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Calcium channel subunit

Lu Zhang, Cuihua Feng, Yamin Zhou, Qiong Zhou
The present study aimed to identify bladder cancer-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) and target genes, and further analyze the potential molecular mechanisms involved in bladder cancer. The mRNA and miRNA expression profiling dataset GSE40355 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The Limma package in R was used to identify differential expression levels. The Human microRNA Disease Database was used to identify bladder cancer-associated miRNAs and Target prediction programs were used to screen for miRNA target genes...
June 2018: Oncology Letters
Huijie Ma 马会杰, Shao-Rui Chen 陈少瑞, Hong Chen 陈红, Lingyong Li 李令勇, De-Pei Li 李德培李德培, Jing-Jing Zhou 周京京, Hui-Lin Pan 潘惠麟
Both the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin system are critically involved in hypertension development. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) stimulates hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons to increase sympathetic vasomotor tone, the molecular mechanism mediating this action remains unclear. The glutamate N -methyl- D -aspartate receptor (NMDAR) in the PVN controls sympathetic outflow in hypertension. In this study, we determined the interaction between α2δ-1 (encoded by Cacna2d1 ), commonly known as a Ca2+ channel subunit, and NMDARs in the hypothalamus and its role in Ang II-induced synaptic NMDAR activity in PVN presympathetic neurons...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Qian-Ru Zhao, Jun-Mei Lu, Zhao-Yang Li, Yan-Ai Mei
Neuritin is a neurotrophic factor that is activated by neural activity and neurotrophins. Its major function is to promote neurite growth and branching; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. To address this issue, the present study investigated the effects of neuritin on neurite and spine growth and intracellular Ca2+ concentration in rat cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Incubation of CGNs for 24 h with neuritin increased neurite length and spine density; this effect was mimicked by insulin and abolished by inhibiting insulin receptor (IR) or mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Laurent Ferron, Ivan Kadurin, Annette C Dolphin
Auxiliary α2 δ subunits are important proteins for trafficking of voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV ) at the active zones of synapses. We have previously shown that the post-translational proteolytic cleavage of α2 δ is essential for their modulatory effects on the trafficking of N-type (CaV 2.2) calcium channels (Kadurin et al. 2016). We extend these results here by showing that the probability of presynaptic vesicular release is reduced when an uncleaved α2 δ is expressed in rat neurons and that this inhibitory effect is reversed when cleavage of α2 δ is restored...
June 19, 2018: ELife
Vadim Demidchik, Sergey Shabala, Stanislav Isayenkov, Tracey A Cuin, Igor Pottosin
Contents I. II. III. IV. References SUMMARY: Calcium is an essential structural, metabolic and signalling element. The physiological functions of Ca2+ are enabled by its orchestrated transport across cell membranes, mediated by Ca2+ -permeable ion channels, Ca2+ -ATPases and Ca2+ /H+ exchangers. Bioinformatics analysis has not determined any Ca2+ -selective filters in plant ion channels, but electrophysiological tests do reveal Ca2+ conductances in plant membranes. The biophysical characteristics of plant Ca2+ conductances have been studied in detail and were recently complemented by molecular genetic approaches...
June 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Boram Nho, Junghun Lee, Junsub Lee, Kyeong Ryang Ko, Sung Joong Lee, Sunyoung Kim
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a multifunctional protein that contains angiogenic and neurotrophic properties. In the current study, we investigated the analgesic effects of HGF by using a plasmid DNA that was designed to express 2 isoforms of human HGF-pCK-HGF-X7 (or VM202)-in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) -induced mouse neuropathic pain model. Intramuscular injection of pCK-HGF-X7 into proximal thigh muscle induced the expression of HGF in the muscle, sciatic nerve, and dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
April 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Augusto C Montezano, Livia De Lucca Camargo, Patrik Persson, Francisco J Rios, Adam P Harvey, Aikaterini Anagnostopoulou, Roberto Palacios, Ana Caroline P Gandara, Rheure Alves-Lopes, Karla B Neves, Maria Dulak-Lis, Chet E Holterman, Pedro Lagerblad de Oliveira, Delyth Graham, Christopher Kennedy, Rhian M Touyz
BACKGROUND: NADPH Oxidase 5 (Nox5) is a calcium-sensitive superoxide-generating Nox. It is present in lower forms and higher mammals, but not in rodents. Nox5 is expressed in vascular cells, but the functional significance remains elusive. Given that contraction is controlled by calcium and reactive oxygen species, both associated with Nox5, we questioned the role of Nox5 in pro-contractile signaling and vascular function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Transgenic mice expressing human Nox5 in a vascular smooth muscle cell-specific manner (Nox5 mice) and Rhodnius prolixus , an arthropod model that expresses Nox5 endogenoulsy, were studied...
June 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Chen-Wei Tsai, Ming-Feng Tsai
The mitochondrial calcium uniporter is a multisubunit Ca2+ channel that mediates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, a cellular process crucial for the regulation of oxidative phosphorylation, intracellular Ca2+ signaling, and apoptosis. In the last few years, genes encoding uniporter proteins have been identified, but a lack of efficient tools for electrophysiological recordings has hindered quantitative analysis required to determine functional mechanisms of this channel complex. Here, we redirected Ca2+ -conducting subunits (MCU and EMRE) of the human uniporter to the plasma membrane of Xenopus oocytes...
June 11, 2018: Journal of General Physiology
Joanna C Jen, Jijun Wan
Primary episodic ataxias (EAs) are a group of dominantly inherited disorders characterized by transient recurrent incoordination and truncal instability, often triggered by physical exertion and emotional stress, variably associated with progressive baseline ataxia. There are now eight designated subtypes based largely on genetic loci. Mutations have been identified in multiple individuals and families with EA1, EA2, and EA6, mostly with onset before adulthood. EA1 and EA2 are prototypical neurologic channelopathies...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Yankun Lv, Yanjun Wang, Xiaoran Zhu, Hua Zhang
We have previously shown that aldosterone downregulates delayed rectifier potassium currents (IKs ) via activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in adult guinea pig cardiomyocytes. Here, we investigate whether angiotensin II/angiotensin type 1 receptor (AngII/AT1R) and intracellular calcium also play a role in these effects. Ventricular cardiomyocytes were isolated from adult guinea pigs and incubated with aldosterone (1 μmol·L-1 ) either alone or in combination with enalapril (1 μmol·L-1 ), losartan (1 μmol·L-1 ), nimodipine (1 μmol·L-1 ), or BAPTA-AM (2...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
Erum Rasheed, Jansen Seheult, James Gibney, Gerard Boran
Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is a rare complication of hyperthyroidism where increased influx of potassium into skeletal muscle cells leads to profound hypokalaemia and paralysis. Most cases arise sporadically in Asians however it is being increasingly reported in Caucasians. TPP is regarded as a channelopathy where a genetic and/or acquired defect in the sodium-potassium (Na+/K+-ATPase) pump renders it more sensitive to excess thyroid hormone in susceptible individuals. Because the clinical presentation is similar to familial hypokalaemic periodic paralysis (FHPP), genes implicated in this autosomal dominant condition became candidates for TPP, particularly if they were known to have thyroid hormone-responsive elements...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
Jean Chemin, Karine Siquier-Pernet, Michaël Nicouleau, Giulia Barcia, Ali Ahmad, Daniel Medina-Cano, Sylvain Hanein, Nami Altin, Laurence Hubert, Christine Bole-Feysot, Cécile Fourage, Patrick Nitschké, Julien Thevenon, Marlène Rio, Pierre Blanc, Céline Vidal, Nadia Bahi-Buisson, Isabelle Desguerre, Arnold Munnich, Stanislas Lyonnet, Nathalie Boddaert, Emily Fassi, Marwan Shinawi, Holly Zimmerman, Jeanne Amiel, Laurence Faivre, Laurence Colleaux, Philippe Lory, Vincent Cantagrel
Cerebellar atrophy is a key neuroradiological finding usually associated with cerebellar ataxia and cognitive development defect in children. Unlike the adult forms, early onset cerebellar atrophies are classically described as mostly autosomal recessive conditions and the exact contribution of de novo mutations to this phenotype has not been assessed. In contrast, recent studies pinpoint the high prevalence of pathogenic de novo mutations in other developmental disorders such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders and epilepsy...
June 5, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Anne Hahn, Johanna J Salomon, Dominik Leitz, Dennis Feigenbutz, Lisa Korsch, Ina Lisewski, Katrin Schrimpf, Pamela Millar-Büchner, Marcus A Mall, Stephan Frings, Frank Möhrlen
Physiological processes of vital importance are often safeguarded by compensatory systems that substitute for primary processes in case these are damaged by gene mutation. Ca2+ -dependent Cl- secretion in airway epithelial cells may provide such a compensatory mechanism for impaired Cl- secretion via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channels in cystic fibrosis (CF). Anoctamin 1 (ANO1) Ca2+ -gated Cl- channels are known to contribute to calcium-dependent Cl- secretion in tracheal and bronchial epithelia...
June 2, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Daisuke Tachiya, Tadasu Sato, Hiroyuki Ichikawa
By immunohistochemistry, an effect of nerve injury on distribution of alpha-2/delta-1 subunit of L-type calcium channel was investigated in rat's 4th and 5th lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRGs), trigeminal ganglion (TG), and mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (Mes5). The immunoreactivity was expressed by 52.2% of DRG neurons and 31.4% of TG neurons in intact animals. These neurons mostly had small-to-medium-sized cell bodies. In the DRG and TG, alpha-2/delta-1 subunit-positive neurons were lightly or moderately stained...
May 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
Tasuku Akiyama, Tsugunobu Andoh, Eiji Ohtsuka, Hiroshi Nojima, Hidekazu Ouchi, Hiroki Takahata, Yasushi Kuraishi
The antipruritic activity of gabapentin, an anticonvulsant, was studied in a mouse model of allergic itch. In mice sensitized by an extract of the salivary glands of the mosquito (ESGM), an intradermal injection of ESGM elicited scratching and increased peripheral nerve firing. Oral or intradermal administration of gabapentin at the ESGM injection site inhibited ESGM-induced scratching and peripheral nerve firing. However, gabapentin did not affect histamine-induced scratching. The distributions of immunoreactivity to the voltage-dependent calcium channel α2 δ-1 subunit, a site of gabapentin action, and the histamine H1 receptor differed in the mouse dorsal root ganglia...
May 26, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xiaoyu Liu, Lidong Zhang, Li Jin, Yuanhui Tan, Weiyan Li, Jun Tang
Emerging evidence showed that hyperpolarization-activated cation channels (HCN) participate in the development of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, the role of HCN2 in oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain remains unknown. Here, we found that HCN2 expression was upregulated in a rat model of oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain. Intrathecal injection of ZD7288, an HCN specific inhibitor, decreased the HCN2 level, as well as weakened the neuropathic pain behaviors compared to naive rats. Besides, mechanistic studies revealed that the expression of the spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B was increased after oxaliplatin administration and was reduced by ZD7288 administration...
January 2018: Molecular Pain
Charlotte M Thomas, David J Timson
The trematode Schistosoma mansoni is a causative agent of schistosomiasis, the second most common parasitic disease of humans after malaria. Calcium homeostasis and calcium-mediated signalling pathways are of particular interest in this species. The drug of choice for treating schistosomiasis, praziquantel, disrupts the regulation of calcium uptake and there is interest in exploiting calcium-mediated processes for future drug discovery. Calmodulin is a calcium sensing protein, present in most eukaryotes. It is a critical regulator of processes as diverse as muscle contraction, cell division and, partly through interaction with voltage-gated calcium channels, intra-cellular calcium concentrations...
May 17, 2018: Cell Calcium
Yujia Yang, Qiang Fu, Xiaozhu Wang, Yang Liu, Qifan Zeng, Yun Li, Sen Gao, Lisui Bao, Shikai Liu, Dongya Gao, Rex Dunham, Zhanjiang Liu
Channel catfish is the leading aquaculture species in the US, and one of the reasons for its application in aquaculture is its relatively high tolerance against hypoxia. However, hypoxia can still cause huge economic losses to the catfish industry. Studies on hypoxia tolerance, therefore, are important for aquaculture. Fish swimbladder has been considered as an accessory respiration organ surrounded by a dense capillary countercurrent exchange system. In this regard, we conducted RNA-Seq analysis with swimbladder samples of catfish under hypoxic and normal conditions to determine if swimbladder was responsive to low oxygen treatment, and to reveal genes, their expression patterns and pathways involved in hypoxia responses in catfish...
May 25, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Jerome J Lacroix, Wesley M Botello-Smith, Yun Luo
Piezo proteins are transmembrane ion channels which transduce many forms of mechanical stimuli into electrochemical signals. Their pore, formed by the assembly of three identical subunits, opens by an unknown mechanism. Here, to probe this mechanism, we investigate the interaction of Piezo1 with the small molecule agonist Yoda1. By engineering chimeras between mouse Piezo1 and its Yoda1-insensitive paralog Piezo2, we first identify a minimal protein region required for Yoda1 sensitivity. We next study the effect of Yoda1 on heterotrimeric Piezo1 channels harboring wild type subunits and Yoda1-insensitive mutant subunits...
May 23, 2018: Nature Communications
M Chincholkar
The focus of perioperative pain management should be to attempt to minimise the nociceptive input and reduce the risk of transition to central sensitisation. Gabapentinoids are being increasingly used as adjuncts for management of perioperative pain. Although gabapentinoids are classed as calcium channel blockers, their mechanisms of action are poorly understood. The analgesic effect in neuropathic pain is well evidenced but the role in postoperative pain is less certain. Medline and EMBASE database searches were conducted to identify studies relating to mechanisms of action and effects in experimental animal models of inflammatory and postoperative pain and human models of experimental pain...
June 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
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