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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470716/denosumab-a-potential-treatment-option-for-aneurysmal-bone-cyst-of-the-atlas
#1
REVIEW
Ravish Shammi Patel, Chetan Anil Dhamne, Anil Gopinathan, Nishant Kumar, Naresh Kumar
PURPOSE: Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) of spine are conventionally treated with en-bloc resection or intralesional excision/curettage and reconstruction or filling of defects with bone cement. For the treatment of upper cervical ABCs, en-bloc resections are often not desirable considering the risk/benefit ratio while the risk of recurrence after intralesional excision is high. Hence, alternative management options are often necessary. We describe our clinical experience with one such treatment alternative-denosumab for the treatment of ABC of Atlas...
February 22, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462057/segmental-spinal-myoclonus-complicating-lumbar-transforaminal-epidural-steroid-injection
#2
Stanley Sau Ching Wong, Qiu Qiu, Chi Wai Cheung
OBJECTIVE: Lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection is commonly used for treating lumbar radicular pain. We report a case of segmental spinal myoclonus that developed during lumbar transforaminal epidural injection with local anesthetic and steroid. CASE REPORT: A 58-year-old woman with failed back surgery syndrome presented with low back and right L3 and L4 radicular pain. As she had responded well previously to diagnostic selective nerve root injection with local anesthetic at the right L3 and L4 levels, lumbar transforaminal epidural steroid injection at the same levels was scheduled...
February 16, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460009/the-global-spine-care-initiative-applying-evidence-based-guidelines-on-the-non-invasive-management-of-back-and-neck-pain-to-low-and-middle-income-communities
#3
REVIEW
Roger Chou, Pierre Côté, Kristi Randhawa, Paola Torres, Hainan Yu, Margareta Nordin, Eric L Hurwitz, Scott Haldeman, Christine Cedraschi
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review was to develop recommendations for the management of spinal disorders in low-income communities, with a focus on non-invasive pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies for non-specific low back and neck pain. METHODS: We synthesized two evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for the management of low back and neck pain. Our recommendations considered benefits, harms, quality of evidence, and costs, with attention to feasibility in medically underserved areas and low- and middle-income countries...
February 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452160/orchiectomy-and-letrozole-differentially-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-and-spatial-memory-in-a-manner-that-is-mediated-by-src-1-in-the-hippocampus-of-male-mice
#4
Jikai Zhao, Chen Bian, Mengying Liu, Yangang Zhao, Tao Sun, Fangzhou Xing, Jiqiang Zhang
Hippocampal synaptic plasticity is the basis of spatial memory and cognition and is strongly regulated by both testicular androgens (testosterone, T) and hippocampal estrogens (17β-estradiol, E2) converted from T by aromatase, which is inhibited by letrozole (LET), but the contribution of each pathway to spatial memory and the associated mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we first used orchiectomy (ORX) and LET injection to investigate the effects of T and hippocampal E2 on spatial memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445836/bone-loss-after-romosozumab-denosumab-effects-of-bisphosphonates
#5
Anne M Horne, Borislav Mihov, Ian R Reid
Romosozumab and denosumab are monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of osteoporosis. Both have a rapid offset of effect resulting in loss of bone density (BMD) gained on-treatment and, in some cases, multiple vertebral fractures following treatment cessation. We recently reported disappointing results from transitioning patients from denosumab to intravenous zoledronate at the time the next denosumab injection is due. The present report re-assesses the role of bisphosphonates following the use of denosumab...
February 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434572/stress-and-corticosteroids-aggravate-morphological-changes-in-the-dentate-gyrus-after-early-life-experimental-febrile-seizures-in-mice
#6
Jolien S van Campen, Ellen V S Hessel, Kirsten Bohmbach, Giorgio Rizzi, Paul J Lucassen, Sada Lakshmi Turimella, Eduardo H L Umeoka, Gideon F Meerhoff, Kees P J Braun, Pierre N E de Graan, Marian Joëls
Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure precipitant in patients with epilepsy. Moreover, a relation between ear stress and epilepsy has been suggested. Although ear stress and stress hormones are known to influence seizure threshold in rodents, effects on the development of epilepsy (epileptogenesis) are still unclear. Therefore, we studied the consequences of ear corticosteroid exposure for epileptogenesis, under highly controlled conditions in an animal model. Experimental febrile seizures (eFS) were elicited in 10-day-old mice by warm-air induced hyperthermia, while a control group was exposed to a normothermic condition...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429935/deconvolution-of-voltage-sensor-time-series-and-electro-diffusion-modeling-reveal-the-role-of-spine-geometry-in-controlling-synaptic-strength
#7
Jerome Cartailler, Taekyung Kwon, Rafael Yuste, David Holcman
Most synaptic excitatory connections are made on dendritic spines. But how the voltage in spines is modulated by its geometry remains unclear. To investigate the electrical properties of spines, we combine voltage imaging data with electro-diffusion modeling. We first present a temporal deconvolution procedure for the genetically encoded voltage sensor expressed in hippocampal cultured neurons and then use electro-diffusion theory to compute the electric field and the current-voltage conversion. We extract a range for the neck resistances of 〈R〉=100±35MΩ...
February 5, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425279/mirna-133a-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-through-promoting-osteoclast-differentiation
#8
Zhongqi Li, Wenzhi Zhang, Yan Huang
The important role of miR-133a in the progress and development of postmenopausal osteoporosis has been reported, however, the underlying mechanism is not clear yet. In this study, qRT-PCR analysis was performed to assess miR-133 expression in serum isolated from postmenopausal osteoporosis patients (PMOP) and healthy controls. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The results showed that miR-133a was significantly upregulated and negatively correlated with lumbar spine BMD in serum of postmenopausal osteoporotic women...
February 7, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29413532/adolescent-pruning-and-stabilization-of-dendritic-spines-on-cortical-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-do-not-depend-on-gonadal-hormones
#9
Josiah R Boivin, David J Piekarski, A Wren Thomas, Linda Wilbrecht
Pyramidal neurons in the neocortex receive a majority of their synapses on dendritic spines, whose growth, gain, and loss regulate the strength and identity of neural connections. Juvenile brains typically show higher spine density and turnover compared to adult brains, potentially enabling greater capacity for experience-dependent circuit 'rewiring'. Although spine pruning and stabilization in frontal cortex overlap with pubertal milestones, it is unclear if gonadal hormones drive these processes. To address this question, we used hormone manipulations and in vivo 2-photon microscopy to test for a causal relationship between pubertal hormones and spine pruning and stabilization in layer 5 neurons in the frontal cortex of female mice...
January 30, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407350/in-vivo-study-of-paraspinal-muscle-weakness-using-botulinum-toxin-in-one-primate-model
#10
Sang Kuy Han, Youngjeon Lee, Jung-Joo Hong, Hyeon-Gu Yeo, Jincheol Seo, Chang-Yeop Jeon, Kang-Jin Jeong, Yeung Bae Jin, Philyong Kang, Sangil Lee, Choongsoo S Shin, Young Eun Kim, Keyoung Jin Chun, Kyu-Tae Chang, Sang-Rae Lee
BACKGROUND: It has been generally speculated that paraspinal muscle weakness is related to the spinal degeneration including intervertebral disc failure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of paraspinal muscle weakness induced by the botulinum toxin type-A on the lumbar spine and behavior pattern in an in-vivo primate model which has an upright locomotion similar to that of humans. METHODS: Botox injections into paraspinal muscle of one cynomolgus monkey were conducted biweekly up to 19 weeks at L2-L3, L3-L4 and L4-L5...
January 29, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405381/intracerebroventricular-administration-of-growth-hormone-induces-morphological-changes-in-pyramidal-neurons-of-the-hippocampus-and-prefrontal-cortex-in-adult-rats
#11
Juan David Olivares Hernández, Fabio García-García, Israel Camacho-Abrego, Gonzalo Flores, Enrique Juárez-Aguilar
A growing body of evidence suggests that growth hormone (GH) affects synaptic plasticity at both the molecular and electrophysiological levels. However, unclear is whether plasticity that is stimulated by GH is associated with changes in neuron structure. The present study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of GH on the morphology of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus and layer III of the prefrontal cortex. Male Wistar rats received daily ICV injections of GH (120 ng) for 7 days, and they were euthanized 21 days later...
February 5, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397787/gating-of-the-neuroendocrine-stress-responses-by-stressor-salience-in-early-lactating-female-rats-is-independent-of-infralimbic-cortex-activation-and-plasticity
#12
Katharina M Hillerer, Barbara Woodside, Emily Parkinson, Hong Long, Silvanna Verlezza, Claire-Dominique Walker
In early lactation (EL), stressor salience modulates neuroendocrine stress responses, but it is unclear whether this persists throughout lactation and which neural structures are implicated. We hypothesized that this process is specific to EL and that the infralimbic (IL) medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) might provide a critical link between assessment of threat and activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in EL. We measured neuroendocrine responses and neuronal Fos induction to a salient (predator odor) or non-salient (tail pinch) psychogenic stressor in EL and late lactation (LL) females...
February 4, 2018: Stress: the International Journal on the Biology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392417/great-trochanter-bursitis-vs-sciatica-a-diagnostic-anatomic-trap-differential-diagnosis-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#13
Aristeidis H Zibis, Vasileios D Mitrousias, Michail E Klontzas, Theofilos Karachalios, Sokratis E Varitimidis, Apostolos H Karantanas, Dimitrios L Arvanitis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to point out the difficulty of differentiating great trochanter bursitis (GTB) from sciatica and estimating the prevalence of GTΒ, in patients poorly diagnosed with sciatica in their first visit to the general practitioner and referred to a spine infirmary. METHODS: The diagnosis of GTΒ was made based on history and physical examination, and was confirmed by ultrasonography and/or response to an anesthetic plus corticosteroid injection to the trochanteric bursa...
February 1, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389010/changes-in-bone-mineral-density-and-bone-turnover-markers-during-treatment-with-teriparatide-in-pregnancy-and-lactation-associated-osteoporosis
#14
Namki Hong, Jo Eun Kim, Su Jin Lee, Se Hwa Kim, Yumie Rhee
CONTEXT: Teriparatide (TPTD) therapy has been proposed as a potential treatment strategy in severe cases of pregnancy- and lactation-associated osteoporosis (PLO) characterised by the occurrence of fragility fractures in the third trimester or early postpartum. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover markers in patients with PLO with and without TPTD treatment. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study...
February 1, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386672/the-use-of-ultrasound-to-evaluate-sacrococcygeal-epidural-injections-in-cats
#15
Leonardo Credie, Stelio Luna
Ultrasonography of the lumbosacral and sacrococcygeal spine is described in cats to confirm effective distribution of local anesthetics injected in the sacrococcygeal epidural space. Ultrasound was used to identify the structures of the spinal canal, local anesthetic flow, and to measure the distances between skin and ligamentum flavum.
February 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380419/astroglial-major-histocompatibility-complex-class-i-following-immune-activation-leads-to-behavioral-and-neuropathological-changes
#16
Akira Sobue, Norimichi Ito, Taku Nagai, Wei Shan, Kazuhiro Hada, Akira Nakajima, Yuki Murakami, Akihiro Mouri, Yasuko Yamamoto, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Kuniaki Saito, Kiyofumi Yamada
In the central nervous system, major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) molecules are mainly expressed in neurons, and neuronal MHCI have roles in synapse elimination and plasticity. However, the pathophysiological significance of astroglial MHCI remains unclear. We herein demonstrate that MHCI expression is up-regulated in astrocytes in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) following systemic immune activation by an intraperitoneal injection of polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) or hydrodynamic interferon (IFN)-γ gene delivery in male C57/BL6J mice...
January 30, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374610/anatomical-study-of-the-posterior-ascending-artery-application-to-c2-pedicle-screw-placement
#17
Joe Iwanaga, Emily Simonds, Paul J Choi, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
OBJECTIVE: Anatomy of the posterior ascending artery (PAA) has been well documented. The PAA forms an apical arcade which supplies the small branches to the tip of the dens. However, morphometrics of this artery such as diameter and distance from the midline which could be applied to the diagnosis and surgical procedure is scant. We aimed to investigate the anatomy of the PAA in order to apply to surgical procedure such as C2 pedicle screw placement. METHODS: Ten sides from five Caucasian cadaveric heads in which red latex was injected were used...
January 25, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374352/image-guidance-technologies-for-interventional-pain-procedures-ultrasound-fluoroscopy-and-ct
#18
REVIEW
Dajie Wang
Chronic pain is a common medical condition. Patients who suffer uncontrolled chronic pain may require interventions including spinal injections and various nerve blocks. Interventional procedures have evolved and improved over time since epidural injection was first introduced for low back pain and sciatica in 1901. One of the major contributors in the improvement of these interventions is the advancement of imaging guidance technologies. The utilization of image guidance has dramatically improved the accuracy and safety of these interventions...
January 26, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372860/prospective-randomized-multicenter-study-with-2-year-follow-up-to-compare-the-performance-of-decompression-with-and-without-interlaminar-stabilization
#19
Sven Schmidt, Joerg Franke, Michael Rauschmann, Dieter Adelt, Matteo Mario Bonsanto, Steffen Sola
OBJECTIVE Surgical decompression is extremely effective in relieving pain and symptoms due to lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Decompression with interlaminar stabilization (D+ILS) is as effective as decompression with posterolateral fusion for stenosis, as shown in a major US FDA pivotal trial. This study reports a multicenter, randomized controlled trial in which D+ILS was compared with decompression alone (DA) for treatment of moderate to severe LSS. METHODS Under approved institutional ethics review, 230 patients (1:1 ratio) randomized to either DA or D+ILS (coflex, Paradigm Spine) were treated at 7 sites in Germany...
January 26, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365099/the-effect-of-teriparatide-treatment-on-circulating-periostin-and-its-relationship-to-regulators-of-bone-formation-and-bmd-in-postmenopausal-women-with-osteoporosis
#20
Fatma Gossiel, Jessica R Scott, Margaret A Paggiosi, Kim E Naylor, Eugene V McCloskey, Nicola F A Peel, Jennifer S Walsh, Richard Eastell
Context: Treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with teriparatide (PTH 1-34) increases bone formation and improves bone microarchitecture. A possible modulator of this mechanism of action is periostin. In vitro experiments have shown that periostin may regulate osteoblast differentiation and bone formation through Wnt signaling. Periostin secretion is increased by PTH in preclinical models, but the effect of teriparatide treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis on periostin is not currently known...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
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