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Ethics and professionalism

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544334/corruption-or-professional-dignity-an-ethical-examination-of-the-phenomenon-of-red-envelopes-monetary-gifts-in-medical-practice-in-china
#1
Wei Zhu, Lijie Wang, Chengshang Yang
In the medical practice in China, giving and taking "red envelopes" (monetary gifts) is a common phenomenon although few openly admit it. This paper, based on our empirical study including data collected from interviews and questionnaires with medical professionals and patients, attempts to explore why "red envelopes" have become a serious problem in the physician-patient relationship and how the situation can be improved. Previous studies show that scholars tend to correlate the spread of "red envelopes" in health care sector to the commercialization trend, the general erosion of traditional values, and the lowering of the moral level in the medical field...
May 21, 2017: Developing World Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543418/reconciling-patient-safety-and-epistemic-humility-an-ethical-use-of-opioid-treatment-plans
#2
Anita Ho
In this issue of the Hastings Center Report, Joshua Rager and Peter Schwartz suggest using opioid treatment agreements as public health monitoring tools to inform patients about "the requirements entailed by undergoing opioid therapy," rather than as contractual agreements to alter patients' individual behavior or to benefit them directly. Because Rager and Schwartz's argument presents suspected OTA violations as a justification to stop providing opioids yet does not highlight the broader epistemic and systemic context within which clinicians prescribe these medications, their proposal may perpetuate a climate of distrust and stigmatization without correcting systemic factors that may have placed patients and others at risk in the first place...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541177/when-teachable-moments-become-ethically-problematic
#3
Elizabeth Dzeng
There is frequently tension in medical education between teaching moments that provide skills and knowledge for medical trainees, and instrumentalizing patients for the purpose of teaching. In this commentary, I question the ethical acceptability of the practice of providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) to dying patients who would be unlikely to survive resuscitation, as a teaching opportunity for medical trainees. This practice violates the principle of informed consent, as the patient agreed to resuscitation for the purpose of potentially prolonging life rather than to futile resuscitation as a teaching opportunity...
July 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539303/pharma-websites-and-professionals-only-information-the-implications-for-patient-trust-and-autonomy
#4
Mark Alan Graber, Eliyakim Hershkop, Rachel Ilana Graber
BACKGROUND: Access to information is critical to a patient's valid exercise of autonomy. One increasingly important source of medical information is the Internet. Individuals often turn to drug company ("pharma") websites to look for drug information. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine whether there is information on pharma websites that is embargoed: Is there information that is hidden from the patient unless she attests to being a health care provider? We discuss the implications of our findings for health care ethics...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538445/a-national-survey-on-the-use-of-immersive-simulation-for-interprofessional-education-in-physical-therapist-education-programs
#5
Brad Stockert, Patricia J Ohtake
INTRODUCTION: There is growing recognition that collaborative practice among healthcare professionals is associated with improved patient outcomes and enhanced team functioning, but development of collaborative practitioners requires interprofessional education (IPE). Immersive simulation, a clinically relevant experience that deeply engages the learner in realistic clinical environments, is used increasingly for IPE. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of immersive simulation as a strategy for IPE in physical therapist (PT) education programs...
May 20, 2017: Simulation in Healthcare: Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536839/maternal-fetal-surgery-for-myelomeningocele-some-thoughts-on-ethical-legal-and-psychological-issues-in-a-western-european-situation
#6
Frank Van Calenbergh, Luc Joyeux, Jan Deprest
BACKGROUND: The results of the Management of Myelomeningocele Study (MOMS) randomized controlled trial have demonstrated that maternal-fetal surgery (MFS) for myelomeningocele (MMC) compared to postnatal MMC repair has clear neurological benefits for the child at 12 and 30 months of age. Level I evidence nevertheless does not provide answers to many questions in this delicate field. Since the beginning of 2012, our fetal center has been offering MFS for spina bifida aperta (SBA) to patients from different European and non-European countries, in a societal context where termination of pregnancy is the option chosen by most patients when being informed of this diagnosis...
May 23, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535841/the-epigenetic-effects-of-assisted-reproductive-technologies-ethical-considerations
#7
M-C Roy, C Dupras, V Ravitsky
The use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) has increased significantly, allowing many coping with infertility to conceive. However, an emerging body of evidence suggests that ART could carry epigenetic risks for those conceived through the use of these technologies. In accordance with the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis, ART could increase the risk of developing late-onset diseases through epigenetic mechanisms, as superovulation, fertilization methods and embryo culture could impair the embryo's epigenetic reprogramming...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535143/intercultural-communication-through-the-eyes-of-patients-experiences-and-preferences
#8
Emma Paternotte, Sandra van Dulmen, Lindsay Bank, Conny Seeleman, Albert Scherpbier, Fedde Scheele
Objectives: To explore patients' preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native patients were interviewed between September and December 2015 about their preferences and experiences regarding communication with a native Dutch doctor. Fourteen interviews were established with an interpreter...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534296/anticipating-the-ethical-challenges-of-psychiatric-genetic-testing
#9
REVIEW
Paul S Appelbaum, Shawna Benston
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic testing for mental illness is likely to become increasingly prevalent as the science behind it is refined. This article identifies anticipated ethical challenges for patients, psychiatrists, and genetic counselors and makes recommendations for addressing them. RECENT FINDINGS: Many of the ethical challenges of psychiatric genetic testing are likely to stem from failures to comprehend the nature and implications of test results. Recent studies have identified gaps in the knowledge base of psychiatrists and genetic counselors, which limit their abilities to provide patients with appropriate education...
July 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534181/assessing-decision-making-capacity-for-do-not-resuscitate-requests-in-depressed-patients-how-to-apply-the-communication-and-appreciation-criteria
#10
Benjamin D Brody, Ellen C Meltzer, Diana Feldman, Julie B Penzner, Janna S Gordon-Elliot
The Patient Self Determination Act (PSDA) of 1991 brought much needed attention to the importance of advance care planning and surrogate decision-making. The purpose of this law is to ensure that a patient's preferences for medical care are recognized and promoted, even if the patient loses decision-making capacity (DMC). In general, patients are presumed to have DMC. A patient's DMC may come under question when distortions in thinking and understanding due to illness, delirium, depression or other psychiatric symptoms are identified or suspected...
May 22, 2017: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527476/forensic-medicine-and-the-military-population-international-dental-records-and-personal-identification-concerns
#11
Maria Inês Guimarães, Augusta Silveira, Teresa Sequeira, Joaquim Gonçalves, Maria José Carneiro Sousa, Aurora Valenzuela
INTRODUCTION: The first goal of this research was to perceive the global commitment towards the organization and archiving of dental records and to compare it with each country's security risk rating. The second one was to study dental records in a sample of the Portuguese military population, using the available national dental records. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An e-mail was sent to representative dentistry associations in several countries, requesting some information concerning the professionals' awareness of this issue...
February 27, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525312/evaluation-of-the-introduction-of-an-e-health-skills-component-for-dietetics-students
#12
Megan E Rollo, Clare E Collins, Lesley MacDonald-Wicks
BACKGROUND: Appropriate and effective use of technology within practice is a key competency outlined in Australian dietetics training standards. An e-health skills component (lecture and workshop) was introduced to undergraduate students enrolled in an Australian nutrition and dietetics program. METHODS: The lecture orientated students to key e-health terms and concepts relating to telehealth and m-health technologies, while the workshop provided an opportunity to apply knowledge...
May 19, 2017: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524242/women-with-vulvodynia-awareness-and-knowledge-of-its-care-among-student-healthcare-staff
#13
Minna Törnävä, Meeri Koivula, Mika Helminen, Tarja Suominen
BACKGROUND: Many women with vulvodynia are women of fertile age, and this syndrome may cause many physical and psychosexual functional disorders. Women with vulvodynia often find that healthcare professionals seem to demonstrate a lack of awareness about the syndrome and its care. These issues have not been previously studied among student healthcare staff. AIM: To investigate awareness and knowledge about vulvodynia and its care among staff in the student healthcare sector in Finland...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523437/using-participatory-action-research-to-develop-a-working-model-that-enhances-psychiatric-nurses-professionalism-the-architecture-of-stability
#14
Martin Salzmann-Erikson
Ward rules in psychiatric care aim to promote safety for both patients and staff. Simultaneously, ward rules are associated with increased patient violence, leading to neither a safe work environment nor a safe caring environment. Although ward rules are routinely used, few studies have explicitly accounted for their impact. To describe the process of a team development project considering ward rule issues, and to develop a working model to empower staff in their daily in-patient psychiatric nursing practices...
May 18, 2017: Administration and Policy in Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521799/what-are-the-differences-among-occupational-groups-related-to-their-palliative-care-specific-educational-needs-and-intensity-of-interprofessional-collaboration-in-long-term-care-homes
#15
S Kaasalainen, T Sussman, M Bui, N Akhtar-Danesh, R D Laporte, L McCleary, A Wickson Griffiths, K Brazil, D Parker, V Dal Bello-Haas, A Papaioannou, J O'Leary
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the differences across occupational groups related to their end-of-life care-specific educational needs and reported intensity of interprofessional collaboration in long-term care (LTC) homes. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey, based on two questionnaires, was administered at four LTC homes in Ontario, Canada using a modified Dilman's approach. The first questionnaire, End of Life Professional Caregiver Survey, included three domains: patients and family-centered communication, cultural and ethical values, effective care delivery...
May 18, 2017: BMC Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517986/from-rosalind-franklin-to-barack-obama-data-sharing-challenges-and-solutions-in-genomics-and-personalised-medicine
#16
Mark Lawler, Tim Maughan
The collection, storage and use of genomic and clinical data from patients and healthy individuals is a key component of personalised medicine enterprises such as the Precision Medicine Initiative, the Cancer Moonshot and the 100,000 Genomes Project. In order to maximise the value of this data, it is important to embed a culture within the scientific, medical and patient communities that supports the appropriate sharing of genomic and clinical information. However, this aspiration raises a number of ethical, legal and regulatory challenges that need to be addressed...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515799/implementing-mindfulness-in-the-mainstream-making-the-path-by-walking-it
#17
Rebecca S Crane
There is expanding interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) within the mainstream. While there are research gaps, there is empirical evidence for these developments. Implementing new evidence into practice is always complex and difficult. Particular complexities and tensions arise when implementing MBPs in the mainstream. MBPs are emerging out of the confluence of different epistemologies-contemplative teaching and practice, and contemporary Western empiricism and culture. In the process of navigating implementation and integrity, and developing a professional practice context for this emerging field, the diverse influences within this confluence need careful attention and thought...
2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514133/-the-influence-of-the-israeli-legislation-on-the-relationship-between-physicians-and-pharmaceutical-companies
#18
Rachel Nissanholtz-Gannot, Ariel Yankellevich, Nurit Nirel
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical-companies raises many dilemmas. There are two types of solutions to these dilemmas: self-regulation and government regulation. Our goal was to review in what way legislative intervention and self-regulation standardize and affect the relationship. In addition, we examined the positions of relevant stakeholders regarding: 1. The relationship between physicians and pharmaceutical companies; 2. Future measures we should take to address the ethical dilemmas inherent in this relationship...
July 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513850/small-prey-species-behaviour-and-welfare-implications-for-veterinary-professionals
#19
REVIEW
E Anne McBride
People have obligations to ensure the welfare of animals under their care. Offences under the UK Animal Welfare Act are acts, or failures of action, causing unnecessary suffering. Veterinary professionals need to be able to provide current, scientifically based prophylactic advice, and respect the limits of their expertise. The ethical concept of a life worth living and the Five Freedoms are core to welfare. Behaviour is a central component, both influencing and influenced by physical health. Owners frequently misunderstand the behaviour of small prey mammals and how to meet their needs...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511085/development-implementation-and-effects-of-an-integrated-web-based-teaching-model-in-a-nursing-ethics-course
#20
S-Y Chao, Y-C Chang, S C Yang, M J Clark
BACKGROUND: Ethical competence, which is reflected in the ability to detect ethical challenges in clinical situations and engage in deliberate thinking on ethical actions, is one of the core competencies of nursing practice. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop and implement an interactive situational e-learning system, integrating nursing ethical decisions into a nursing ethics course, and to evaluate the effects of this course on student nurses' ethical decision-making competence...
April 19, 2017: Nurse Education Today
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