels considerably. Therefore, genistein could be considered as a potential drug for prevention and/or treatment of stroke...
July 26, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748320/the-relationship-between-lesion-localization-and-dysphagia-in-acute-stroke
#3
Stephanie K Daniels, Shweta Pathak, Shalini V Mukhi, Carol B Stach, Robert O Morgan, Jane A Anderson
Factors that can facilitate early identification of individuals at risk of dysphagia such as stroke location are potentially of great benefit. The aim of this study was to examine the role of hemisphere and lesion location in assessing dysphagia pattern and airway invasion as identified through the use of validated, standardized interpretation measures for the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Consecutive patients (N = 80) presenting with stroke symptoms who had a first-time acute ischemic stroke confirmed on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) scan participated...
July 26, 2017: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747974/hyperglycemia-decreases-preoxiredoxin-2-expression-in-a-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-model
#4
Phil-Ok Koh
Diabetes is a major risk factor for stroke and is also associated with worsened outcomes following a stroke. Peroxiredoxin-2 exerts potent neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. In the present study, we identified altered peroxiredoxin-2 expression in an ischemic stroke model under hyperglycemic conditions. Adult male rats were administrated streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) via intraperitoneal injection to induce diabetes. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was induced surgically 4 weeks after streptozotocin treatment and cerebral cortex tissues were isolated 24 hours after MCAO...
June 2017: Laboratory Animal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747453/serum-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-levels-and-prognosis-of-acute-ischemic-stroke
#5
Chongke Zhong, Jingyuan Yang, Tan Xu, Tian Xu, Yanbo Peng, Aili Wang, Jinchao Wang, Hao Peng, Qunwei Li, Zhong Ju, Deqin Geng, Yonghong Zhang, Jiang He
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between serum matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) levels and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We measured serum MMP-9 levels in 3,186 participants (2,008 men and 1,178 women) from the China Antihypertensive Trial in Acute Ischemic Stroke (CATIS). Study outcome data on death, major disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≥3), and vascular disease were collected at 3 months after stroke onset. RESULTS: During 3 months of follow-up, 767 participants (24...
July 26, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747037/increased-arterial-stiffness-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-hemorrhagic-transformation-in-ischemic-stroke-undergoing-thrombolysis
#6
Maurizio Acampa, Silvia Camarri, Pietro Enea Lazzerini, Francesca Guideri, Rossana Tassi, Raffaella Valenti, Alessandra Cartocci, Giuseppe Martini
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a multifactorial phenomenon and represents a possible complication of ischemic stroke, especially after thrombolytic treatment. Increased arterial stiffness has been associated with intracranial hemorrhage, but there is no evidence of association with HT after thrombolytic therapy. The aim of our study is to investigate a possible link between arterial stiffness and HT occurrence after thrombolytic therapy in patients with ischemic stroke...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747024/clinical-profile-and-outcomes-in-octogenarians-with-atrial-fibrillation-a-community-based-study-in-a-specific-european-health-care-area
#7
Moisés Rodríguez-Mañero, Estrella López-Pardo, Alberto Cordero, Omar Kredieh, María Pereira-Vazquez, Jose-Luis Martínez-Sande, Alvaro Martínez-Gomez, Carlos Peña-Gil, José Novo-Platas, Javier García-Seara, Pilar Mazón, Ricardo Laje, Isabel Moscoso, Alfonso Varela-Román, Jose María García-Acuña, José Ramón González-Juanatey
BACKGROUND: Age increases risk of stroke and bleeding. Clinical trial data have had relatively low proportions of elderly subjects. We sought to study a Spanish population of octogenarians with atrial fibrillation (AF) by combining different sources of electronic clinical records from an area where all medical centres utilized electronic health record systems. METHODS: Data was derived from the Galician Healthcare Service information system. RESULTS: From 383,000 subjects, AF was coded in 7990 (2...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746925/pulmonary-arteriovenous-malformations-are-associated-with-silent-brain-infarcts-in-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-patients
#8
Waleed Brinjikji, Deena M Nasr, Christopher P Wood, Vivek N Iyer
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is a high prevalence of right-to-left shunting pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs), which are stroke risk factors, in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) patients. While the prevalence of ischemic complications in HHT patients is known, the prevalence of silent brain infarcts (SBI) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for SBI in HHT patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our institutional HHT database was queried to identify HHT patients who received a baseline screening brain MRI from January 2000 to February 2017...
July 27, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746709/association-of-coronary-artery-calcium-score-vs-age-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-older-adults-an-analysis-of-pooled-population-based-studies
#9
Yuichiro Yano, Christopher J O'Donnell, Lewis Kuller, Maryam Kavousi, Raimund Erbel, Hongyan Ning, Ralph D'Agostino, Anne B Newman, Khurram Nasir, Albert Hofman, Nils Lehmann, Klodian Dhana, Ron Blankstein, Udo Hoffmann, Stefan Möhlenkamp, Joseph M Massaro, Amir-Abbas Mahabadi, Joao A C Lima, M Arfan Ikram, Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Oscar H Franco, Kiang Liu, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Philip Greenland
Importance: Besides age, other discriminators of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk are needed in older adults. Objectives: To examine the predictive ability of coronary artery calcium (CAC) score vs age for incident ASCVD and how risk prediction changes by adding CAC score and removing only age from prediction models. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted an analysis of pooled US population-based studies, including the Framingham Heart Study, the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, and the Cardiovascular Health Study...
July 26, 2017: JAMA Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744762/mortality-after-primary-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-relation-to-post-stroke-seizures
#10
Danny Claessens, Kim Bekelaar, Floris H B M Schreuder, Bianca T A de Greef, Mariëlle C G Vlooswijk, Julie Staals, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Rob P W Rouhl
Seizures after intracerebral hemorrhage are repeatedly seen. Whether the development of seizures after intracerebral hemorrhage affects survival in the long term is unknown. This study aims to determine the relation between seizures (i.e., with and without anti-epileptic therapy) and long-term mortality risk in a large patient population with intracerebral hemorrhage. We retrospectively included patients with a non-traumatic ICH in all three hospitals in the South Limburg region in the Netherlands between January 1st 2004 and December 31st 2009, and we assessed all-cause mortality until March 14th 2016...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743922/prevalence-of-stroke-and-vascular-risk-factors-in-china-a-nationwide-community-based-study
#11
Qi Li, Hao Wu, Wei Yue, Qingqing Dai, Hui Liang, Hetao Bian, Xiaoshuang Xia, Qiuhong Ji, Ying Shen
We aimed to investigate the prevalence of stroke and related vascular risk factors in adult population aged 40 years and older in China. We conducted a prospective cross-sectional survey in nationally representative sample of 207323 individuals from all 31 Chinese provinces in 2013. Data were used to analyze the prevalence of stroke by age, sex, geographical regions and educational level. The age-standardized prevalence of stroke was significantly higher in men than in women in all age groups (P < 0...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742639/idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-progressing-to-venous-sinus-thrombosis-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-and-stroke
#12
Joshua S Hardin, Raghu H Ramakrishnaiah, John D Pemberton, Paul H Phillips, Joseph G Chacko
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure (ICP), the absence of structural lesions on neuroimaging, and normal cerebrospinal fluid composition. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a common cause of increased ICP and can be differentiated from IIH with magnetic resonance venography. We describe a young woman with typical IIH who underwent lumbar puncture and was treated with a short course of high-dose corticosteroids followed by acetazolamide...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741278/italian-intersociety-consensus-on-prevention-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-delirium-in-hospitalized-older-persons
#13
Giuseppe Bellelli, Alessandro Morandi, Marco Trabucchi, Guido Caironi, Daniele Coen, Carlo Fraticelli, Ciro Paolillo, Carolina Prevaldi, Angela Riccardi, Gianfranco Cervellin, Corrado Carabellese, Salvatore Putignano, Stefania Maggi, Antonio Cherubini, Paola Gnerre, Andrea Fontanella, Nicola Latronico, Concezione Tommasino, Antonio Corcione, Giovanni Ricevuti, Nicola Ferrara, Francesco De Filippi, Alberto Ferrari, Mario Guarino, Maria Pia Ruggieri, Pietro Amedeo Modesti, Carlo Locatelli, Patrizia Hrelia, Marco Otto Toscano, Emi Bondi, Antonio Tarasconi, Luca Ansaloni, Francesco Perticone
Delirium is a severe neuropsychiatric syndrome characterized by inattention and global cognitive dysfunction in the setting of an acute medical illness, medical complication, drug intoxication, or drug withdrawal. The most important risk factors are advanced age and dementia, whereas pain, dehydration, infections, stroke, metabolic disturbances, and surgery are the most common triggering factors. Although delirium is a common clinical syndrome in different settings of care (acute care hospitals, inpatient rehabilitation facilities, nursing homes, and hospices), it often remains under-recognized, poorly understood, and inadequately managed...
July 24, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740853/prothrombotic-fibrin-clot-phenotype-in-patients-with-deep-vein-thrombosis-and-pulmonary-embolism-a-new-risk-factor-for-recurrence
#14
REVIEW
Anetta Undas
Prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype, involving faster formation of dense meshwork composed of thinner and highly branched fibers that are relatively resistant to plasmin-induced lysis, has been reported in patients with not only myocardial infarction or stroke, but also venous thromboembolism (VTE), encompassing deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and/or pulmonary embolism (PE). Prothrombotic fibrin clot phenotype, in particular prolonged clot lysis time, is considered a novel risk factor for VTE as well as venous thrombosis at unusual location, for example, cerebral sinus venous thrombosis, retinal vein obstruction, and Budd-Chiari syndrome...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739453/modified-frailty-index-can-be-used-to-predict-adverse-outcomes-and-mortality-after-lower-extremity-bypass-surgery
#15
Tarik Ali, Erik Lehman, Faisal Aziz
OBJECTIVES: Frailty has been increasingly used as a prognostic indicator for various surgical operations. Patients with peripheral arterial disease represent a cohort of population with advanced medical comorbidities. The aim of this study is to correlate the postoperative outcomes after lower extremity bypass surgery with pre operative modified frailty index. METHODS: Using 2010 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) database, patients undergoing infrainguinal arterial bypass surgery were identified...
July 21, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739036/meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-on-cardiovascular-events-after-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#16
REVIEW
Yingke Zhao, Branda Yee-Man Yu, Yanfei Liu, Yue Liu
Increasing evidence proved that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a variety of diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. This study systematically reviewed the existing publications to assess the influence of OSA on cardiovascular survival among patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention. Eleven eligible publications, including 3,008 participants, were finally evaluated. Eight studies conducted adjustment of risk ratio for potential cardiovascular risk factors, 5 studies defined OSA groups as AHI (apnea hypopnea index) ≥15/hour, whereas the remaining eligible studies used AHI ≥5/hour, AHI ≥10/hour, or AHI ≥30/hour as the criteria...
June 28, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738977/glutathione-peroxidase-3-gene-polymorphisms-and-the-risk-of-sudden-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#17
Chen-Yu Chien, Tzu-Yen Huang, Shu-Yu Tai, Ning-Chia Chang, Hsun-Mo Wang, Ling-Feng Wang, Kuen-Yao Ho
The glutathione peroxidase 3 gene (GPX3) is reported to be a risk factor for arterial ischaemic stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis. GPX3 may be one of the aetiologies of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL), which might be attributed to the genetic effect of GPX3 by influence reactive oxygen species (ROS). Unbalanced ROS have been associated with susceptibility to SSNHL. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study with 416 SSNHL cases and 255 controls. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected...
July 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738786/atrial-time-and-voltage-dispersion-are-both-needed-to-predict-new-onset-atrial-fibrillation-in-ischemic-stroke-patients
#18
Daniel Cortez, Maria Baturova, Arne Lindgren, Jonas Carlson, Yuri V Shubik, Bertil Olsson, Pyotr G Platonov
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a known risk factor for ischemic stroke. Electrocardiographic predictors of AF in population studies such as the Framingham Heart Study, as well as in hypertensive patients have demonstrated a predictive value of the P-wave duration for development of AF. QRS vector magnitude has had a predictive value in ventricular arrhythmia development. We aimed to assess the value of the three-dimensional P-wave vector magnitude and its relationship to P-wave duration for prediction of new-onset AF after ischemic stroke...
July 24, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738483/-outcome-analysis-of-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-with-or-without-prior-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-operation
#19
Y Song, J J Xu, X F Tang, H H Wang, R Liu, P Jiang, L Jiang, L J Gao, Y Zhang, L Song, L J Xu, X Y Zhao, Z Gao, J Chen, R L Gao, S B Qiao, Y J Yang, B Xu, J Q Yuan
Objective: To investigate the impact of previous coronary artery bypass grafting(CABG) on long-term outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI). Methods: A total of 10 724 consecutive coronary heart disease patients undergoing PCI between January and December 2013 in Fuwai hospital were prospectively included in this research. According to CABG history, the patients were divided into CABG group(437 cases) and without CABG group(10 287 cases). The patients were followed up for 2 years...
July 24, 2017: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738421/cardiovascular-disease-among-transgender-adults-receiving-hormone-therapy-a-narrative-review
#20
Carl G Streed, Omar Harfouch, Francoise Marvel, Roger S Blumenthal, Seth S Martin, Monica Mukherjee
Recent reports estimate that 0.6% of adults in the United States, or approximately 1.4 million persons, identify as transgender. Despite gains in rights and media attention, the reality is that transgender persons experience health disparities, and a dearth of research and evidence-based guidelines remains regarding their specific health needs. The lack of research to characterize cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors in transgender populations receiving cross-sex hormone therapy (CSHT) limits appropriate primary and specialty care...
July 25, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
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