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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222581/a-comparison-of-the-physiological-demands-imposed-by-competing-in-a-half-marathon-vs-a-marathon
#1
Juan Del Coso, Juan J Salinero, Beatriz Lara, Javier Abián-Vicén, César Gallo-Salazar, Francisco Areces
BACKGROUND: While there is widespread scientific information about the physiological challenges imposed on elite endurance runners during competitions, the information regarding the amateur population is scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the physical and physiological load imposed by competing in a real half-marathon vs a marathon race. METHODS: From a larger group of participants, we selected 22 experienced runners who were matched in pairs (11 marathoners and 11 half-marathoners) for age and anthropometric data...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222048/comparison-of-running-economy-values-while-wearing-no-shoes-minimal-shoes-and-normal-running-shoes
#2
Robbie G Cochrum, Ryan T Connors, John M Coons, Dana K Fuller, Don W Morgan, Jennifer L Caputo
Cochrum, RG, Connors, RT, Coons, JM, Fuller, DK, Morgan, DW, and Caputo, JL. Comparison of running economy values while wearing no shoes, minimal shoes, and normal running shoes. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 595-601, 2017-The purpose of this study was to quantify differences in running economy (RE) at 50 and 70% of each subject's velocity at V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (vV[Combining Dot Above]O2max) across barefoot and 2 mass, stack height, and heel-to-toe-drop controlled footwear conditions (minimal shoes and normal running shoes) in 9 recreational distance runners (mean age 26...
March 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218393/the-relative-position-of-the-human-fibula-to-the-tibia-influences-cross-sectional-properties-of-the-tibia
#3
Benjamin M Auerbach, Alice F Gooding, Colin N Shaw, Adam D Sylvester
OBJECTIVES: The fibula transmits loads within the lower limb of hominids. The few studies of variation in the cross-sectional geometric (CSG) properties of the fibula have established differences in its rigidity among groups engaged in distinct habitual loading activities. This study adds to this research by considering the relationship between CSG properties and the anatomical position of the fibula relative to the tibia among groups with differences in documented activity patterns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used pQCT scans taken at 50% of the length of the lower leg in 83 healthy young adult collegiate-aged individuals divided into five activity groups: runners, swimmers, cricketers, field hockey players, and non-athletes...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210643/perception-of-health-problems-among-competitive-runners-a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-appraisals-and-behavioral-responses
#4
Sara Jelvegård, Toomas Timpka, Victor Bargoria, Håkan Gauffin, Jenny Jacobsson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2 of every 3 competitive runners sustain at least 1 health problem each season. Most of these problems are nontraumatic injuries with gradual onset. The main known risk indicator for sustaining a new running-related injury episode is a history of a previous injury, suggesting that behavioral habits are part of the causal mechanisms. PURPOSE: Identification of elements associated with purposeful interpretations of body perceptions and balanced behavioral responses may supply vital information for prevention of health problems in runners...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177715/gut-training-the-impact-of-two-weeks-repetitive-gut-challenge-during-exercise-on-gastrointestinal-status-glucose-availability-fuel-kinetics-and-running-performance
#5
Ricardo J S Costa, Atlanta Miall, Anthony Khoo, Christopher Rauch, Rhiannon Snipe, Vera Camões-Costa, Peter Gibson
BACKGROUND: Due to gastrointestinal tract adaptability, the study aimed to determine the impact of two weeks gut-training protocol over two weeks on gastrointestinal status, blood glucose availability, fuel kinetics, and running performance. METHODS: Endurance runners (n= 25) performed a gut-challenge trial (GC1), comprising of 2 h running exercise at 60% VO2max whilst consuming gel-discs containing 30 g carbohydrates (2:1 glucose-fructose, 10% w/v) every 20 min, and a 1 h distance test...
January 19, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149347/application-of-a-physiological-strain-index-in-evaluating-responses-to-exercise-stress-a-comparison-between-endurance-and-high-intensity-intermittent-trained-athletes
#6
Ilona Pokora, Aleksandra Żebrowska
The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI). Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH) conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD), twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT) and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h(-1) which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h(-1) to volitional exhaustion...
April 1, 2016: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144412/secular-trend-in-thinness-prevalence-for-26-years-1989-2014-among-high-school-runners-in-japan
#7
Norimitsu Kinoshita, Rei Fukuda
BACKGROUND: Female distance runners are predisposed to thinness for performance reasons and at greater risk for health-related consequences than the general population. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the secular trends in thinness among competitive distance runners in Japanese high schools with sex-specific comparison. METHODS: Body mass index (BMI) were analysed in 9,881 female and 12,786 male runners participating in the annual national road relay races between 1989 and 2014 using the directory of a track and field magazine...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142366/benign-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-in-a-distance-runner
#8
Laura E Stanley, David J Berkoff
A 31-year-old female runner presented to physical therapy via direct access with an 8-month history of atraumatic left lateral calf pain. Following 1 month of physical therapy, the patient was referred to an orthopaedic sports medicine physician. Ultrasound imaging revealed a 2-cm hypoechoic mass with well-defined margins in the left proximal lateral soleus, while Doppler ultrasound demonstrated increased color flow surrounding the mass. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with a nerve sheath tumor, and ultrasound-guided tissue biopsy determined the mass to be a benign peripheral nerve sheath tumor...
February 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139033/performance-trends-in-age-group-runners-from-100%C3%A2-m-to-marathon-the-world-championships-from-1975-to-2015
#9
P T Nikolaidis, M A Zingg, B Knechtle
This study examined changes in performance in age-group track runners across years from 1975 to 2015 for 100, 200, 400, 800, 1500, 5000, 10 000 m, and marathon and the corresponding sex differences. Athletes were ranked in 5-year age-group intervals from 35-39 to 95-99 years. For all races and all years, the eight female and male finalists for each age-group were included. Men were faster than women and this observation was more pronounced in the shorter distances. The younger age-groups were faster than the older age-groups and age exerted the largest effect on speed in 800 m and the smallest in marathon...
January 30, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28136131/is-marathon-running-toxic-an-observational-study-of-cardiovascular-disease-prevalence-and-longevity-in-54-male-marathon-runners
#10
Benjamin Rosin
OBJECTIVES: Recent literature suggests reduced benefits associated with high intensity (HIT) and or sustained intensity exercise training (SIT). While important, they tend to contrast with other studies of HIT and SIT and may not be representative of all individuals wishing to participate in activities such as marathon running. The purpose of this observational report is to describe a 45-year history of 54 long distance runners, their incidence of death from cardiovascular disease and their ages at death compared to the normal population...
January 30, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135584/athletic-background-is-related-to-superior-trunk-proprioceptive-ability-postural-control-and-neuromuscular-responses-to-sudden-perturbations
#11
Grace O Glofcheskie, Stephen H M Brown
Trunk motor control is essential for athletic performance, and inadequate trunk motor control has been linked to an increased risk of developing low back and lower limb injury in athletes. Research is limited in comparing relationships between trunk neuromuscular control, postural control, and trunk proprioception in athletes from different sporting backgrounds. To test for these relationships, collegiate level long distance runners and golfers, along with non-athletic controls were recruited. Trunk postural control was investigated using a seated balance task...
January 28, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129518/body-mass-and-weekly-training-distance-influence-the-pain-and-injuries-experienced-by-runners-using-minimalist-shoes
#12
Joel T Fuller, Dominic Thewlis, Jonathan D Buckley, Nicholas A T Brown, Joseph Hamill, Margarita D Tsiros
BACKGROUND: Minimalist shoes have been popularized as a safe alternative to conventional running shoes. However, a paucity of research is available investigating the longer-term safety of minimalist shoes. PURPOSE: To compare running-related pain and injury between minimalist and conventional shoes in trained runners and to investigate interactions between shoe type, body mass, and weekly training distance. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial; Level of evidence, 2...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095067/pacing-strategies-and-metabolic-responses-during-4-minute-running-time-trials
#13
Jonathan Watkins, Simon Platt, Erik Andersson, Kerry McGawley
PURPOSE: The aim of the current study was to investigate pacing strategies and the distribution of physiological resources in best versus worst performances during a series of 4-minute, self-paced running time-trials (RunTTs). METHODS: Five male and five female recreational runners (age 32 ± 7 years) completed a sub-maximal ramp test and five RunTTs on a motor-driven treadmill fitted with a speed-controlling laser system. The supramaximal V̇O2 demand was estimated by linear extrapolation from the sub-maximal relationship between V̇O2 and speed, enabling computation of the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD)...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039074/caffeine-stimulates-voluntary-wheel-running-in-mice-without-increasing-aerobic-capacity
#14
Gerald C Claghorn, Zoe Thompson, Kristianna Wi, Lindsay Van, Theodore Garland
The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033057/calcaneal-bone-mass-modification-in-recreational-runners
#15
Elena Escamilla-Martínez, Alfonso Martínez-Nova, Beatriz Gómez-Martín, Raquel Sánchez-Rodríguez, Lourdes María Fernández-Seguín, Juan Diego Pedrera-Zamorano
BACKGROUND: The calcaneus is the bone of the foot that first receives the impact of running, generating vibrations that might have a positive effect in modifying the trabecular bone mass. The objective of this study was to determine the variation in calcaneal bone density in runners during a 6-month training season, comparing it with a control sample. METHODS: Bone density of the heel was measured in 33 male recreational runners by means of a contact ultrasonic bone analyzer...
November 2016: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018192/differences-in-resting-state-functional-connectivity-between-young-adult-endurance-athletes-and-healthy-controls
#16
David A Raichlen, Pradyumna K Bharadwaj, Megan C Fitzhugh, Kari A Haws, Gabrielle-Ann Torre, Theodore P Trouard, Gene E Alexander
Expertise and training in fine motor skills has been associated with changes in brain structure, function, and connectivity. Fewer studies have explored the neural effects of athletic activities that do not seem to rely on precise fine motor control (e.g., distance running). Here, we compared resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of adult male collegiate distance runners (n = 11; age = 21.3 ± 2.5) and a group of healthy age-matched non-athlete male controls (n = 11; age = 20.6 ± 1.1), to test the hypothesis that expertise in sustained aerobic motor behaviors affects resting state functional connectivity in young adults...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012036/no-influence-of-ischemic-preconditioning-on-running-economy
#17
Gungeet Kaur, Megan Binger, Claire Evans, Tiffany Trachte, Gary P Van Guilder
PURPOSE: Many of the potential performance-enhancing properties of ischemic preconditioning suggest that the oxygen cost for a given endurance exercise workload will be reduced, thereby improving the economy of locomotion. The aim of this study was to identify whether ischemic preconditioning improves exercise economy in recreational runners. METHODS: A randomized sham-controlled crossover study was employed in which 18 adults (age 27 ± 7 years; BMI 24.6 ± 3 kg/m(2)) completed two, incremental submaximal (65-85% VO2max) treadmill running protocols (3 × 5 min stages from 7...
December 23, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009787/prevalence-of-exercise-induced-arterial-hypoxemia-in-distance-runners-at-sea-level
#18
Keren Constantini, David A Tanner, Timothy P Gavin, Craig A Harms, Joel M Stager, Robert F Chapman
PURPOSE: It has been reported that ~50% of endurance-trained men demonstrate exercise induced arterial oxyhemoglobin hypoxemia (EIAH) during heavy exercise. However, this often-cited prevalence rate comes from a single study using a cohort of 25 highly trained men who completed maximal cycle ergometry. As arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) during maximal exercise is reported to be significantly lower during treadmill vs. cycle ergometry in the same subjects, we hypothesized that the prevalence of EIAH would be greater than previously reported (and commonly referenced) in a larger cohort of highly endurance-trained men during maximal treadmill running...
December 22, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007336/the-combined-frequency-of-igf-and-myostatin-polymorphism-among-track-field-athletes-and-swimmers
#19
Sigal Ben-Zaken, Yoav Meckel, Dan Nemet, Alon Eliakim
OBJECTIVE: The IGF C-1245T (rs35767) and the myostatin (MSTN) Lys(K)-153Arg(R) genetic polymorphism may influence skeletal muscle phenotypes and athletic performance. Carrying the minor IGF T allele and the myostatin rare R allele was associated with higher circulating IGF-I levels, greater muscle mass and improved performance. The aim of the present study was to assess the combined frequency of the IGF 1245T (rs35767) and MSTN 153Arg(R) polymorphism among Israeli track and field athletes (n=111) and swimmers (n=80)...
December 15, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940025/priming-biological-motion-changes-extrapersonal-space-categorization
#20
Chiara Fini, Lara Bardi, Nikolaus F Troje, Giorgia Committeri, Marcel Brass
Recent results have shown that the way we categorize space varies as a function of the frame of reference. If the reference frame (RF) is another person vs. an object, the distance is judged as reduced. It has been suggested that such an effect is due to the spontaneous processing of the other's motor potentialities. To investigate the impact of movement representation on space perception, we used biological motion displays as a prime for a spatial categorization task. In Exp. 1, participants were presented with a point-light walker or a scrambled motion, and then judged the location ("Near" or "Far") of a target with a human body or an inanimate object as RF...
January 2017: Acta Psychologica
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