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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229546/changes-in-cognition-and-dendritic-complexity-following-intrathecal-methotrexate-and-cytarabine-treatment-in-a-juvenile-murine-model
#1
Tyler C Alexander, Christy M Simecka, Frederico Kiffer, Thomas Groves, Julie Anderson, Hannah Carr, Jing Wang, Gwendolyn Carter, Antiño R Allen
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent childhood cancer and accounts for 26.8% of cancer diagnoses among children, worldwide-approximately 3,000 children each year. While advancements in treating ALL have led to a remission rate of more than 90%, many survivors experience adverse neurocognitive and/or neurobehavioral effects as a result of intrathecal chemotherapy. Methotrexate (MTX) is commonly administered with cytosine arabinoside (AraC, cytarabine) during intrathecal chemotherapy for ALL...
December 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225566/cdk5-is-essential-for-amphetamine-to-increase-dendritic-spine-density-in-hippocampal-pyramidal-neurons
#2
Soledad Ferreras, Guillermo Fernández, Víctor Danelon, María V Pisano, Luján Masseroni, Christopher A Chapleau, Favio A Krapacher, Estela C Mlewski, Daniel H Mascó, Carlos Arias, Lucas Pozzo-Miller, María G Paglini
Psychostimulant drugs of abuse increase dendritic spine density in reward centers of the brain. However, little is known about their effects in the hippocampus, where activity-dependent changes in the density of dendritic spine are associated with learning and memory. Recent reports suggest that Cdk5 plays an important role in drug addiction, but its role in psychostimulant's effects on dendritic spines in hippocampus remain unknown. We used in vivo and in vitro approaches to demonstrate that amphetamine increases dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons of the hippocampus...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217824/soluble-tau-has-devastating-effects-on-the-structural-plasticity-of-hippocampal-granule-neurons
#3
M Bolós, N Pallas-Bazarra, J Terreros-Roncal, J R Perea, J Jurado-Arjona, J Ávila, M Llorens-Martín
Tau is a neuronal microtubule-associated protein with countless physiological functions. Although the detrimental effects of insoluble aggregated Tau have been widely studied, recent evidence supports the notion that soluble Tau (composed mostly of monomers and dimers) is also toxic for neurons. Here we evaluated the long-term impact of a single stereotaxic injection of human soluble Tau on hippocampal granule neurons in mice. At the ultrastructural level, soluble Tau reduced the number of afferent synapses and caused a dramatic depletion of synaptic vesicles both in afferent and efferent synapses...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208407/dehydrocavidine-attenuates-d-galactose-induced-learning-and-memory-impairment-in-rats
#4
Peng Fu, Qing Zhang, Dong-Ye Yi, Ahmed Abdelmaksoud, Qin Huang, Hong-Yang Zhao, Wei Xiang, Nan-Xiang Xiong
OBJECTIVE: Dehydrocavidine (DEH) is the major component of a plant corydalis saxicola Bunting, which is used to treat the patients with hepatic disorders, there is still no report about the effect of DEH on the brain disorder. In this study, the effect and mechanism of DEH on D-galactose (D-gala) induced learning and memory impairment in rats was investigated. METHODS: A learning and memory impairment rat model was employed by chronic intraperitoneal injection of D-gala and intragastric administration of DEH, then Morris water maze test was used to investigate the effect of DEH on learning and memory impairment, Golgi stain and biochemical methods, real time PCR were used to investigate underlying mechanism...
December 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204040/postepidural-spinal-intradural-arachnoid-cyst-a-rare-case-report
#5
Muhammad Sohail Umerani, Gabr Ahmed Mostafa, Mona A F Nada, Amjad Abdel Qader Darwish
Compression of the neural structures in spine by an intradural arachnoid cyst is a rare entity. At times such a cyst is an incidental finding. Spinal epidural injection is one of the few rare etiological factors for its development. Symptomatic cysts can present with variable neurological manifestations depending on the spinal level involved. This includes back pain, lower limb weakness, and sphincteric dysfunction. If asymptomatic, they can be followed radiologically. Surgical decompression along with a histological diagnosis is reserved for cysts that are enlarging, symptomatic or the ones for whom the diagnosis is uncertain...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200483/biomechanical-analysis-of-range-of-motion-and-failure-characteristics-of-osteoporotic-spinal-compression-fractures-in-human-cadaver
#6
Robert F Heary, Naresh K Parvathreddy, Nitin Agarwal
Background: Vertebroplasty is a treatment for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures. The optimal location of needle placement for cement injection remains a topic of debate. As such, the authors assessed the effects of location of two types of cement instillations. In addition, the motion and failure modes at the index and adjacent segments were measured. Materials and Methods: Seven human osteoporotic cadaver spines (T1-L4), cut into four consecutive vertebral segments, were utilized...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189304/interventional-pain-procedures-in-physical-medicine-and-rehabilitation-residencies
#7
Sanjeev Agarwal, Caitlin Cicone, Philip Chang
Exposure to interventional pain procedures is now a required component of training in physical medicine and rehabilitation (PM&R) residencies as mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). Data regarding resident exposure and competency in these procedures remains limited. Objectives were to determine the volume and type of exposure PM&R residents have to interventional pain procedures and to obtain faculty-perceived opinions regarding competency of incoming fellows as it pertains to interventional pain management...
November 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188679/a-new-surgical-positioning-system-for-robotic-assisted-minimally-invasive-spine-surgery-and-transpedicular-approach-to-the-disc
#8
G Vadalà, D Accoto, F Russo, I Portaccio, M Rossini, S Valentini, R Papalia, V Denaro
Minimally Invasive Spine Surgery (MISS) procedures for the treatment of spinal pathologies have experienced exponential growth due to improved techniques and decreased trauma to the patient. Several MISS procedures that require the use of a trans-pedicular cannula as a guiding tool for pedicle screw placement, delivery of biomaterials to the vertebral body or injection of biologics to the disc space have been described. Although these are clear advantages of MISS, the limited dissection and exposure may reduce the accuracy and stability of operation and make spine surgeons rely heavily on intraoperative fluoroscopy, raising concerns over the level of radiation exposure...
October 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178372/thc-alters-alters-morphology-of-neurons-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-and-nucleus-accumbens-and-alters-the-ability-of-later-experience-to-promote-structural-plasticity
#9
Bryan Kolb, Yilin Li, Terry Robinson, Linda A Parker
Psychoactive drugs have the ability to alter the morphology of neuronal dendrites and spines and to influence later experience-dependent structural plasticity. If rats are given repeated injections of psychomotor stimulants (amphetamine, cocaine, nicotine) prior to being placed in complex environments, the drug experience interferes with the ability of the environment to increase dendritic arborization and spine density. Repeated exposure to Delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) changes the morphology of dendrites in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAcc)...
November 27, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174073/lumbar-medial-branch-block-volume-dependent-dispersion-patterns-as-a-predictor-for-ablation-success-a-cadaveric-study
#10
Sayed E Wahezi, Edward Alexeev, John S Georgy, Nogah Haramati, Stephen A Erosa, Jay M Shah, Sherry Downie
BACKGROUND: Lumbar facet arthropathy is a common cause of low back pain. Literature supports treatment with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of associated nerves that innervate lumbar facets when alternative conservative therapies have failed. Diagnostic local anesthetic blocks precede therapeutic ablation, but have a false positive rate of 27-63%, and some have questioned their utility in predicting therapeutic response to RFA. The authors believe that injectate volume may be a contributing factor to false positivity...
November 22, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173667/ultrasound-guided-interventions-of-the-cervical-spine-and-nerves
#11
REVIEW
Ke-Vin Chang, Wei-Ting Wu, Levent Özçakar
High-resolution ultrasound (US) enables prompt depiction of muscles, tendons, ligaments, and peripheral nerves. It seems to be the best imaging modality for guiding perineural injections. The most complicated neurovascular network of the musculoskeletal system surrounds the cervical spine; so injection to that region is never an easy task. This article elaborates the regional anatomy and the use of US scanning and guidance for cervical interventions; for example, cervical root, superficial cervical plexus, stellate ganglion, cervical medial branch, greater occipital nerve, and third occipital nerve...
February 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173659/radiofrequency-denervation-of-the-cervical-and-lumbar-spine
#12
REVIEW
Jessica Arias Garau
Facet or zygapophysial joint pain is commonly seen in the aging population. Interventional procedures, such as facet joint nerve blocks, facet intraarticular injections, and radiofrequency denervation, are used for the diagnosis and treatment of axial spinal chronic neck and low back pain. The focus of this article is to understand how radiofrequency denervation works in the cervical and lumbar spine and to be able to properly select appropriate patients who might benefit from this safe and effective procedure...
February 2018: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162138/predictability-of-the-effects-of-facet-joint-infiltration-in-the-degenerate-lumbar-spine-when-assessing-mri-scans
#13
Ulf Krister Hofmann, Ramona Luise Keller, Christian Walter, Falk Mittag
BACKGROUND: Imaging results are frequently considered as hallmarks of disease by spine surgeons to plan their future treatment strategy. Numerous classification systems have been proposed to quantify or grade lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and thus objectify imaging findings. The clinical impact of the measured parameters remains, however, unclear. To evaluate the pathological significance of imaging findings in patients with multisegmental degenerative findings, clinicians can perform image-guided local infiltrations to target defined areas such as the facet joints...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159979/ultrasound-microbubbles-enhance-the-activity-of-vancomycin-against-staphylococcus-epidermidis-biofilms-in-vivo
#14
Ying Dong, Junshuai Li, Pan Li, Jialin Yu
OBJECTIVES: Staphylococcus epidermidis is the predominant pathogen of device-associated infections. By forming biofilms on the device surface, S epidermidis has substantial resistance to antibiotics and is difficult to eradicate. This study aimed to explore the synergistic effect of ultrasound (US)-mediated microbubbles combined with vancomycin on S epidermidis biofilms in a rabbit model. METHODS: Two polytetrafluoroethene catheters with preformed S epidermidis biofilms were implanted subcutaneously in a rabbit, one on either side of the spine...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156571/studies-for-improving-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-icv-administration-of-well-characterized-%C3%AE-amyloid-1-42-oligomers-induce-dysfunction-in-spatial-memory
#15
Ágnes Kasza, Botond Penke, Zsuzsanna Frank, Zsolt Bozsó, Viktor Szegedi, Ákos Hunya, Klaudia Németh, Gábor Kozma, Lívia Fülöp
During the past 15 years, several genetically altered mouse models of human Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been developed. These costly models have greatly facilitated the evaluation of novel therapeutic approaches. Injecting synthetic β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42 species into different parts of the brain of non-transgenic rodents frequently provided unreliable results, owing to a lack of a genuine characterization of the administered Aβ aggregates. Previously, we have published a new rat AD-model in which protofibrillar-fibrillar Aβ1-42 was administered into rat entorhinal cortex (Sipos 2007)...
November 18, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154997/kyphoplasty-for-osteoporotic-vertebral-fractures-with-posterior-wall-injury
#16
Ahmed Shawky, Ali Ezzati, Ramachandran Govindasamy, Branko Krajnovic, Belal El-Nady, Galal Zaki Said
BACKGROUND: Cement augmentation techniques are standard treatments for osteoporotic vertebral fractures. Compared to vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty is associated with lower rates of cement leak and better deformity correction, however, posterior wall fractures are relative, but not absolute, contraindications for both techniques and hence treatment practices vary among spine centers. PURPOSE: The primary aim of this study was to assess our center's incidence of posterior cement leakage in osteoporotic vertebral fractures with posterior wall injury treated by balloon kyphoplasty...
November 14, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150766/spinobot-an-mri-guided-needle-positioning-system-for-spinal-cellular-therapeutics
#17
Alexander Squires, John N Oshinski, Nicholas M Boulis, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) results in the death of motor neurons in voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS and few available treatments. In studies with small animal models, injection of cellular therapeutics into the anterior horn of the spinal cord has been shown to inhibit the progression of ALS. It was hypothesized that spinal injection could be made faster and less invasive with the aid of a robot. The robotic system presented-SpinoBot-uses MRI guidance to position a needle for percutaneous injection into the spinal cord...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150760/slow-passage-through-a-hopf-bifurcation-in-excitable-nerve-cables-spatial-delays-and-spatial-memory-effects
#18
L M Bilinsky, S M Baer
It is well established that in problems featuring slow passage through a Hopf bifurcation (dynamic Hopf bifurcation) the transition to large-amplitude oscillations may not occur until the slowly changing parameter considerably exceeds the value predicted from the static Hopf bifurcation analysis (temporal delay effect), with the length of the delay depending upon the initial value of the slowly changing parameter (temporal memory effect). In this paper we introduce new delay and memory effect phenomena using both analytic (WKB method) and numerical methods...
November 17, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144110/effect-of-stabilization-exercise-on-back-pain-disability-and-quality-of-life-in-adult-with-scoliosis-a-systematic-review
#19
Malik H Alanazi, Eric C Parent, Elizabeth Dennett
INTRODUCTION: Adult Scoliosis (AS) is the most common spine deformity in adults. Back pain is the main symptom leading patients to seek medical consultation. Stabilization exercise has been shown effective for reducing back pain. No literature review has examined the effects of such exercises in adults with scoliosis. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the effects of stabilization exercises on back pain, disability and quality of life in adults with scoliosis...
November 16, 2017: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141662/safety-and-tolerability-of-intradiscal-implantation-of-combined-autologous-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-hyaluronic-acid-in-patients-with-chronic-discogenic-low-back-pain-1-year-follow-up-of-a-phase-i-study
#20
Hemant Kumar, Doo-Hoe Ha, Eun-Jong Lee, Jun Hee Park, Jeong Hyun Shim, Tae-Keun Ahn, Kyoung-Tae Kim, Alexander E Ropper, Seil Sohn, Chung-Hun Kim, Devang Kashyap Thakor, Soo-Hong Lee, In-Bo Han
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) offer potential as a therapeutic option for chronic discogenic low back pain (LBP) because of their immunomodulatory functions and capacity for cartilage differentiation. The goal of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability of a single intradiscal implantation of combined AT-MSCs and hyaluronic acid (HA) derivative in patients with chronic discogenic LBP. METHODS: We performed a single-arm phase I clinical trial with a 12-month follow-up and enrolled 10 eligible chronic LBP patients...
November 15, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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