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Ethics and professionalism

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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM), this paper deals with the education of PRM physicians in Europe. To acquire the wide field of competence needed, specialists in Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine have to undergo a well organised and appropriately structured training of adequate duration. In fact they are required to develop not only medical knowledge, but also competence in patient care, specific procedural skills, and attitudes towards interpersonal relationship and communication, profound understanding of the main principles of medical ethics and public health, ability to apply policies of care and prevention for disabled people, capacity to master strategies for reintegration of disabled people into society, apply principles of quality assurance and promote a practice-based continuous professional development...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with a global overview of the role of PRM in healthcare systems in Europe. Several documents and reports by WHO and the UN call for the worldwide strengthening of rehabilitation as a key health strategy of the 21st century. Therefore, further implementation of PRM in healthcare systems is crucial. Many aspects need to be considered when implementing PRM in a health system. Since PRM should be provided along the whole continuum of care, a specific phase model has been developed...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper addresses the structure, organization and activities of PRM bodies in Europe. There are four main bodies, the Section of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine of the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS) very close to the European Union and is committed to define the professional competencies of PRM, the quality management and accreditation and with the Board the educational matters. The European College of PRM is served by the UEMS PRM Board and its main activities are analyzed below in the description of the Board of the UEMS PRM Section...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper describes the background to the context of PRM services and comprises the following: - Epidemiological Aspects of Functioning and Disability - Ethical Aspects and Human Rights - Rehabilitation and Health Systems - Economic Burden of Disability - Effects of Lack of Rehabilitation Health care service planning accounts for the burden of disability among society and the chapter describes the justification for specialist rehabilitation, the background of PRM and why making a functional diagnosis and a management plan based on function is its core competence...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Stephanie M Topp, Anjali Sharma, Clement N Moonga, Chisele Chileshe, George Magwende, German Henostroza
Introduction: In 2013, the Zambian Correctional Service (ZCS) partnered with the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia on the Zambian Prisons Health System Strengthening project, seeking to tackle structural, organisational and cultural weaknesses within the prison health system. We present findings from a nested evaluation of the project impact on high, mid-level and facility-level health governance and health service arrangements in the Zambian Correctional Service. Methods: Mixed methods were used, including document review, indepth interviews with ministry (11) and prison facility (6) officials, focus group discussions (12) with male and female inmates in six of the eleven intervention prisons, and participant observation during project workshops and meetings...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Isra Black, Ásgeir Rúnar Helgason
BACKGROUND: Morbidity arising from unprepared bereavement is a problem that affects close personal relations of individuals at the end-of-life. The bereavement studies literature demonstrates that a lack of preparedness for a loved one's death is a risk factor for secondary psychological morbidity among survivors. Short awareness time of death negatively correlates to preparedness for bereavement. The absence of disclosure of end-of-life diagnosis and prognosis to close personal relations ('death talk') between patients and loved ones, or health professionals and loved ones, may contribute to short awareness time of death...
March 21, 2018: BMC Palliative Care
Paola Mosconi, Cinzia Colombo, Anna Roberto, Giulia Candiani, Maria Teresa Greco, Roberto Satolli, Carlo Castellani
Background: Health technology assessment and ethical issues have to be dealt with in deciding on national carrier screening for cystic fibrosis (CF)-the most frequent severe autosomal recessive disease in Caucasian populations and several stakeholders need to be involved. A citizens' jury is one way to ask citizens to deliberate on controversial topics in the interests of a society. The aims of this project were to gather opinions about CF carrier screening through citizens' jury deliberations and to match them with the findings of a large online consultation survey open to the general population, people with CF and families and health professionals...
March 19, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
G C L Gracindo, J H da Silva Gallo, R Nunes
We aimed to outline the profile of medical professionals in Brazil who have violated the deontological norms set forth in the ethics code of the profession, and whose cases were judged by the higher tribunal for medical ethics between 2010 and 2016. This survey was conducted using a database formed from professional ethics cases extracted from the plenary of the medical ethics tribunal of the Federal Council of Medicine. These were disciplinary ethics cases that were judged at appeal level between 2010 and 2016...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Wies Maarse, Chantal W B Boonacker, Henriette F N Swanenburg de Veye, Moshe Kon, Corstiaan C Breugem, Aebele B Mink van der Molen, Johannes J M van Delden
OBJECTIVES: The prenatal diagnosis of oral clefts (OCs) by ultrasound can pose an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this study was to obtain insight into the psychosocial and moral considerations of prospective parents concerning OCs, the burden of OCs and parents' attitude toward possible termination of pregnancy (TOP) in order to improve counseling in the future. DESIGN: Between August 2011 and August 2014, a prospective cohort questionnaire study was administered...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
Xavier Bioy, Emmanuelle Rial-Sebbag
The bioethics laws since their first adoption in 1994 until the latest proposals, have been widely commented and analyzed, regarding the provisions related to the legal qualification and the legal status of the embryo and of the embryonic stem cells. The legal issues raised by these hesitations imply instability for both researchers and health professionals about what they can and cannot do when it comes to the embryo and its cells. Thus, while the protection of the embryo was the subject of a consensus until the end of the 2000s, it now appears as the object of a political will, from researchers and state agencies, to support this research...
March 7, 2018: Journal International de Bioéthique et D'éthique des Sciences
A C L Holden
The rise and persistence of a commercial model of healthcare and the potential shift towards the commodification of dental services, provided to consumers, should provoke thought about the nature and purpose of dentistry and whether this paradigm is cause for concern. Within this article, whether dentistry is a commodity and the legitimacy of dentistry as a business is explored and assessed. Dentistry is perceived to be a commodity, dependent upon the context of how services are to be provided and the interpretation of the patient-professional relationship...
March 20, 2018: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Greg Rulifson, Angela R Bielefeldt
Engineers should learn how to act on their responsibility to society during their education. At present, however, it is unknown what students think about the meaning of socially responsible engineering. This paper synthesizes 4 years of longitudinal interviews with engineering students as they progressed through college. The interviews revolved broadly around how students saw the connections between engineering and social responsibility, and what influenced these ideas. Using the Weidman Input-Environment-Output model as a framework, this research found that influences included required classes such as engineering ethics, capstone design, and some technical courses, pre-college volunteering and familial values, co-curricular groups such as Engineers Without Borders and the Society of Women Engineers, as well as professional experiences through internships...
March 20, 2018: Science and Engineering Ethics
Shelly Arora, Srinivas Sulugodu Ramachandra, Christopher Squier
Introduction: Scientific literature suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection may be associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, knowledge regarding HPV-OSCC link among oral health professionals (OHP) has been insufficient. So, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge about HPV associated OSCC among OHP working in dental faculties in Malaysia. Methodology: Ethical committee of the University approved this study. A validated, pre-tested questionnaire was sent electronically to 224 OHP...
January 2018: Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research
Shahenaz Najjar, Nashat Nafouri, Kris Vanhaecht, Martin Euwema
BACKGROUND: Patient safety is the central component of health-care quality. There is a lack of patient safety data in the occupied Palestinian territory. The aim of this study was to assess patient safety and explore relationships between patient safety culture and the prevalence of adverse events at the department level. METHODS: Between May 25, 2009, and June 1, 2010, the Arabic validated Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture was used to measure the norms and perceptions of health professionals regarding safety...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Nicolas Gillet, Evelyne Fouquereau, Hélène Coillot, Franck Bonnetain, Sophie Dupont, Leïla Moret, Amélie Anota, Philippe Colombat
PURPOSE: Although quality of care and caregivers' well-being are important issues in their own right, relatively few studies have examined both, especially in oncology. The present research thus investigated the relationship between job-related well-being and patients' perceptions of quality of care. More specifically, we examined the indirect effects of ethical leadership on patients' perceived quality of care through caregivers' well-being. METHOD: A cross-sectional design was used...
April 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
Joel Lexchin, Jillian Clare Kohler, Marc André Gagnon, James Crombie, Paul Thacker, Adrienne Shnier
Corruption in healthcare generally and specifically in the pharmaceutical arena has recently been highlighted in reports by Transparency International. This article focuses on four areas of corruption: legislative/regulatory, financial, ideological/ethical, and communications. The problems identified and the solutions considered focus on structural considerations affecting how pharmaceuticals are discovered, developed, distributed, and ultimately used in clinical settings. These include recourse to user fees in the regulatory sphere, application of intellectual property rights to medical contexts (patents and access to research data), commercial sponsorship of ghost writing and guest authors, linkage/delinkage of the funding of research and overall health objectives to/from drug pricing and sales, transparency of payments to healthcare professionals and institutions, and credible regulatory sanctions...
March 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Arun Mitra
Despite ongoing tensions in various parts of the world, the year 2017 ended on a positive note. The Treaty Prohibiting Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) was passed by the UN General Assembly on July 7, 2017, which will always be a red-letter day in history. It has raised many hopes for a future world without nuclear weapons and staved off the impending humanitarian catastrophe. Good health is a basic need of every individual. Therefore, each person yearns for a life free of violence and free of man-made catastrophes like the ones at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, which killed over two hundred thousand people and resulted in genetic mutations affecting generations thereafter...
March 7, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
Polona Mivšek, Anna-Mari Äimälä, Boštjan Žvanut, Jouni Tuomi
OBJECTIVES: Midwifery education is very demanding considering the professional competencies student midwives are required to develop. It can cause different levels of stress to students and affect their learning abilities. With the JDCS (Job Demands-Control-Social support) model adapted for educational purposes we aimed to estimate the midwifery students' coping abilities with study related stress. RESEARCH DESIGN: A quantitative study was conducted using a questionnaire that evaluated perceived demand (9 items), perceived control (10 items), and perceived social support (10 items) with a 5-point Likert scale...
February 21, 2018: Midwifery
Leonie A Krops, Rienk Dekker, Jan H B Geertzen, Pieter U Dijkstra
INTRODUCTION: Physically disabled people are less physically active compared with healthy people. Existing physical activity (PA) interventions are limited in reach, since they are primarily rehabilitation or school based. The current study aims to develop a community-based intervention for stimulating PA in hard-to-reach physically disabled people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: To systematically develop a PA-stimulating intervention, intervention mapping (six steps) was applied...
March 16, 2018: BMJ Open
Kresimir Radic, Marko Curkovic, Dario Bagaric, Maja Vilibic, Andrea Tomic, Maja Zivkovic
Patients with schizophrenia, nowadays chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder, get initial treatment after detection of a psychotic episode, seemingly late, potentially preventable stage of illness. As our knowledge about the nature of schizophrenia and other diseases of the spectrum is growing, so are the early interventions becoming more possible, and it is important to conceptualize the clinical, legal and moral issues emerging with new preventive treatments. Every intervention, especially in pre-clinical population, demands a careful risk-benefit assessment and having basic bioethical principles - primacy of patient's welfare, beneficience/non-maleficience, autonomy and justice - in mind...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
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