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Distance runner

Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Avish P Sharma, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Jamie Stanley, Eileen Y Robertson, Philo U Saunders, Kevin G Thompson
PURPOSE: This investigation sought to determine the effect of training at 2100 metres natural altitude on running speed (RS) during training sessions over a range of intensities relevant to middle-distance running performance. METHODS: In an observational study, 19 elite middle-distance runners (mean ± SD; Age, 25 ± 5 years; VO2 max, 71 ± 5 completed either 4-6 weeks of sea-level training (CON, n = 7), or a 4-5 week natural altitude training camp living at 2100 m and training at 1400-2700 m (ALT, n = 12) following a period of sea-level training...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Kristin L Popp, William McDermott, Julie M Hughes, Stephanie A Baxter, Steven D Stovitz, Moira A Petit
PURPOSE: To determine differences in bone geometry, estimates of bone strength, muscle size and bone strength relative to load, in women runners with and without a history of stress fracture. METHODS: We recruited 32 competitive distance runners aged 18-35, with (SFX, n=16) or without (NSFX, n=16) a history of stress fracture for this case-control study. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm(3)), total (ToA) and cortical (CtA) bone areas (mm(2)), and estimated compressive bone strength (bone strength index; BSI, mg/mm(4)) at the distal tibia...
October 10, 2016: Bone
Tatsuro Amano, Masaki Ishitobi, Yukio Ogura, Yoshimitsu Inoue, Shunsaku Koga, Takeshi Nishiyasu, Narihiko Kondo
Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency...
October 2016: Journal of Thermal Biology
Thijs Maria Anne Ackermans, Gaspar Epro, Christopher McCrum, Kai Daniel Oberländer, Frank Suhr, Maarten Robert Drost, Kenneth Meijer, Kiros Karamanidis
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine whether there are different changes in Achilles tendon (AT) mechanical properties in middle-aged, compared to younger runners that might indicate that tendon fatigue, induced by long-distance running, is age-dependent. METHODS: 27 middle-aged (50-67 years) and 22 younger (21-29 years) participants ran a 21 km route at their own pace (mean and SD: old: 3.1 ± 0.3 m s(-1); young: 3.6 ± 0.5 m s(-1)). We tested for changes in the AT force-elongation relationship using dynamometry and ultrasonography during isometric voluntary ankle plantarflexion ramp contractions, conducted 20-28 h pre-run, immediately pre-run, immediately post-run and 20-28 h post-run...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Matthew D Mucha, Wade Caldwell, Emily L Schlueter, Carly Walters, Amy Hassen
OBJECTIVES: Determine the association between hip abduction strength and lower extremity running related injury in distance runners. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHODS: Prospective longitudinal and cross sectional studies that quantified hip abduction strength and provided diagnosis of running related injury in distance runners were included and assessed for quality. Effect size was calculated for between group differences in hip abduction strength...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Samuel T Dona, Sheila A Dugan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Emily A Kraus, Brian Kim, Aurelia Nattiv, Adam Tenforde, Michelle Barrack, Megan Deakins-Roche, Andrea Kussman, Sonal Singh, John Morkos, Michael Fredericson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Sarah V Biedermann, Matthias K Auer, Laura Bindila, Gabriele Ende, Beat Lutz, Wolfgang Weber-Fahr, Peter Gass, Johannes Fuss
Beneficial effects of voluntary wheel running on hippocampal neurogenesis, morphology and hippocampal-dependent behavior have widely been studied in rodents, but also serious side effects and similarities to stereotypy have been reported. Some mouse strains run excessively when equipped with running wheels, complicating the comparability to human exercise regimes. Here, we investigated how exercise restriction to 6h/day affects hippocampal morphology and metabolism, stereotypic and basal behaviors, as well as the endocannabinoid system in wheel running C57BL/6 mice; the strain most commonly used for behavioral analyses and psychiatric disease models...
September 20, 2016: Hormones and Behavior
Phil Newman, Gordon Waddington, Roger Adams
OBJECTIVES: Up to 35% of runners develop medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) which often results in lengthy disruption to training and sometimes affects daily activities. There is currently no high quality evidence to support any particular intervention for MTSS. This study aims to investigate the effect of shockwave therapy for MTSS. DESIGN: A randomized, sham-controlled, pilot trial in a university-based health clinic including 28 active adults with MTSS. METHODS: Intervention included standard dose shockwave therapy for the experimental group versus sham dose for the control group, delivered during Week 1-3, 5 and 9...
August 5, 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Yu-Yu Ren, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Nathan R Qi, Mary K Treutelaar, Charles F Burant, Jun Z Li
Intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity can influence many complex traits including obesity and aging. To study this connection we established two rat lines by divergent selection of untrained aerobic capacity. After 32 generations the high capacity runners (HCR) and low capacity runners (LCR) differed in endurance running distance and body fat, blood glucose, other health indicators, and natural life span. To understand the interplay among genetic differences, chronological age, and acute exercise we performed microarray-based gene expression analyses in skeletal muscle with a 2×2×2 design to simultaneously compare HCR and LCR, old and young animals, and rest and exhaustion...
September 16, 2016: Physiological Genomics
Michael C Zourdos, Caleb D Bazyler, Edward Jo, Andy V Khamoui, Bong-Sup Park, Sang-Rok Lee, Lynn B Panton, Jeong-Su Kim
PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a submaximal running warm-up on running performance in male endurance athletes (n = 16, Mage = 21 ± 2 years, MVO2max = 69.3 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min). METHOD: Endurance performance was determined by a 30-min distance trial after control and submaximal running warm-up conditions in a randomized crossover fashion. The warm-up began with 5 min of quiet sitting, followed by 6 min of submaximal running split into 2-min intervals at speeds corresponding to 45%, 55%, and 65% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)...
September 16, 2016: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Matthew F Moran, Brendan J Rickert, Beau K Greer
CONTEXT: Treadmills that unload runners via a differential air pressure bladder (DAP; e.g. AlterG Anti-Gravity Treadmill) are commonly used to reduce effective body weight in a clinical setting, however, the relationship between the level of unloading and tibial stress is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between tibial impact acceleration and level of body weight (BW) unloading during running. DESIGN: Cross-sectional...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Martin Mooses, Anthony C Hackney
Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), fractional utilization of VO2max during running and running economy (RE) are crucial factors for running success for all endurance athletes. Although evidence is limited, investigations of these key factors indicate that the East Africans superiority in distance running is to a large exent due to a unique combination of these factors. East African runners appear to have a very high level of RE most likely associated, at least partly, with anthropometric characteristics rather than with any specific metabolic property of the working muscle...
September 15, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Nathan A Lewis, Colin Towey, Georgie Bruinvels, Glyn Howatson, Charles R Pedlar
Exercise causes alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH). Measuring ARH in elite athletes may aid in the identification of training tolerance, fatigued states, and underperformance. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have examined ARH in elite male and female distance runners at sea level. The monitoring of ARH in athletes is hindered by a lack of reliable and repeatable in-the-field testing tools and by the rapid turnaround of results. We examined the effects of various exercise intensities on ARH in healthy (non-over-reached) elite male and female endurance athletes using clinical point-of-care (POC) redox tests, referred to as the free oxygen radical test (FORT) (pro-oxidant) and the free oxygen radical defence (FORD) (antioxidant)...
October 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
David M Levy, Benjamin D Kuhns, Rachel M Frank, Jeffrey S Grzybowski, Kirk A Campbell, Sara Brown, Shane J Nho
BACKGROUND: Femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) is most commonly diagnosed in athletes who sustain repetitive flexion loading to their hips. No studies to date have focused solely on patients' return-to-running ability after hip arthroscopy. PURPOSE: To evaluate patients' ability to return to running after hip arthroscopy for FAI and capsular plication. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: Clinical data were retrospectively retrieved for 51 consecutive patients with FAI (22 men, 29 women) who had undergone hip arthroscopy for the treatment of FAI and identified themselves as recreational or competitive runners on intake forms...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Arthur H Bossi, Guilherme G Matta, Guillaume Y Millet, Pedro Lima, Leonardo C Pertence, Jorge P de Lima, James G Hopker
PURPOSE: To describe pacing strategy in a 24-h running race and its interaction with sex, age group, athletes' performance group and race edition. METHODS: Data from 398 male and 103 female participants of 5 editions were obtained based on a minimum 19.2-h effective-running cut-off. Mean running speed from each hour was normalised to the 24-h mean speed for analyses. RESULTS: Mean overall performance was 135.6 ± 33.0 km with a mean effective-running time of 22...
September 6, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Jasper Reenalda, Erik Maartens, Lotte Homan, J H Jaap Buurke
Recent developments in wearable and wireless sensor technology allow for a continuous three dimensional analysis of running mechanics in the sport specific setting. The present study is the first to demonstrate the possibility of analyzing three dimensional (3D) running mechanics continuously, by means of inertial magnetic measurement units, to objectify changes in mechanics over the course of a marathon. Three well trained male distance runners ran a marathon while equipped with inertial magnetic measurement units on trunk, pelvis, upper legs, lower legs and feet to obtain a 3D view of running mechanics and to asses changes in running mechanics over the course of a marathon...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
Roy T H Cheung, Rodney Y L Wong, Tim K W Chung, R T Choi, Wendy W Y Leung, Diana H Y Shek
Compared to competitive runners, recreational runners appear to be more prone to injuries, which have been associated with foot strike patterns. Surprisingly, only few studies had examined the foot strike patterns outside laboratories. Therefore, this study compared the foot strike patterns in recreational runners at outdoor tracks with previously reported data. We also investigated the relationship between foot strike pattern, speed, and footwear in this cohort. Among 434 recreational runners analysed, 89...
September 4, 2016: Sports Biomechanics
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