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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923481/regulation-of-step-frequency-in-transtibial-amputee-endurance-athletes-using-a-running-specific-prosthesis
#1
Laura M Oudenhoven, Judith M Boes, Laura Hak, Gert S Faber, Han Houdijk
Running specific prostheses (RSP) are designed to replicate the spring-like behaviour of the human leg during running, by incorporating a real physical spring in the prosthesis. Leg stiffness is an important parameter in running as it is strongly related to step frequency and running economy. To be able to select a prosthesis that contributes to the required leg stiffness of the athlete, it needs to be known to what extent the behaviour of the prosthetic leg during running is dominated by the stiffness of the prosthesis or whether it can be regulated by adaptations of the residual joints...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918678/gait-asymmetry-during-400-to-1000-m-high-intensity-track-running-in-relation-to-injury-history
#2
Rahel Ammann, Wolfgang Taube, Thomas Wyss
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to quantify gait asymmetry in well-trained runners, with and without previous injuries during interval training sessions incorporating different distances. METHODS: Twelve well-trained runners participated in eight high-intensity interval training sessions on a synthetic track over a 4-week period. The training consisted of 10 × 400 m, 8 × 600 m, 7 × 800 m, and 6 × 1000 m running. Using an inertial measurement unit, the ground contact time (GCT) of every step was recorded...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912252/impact-of-stretching-on-the-performance-and-injury-risk-of-long-distance-runners
#3
Claire Baxter, Lars R Mc Naughton, Andy Sparks, Lynda Norton, David Bentley
Stretching, either prior to exercise or at the end, or both, is typically carried out by all individuals undertaking sporting activity whether they be elite or recreational athletes. The many forms of stretching available to the athlete, either passive or active, have long been thought to improve performance, decrease injury and generally be advantageous to the athlete. This review examines the current state of the literature and evaluates what athletes can and should do with respect to this controversial topic...
December 2, 2016: Research in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908664/preference-for-western-diet-coadapts-in-high-runner-mice-and-affects-voluntary-exercise-and-spontaneous-physical-activity-in-a-genotype-dependent-manner
#4
Wendy Acosta, Thomas H Meek, Heidi Schutz, Elizabeth M Dlugosz, Theodore Garland
Do animals evolve (coadapt) to choose diets that positively affect their performance abilities? We addressed this question from a microevolutionary perspective by examining preference for Western diet (WD: high in fat and sugar, but lower in protein) versus standard rodent chow in adults of both sexes from 4 lines of mice selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (High Runner or HR lines) and 4 non-selected control (C) lines. We also assessed whether food preference or substitution affects physical activity (wheel running and/or spontaneous physical activity [SPA] in the attached home cages)...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875261/the-apparently-contradictory-energetics-of-hopping-and-running-the-counter-intuitive-effect-of-constraints-resolves-the-paradox
#5
Anne K Gutmann, John E A Bertram
Metabolic rate appears to increase with rate of force application for running. Leg function during ground contact is similar in hopping and running so one might expect that this relationship would hold for hopping as well. Surprisingly, metabolic rate appeared to decrease with increasing force rate for hopping. However, this paradox is the result of comparing different cross sections of the metabolic cost landscapes for hopping and running. The apparent relationship between metabolic rate and force rate observed in treadmill running is likely not a fundamental characteristic of muscle physiology, but a result of runners responding to speed constraints, i...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852157/acute-and-chronic-effects-of-aquatic-treadmill-training-on-land-treadmill-running-kinematics-a-cross-over-and-single-subject-design-approach
#6
Eadric Bressel, Talin J Louder, James P Hoover, Luke C Roberts, Dennis G Dolny
The aim of this study was to determine if selected kinematic measures (foot strike index [SI], knee contact angle and overstride angle) were different between aquatic treadmill (ATM) and land treadmill (LTM) running, and to determine if these measures were altered during LTM running as a result of 6 weeks of ATM training. Acute effects were tested using 15 competitive distance runners who completed 1 session of running on each treadmill type at 5 different running speeds. Subsequently, three recreational runners completed 6 weeks of ATM training following a single-subject baseline, intervention and withdrawal experiment...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834504/redistribution-of-mechanical-work-at-the-knee-and-ankle-joints-during-fast-running-in-minimalist-shoes
#7
Joel T Fuller, Jonathan D Buckley, Margarita D Tsiros, Nicholas A T Brown, Dominic Thewlis
CONTEXT:  Minimalist shoes have been suggested as a way to alter running biomechanics to improve running performance and reduce injuries. However, to date, researchers have only considered the effect of minimalist shoes at slow running speeds. OBJECTIVE:  To determine if runners change foot-strike pattern and alter the distribution of mechanical work at the knee and ankle joints when running at a fast speed in minimalist shoes compared with conventional running shoes...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826878/optimization-of-running-strategies-according-to-the-physiological-parameters-for-a-two-runners-model
#8
Camilla Fiorini
In order to describe the velocity and the anaerobic energy of two runners competing against each other for middle-distance races, we present a mathematical model relying on an optimal control problem for a system of ordinary differential equations. The model is based on energy conservation and on Newton's second law: resistive forces, propulsive forces and variations in the maximal oxygen uptake are taken into account. The interaction between the runners provides a minimum for staying 1 m behind one's competitor...
November 8, 2016: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812406/pacing-during-an-ultramarathon-running-event-in-hilly-terrain
#9
Hugo A Kerhervé, Tom Cole-Hunter, Aaron N Wiegand, Colin Solomon
PURPOSE: The dynamics of speed selection as a function of distance, or pacing, are used in recreational, competitive, and scientific research situations as an indirect measure of the psycho-physiological status of an individual. The purpose of this study was to determine pacing on level, uphill and downhill sections of participants in a long (>80 km) ultramarathon performed on trails in hilly terrain. METHODS: Fifteen ultramarathon runners competed in a  173 km event (five finished at  103 km) carrying a Global-Positioning System (GPS) device...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807171/effects-of-long-term-exercise-on-age-related-hearing-loss-in-mice
#10
Chul Han, Dalian Ding, Maria-Cecilia Lopez, Senthilvelan Manohar, Yanping Zhang, Mi-Jung Kim, Hyo-Jin Park, Karessa White, Yong Hwan Kim, Paul Linser, Masaru Tanokura, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Henry V Baker, Richard J Salvi, Shinichi Someya
: Regular physical exercise reduces the risk for obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and disability and is associated with longer lifespan expectancy (Taylor et al., 2004; Pahor et al., 2014; Anton et al., 2015; Arem et al., 2015). In contrast, decreased physical function is associated with hearing loss among older adults (Li et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel running (WR) on age-related hearing loss (AHL) in CBA/CaJ mice, a well established model of AHL (Zheng et al...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806012/acute-effects-of-plyometric-and-resistance-training-on-running-economy-in-trained-runners
#11
Richard T Marcello, Beau Kjerulf Greer, Anna E Greer
Results regarding the acute effects of plyometric and resistance training (PRT) on running economy (RE) are conflicting. Eight male collegiate distance runners (21 ± 1 years, 62.5 ± 7.8 ml/kg/min V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak) completed V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) testing. Seven days later, subjects completed a 12 minute RE test at 60% and 80% V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak, followed by a PRT protocol or a rested condition of equal duration (CON). The PRT protocol consisted of 3 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% 1RM for barbell squats, Romanian deadlifts, and barbell lunges; the same volume was utilized for resisted lateral lunges, box jumps, and depth jumps...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803620/a-comparison-of-stride-length-and-lower-extremity-kinematics-during-barefoot-and-shod-running-in-well-trained-distance-runners
#12
Peter Francis, James Ledingham, Sarah Clarke, D J Collins, Philip Jakeman
Stride length, hip, knee and ankle angles were compared during barefoot and shod running on a treadmill at two speeds. Nine well-trained (1500m time: 3min:59.80s ± 14.7 s) male (22 ±3 years; 73 ±9 kg; 1.79 ±0.4 m) middle distance (800 m - 5,000 m) runners performed 2 minutes of running at 3.05 m·s(-1) and 4.72 m·s(-1) on an treadmill. This approach allowed continuous measurement of lower extremity kinematic data and calculation of stride length. Statistical analysis using a 2X2 factorial ANOVA revealed speed to have a main effect on stride length and hip angle and footwear to have a main effect on hip angle...
September 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792164/the-effect-of-a-20-km-run-on-appetite-regulation-in-long-distance-runners
#13
Chihiro Kojima, Aya Ishibashi, Kumiko Ebi, Kazushige Goto
The purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-related hormonal responses and energy intake after a 20 km run in trained long distance runners. Twenty-three male long-distance runners completed two trials: either an exercise trial consisting of a 20 km outdoor run (EX) or a control trial with an identical period of rest (CON). Blood samples were collected to determine plasma acylated ghrelin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and other hormonal and metabolite concentrations. Energy intake during a buffet test meal was also measured 30 min after the exercise or rest periods...
October 26, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787469/running-performance-nationality-sex-and-age-in-10km-half-marathon-marathon-and-100km-ultra-marathon-iaaf-1999-2015
#14
Pantelis T Nikolaidis, Vincent O Onywera, Beat Knechtle
The aim of the present study was to examine the performance of the world's best runners in 10km, half-marathon, marathon and 100km by age, sex and nationality during 1999-2015 using data from International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). A total of 38,895 runners (17,136 women and 21,759 men) were considered with 2,594 (1,360 women and 1,234 male) in 10km, 11,595 (5,225 women and 6,370 male) in half-marathon, 23,973 (10,208 women and 13,765 male) in marathon and 733 (343 women and 390 male) in 100km...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785775/risk-and-protective-factors-for-middle-and-long-distance-running-related-injury
#15
REVIEW
Adam Hulme, Rasmus Oestergaard Nielsen, Toomas Timpka, Evert Verhagen, Caroline Finch
BACKGROUND: Despite a rapidly growing body of research, a systematic evidence compilation of the risk and protective factors for middle- and long-distance running-related injury (RRI) was lacking. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to compile the evidence about modifiable and non-modifiable training-related and behavioral risk and protective factors for middle- and long-distance RRI. METHODS: We searched five databases (PubMed, CINAHL, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO) for the dates 1 January 1970 to 31 December 2015, inclusive, for original peer-reviewed articles...
October 27, 2016: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780284/effect-of-continuous-and-intermittent-exercises-on-oxidised-hdl-and-ldl-lipids-in-runners
#16
I A Välimäki, T Vuorimaa, M Ahotupa, T Vasankari
We studied the effects of different types of exercises on the concentrations of oxidised HDL (oxHDLlipids) and LDL lipids (oxLDLlipids), serum lipids, antioxidant potential, paraoxonase and malondialdehyde in endurance runners by performing both a 40-min continuous run (velocity corresponding to 80% VO2max) and a 40-min intermittent run (2-min run, velocity corresponding to 100% VO2max, and 2-min rest) using a treadmill. Blood samples were taken before exercise, after 20 and 40 min of exercise, and 15 and 90 min after the end of exercise...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768506/changes-in-running-mechanics-during-a-six-hours-running-race
#17
Nicola Giovanelli, Paolo Taboga, Stefano Lazzer
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in running mechanics during a six hours running race. METHODS: Twelve ultra-runners (age: 41.9±5.8 years; body mass: 68.3±12.6 kg; stature: 1.72±0.09 m) were asked to run as many 874 m flat loops as possible in six hours. Running speed, contact (tc) and aerial (ta) times were measured in the first lap and every 30±2 minutes during the race. Peak vertical ground reaction force (Fmax), stride length (SL), vertical downward displacement of the centre of mass (Δz), leg length change (ΔL), vertical (kvert) and leg (kleg) stiffness were then estimated...
September 26, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766135/sex-differences-in-time-perception-during-self-paced-running
#18
Nicholas J Hanson, Janet Buckworth
Time perception during exercise may be affected by chosen intensity, and may also affect enjoyment of exercise and subsequent long-term adherence. However, little is known about how individuals perceive the passage of time during exercise, or if factors such as sex are influential. The purpose of this study was to determine if there are sex related differences in perception of time during a bout of exercise in experienced runners. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men, 11 women) participated in a bout of treadmill running where they were allowed to select their intensity...
2016: International Journal of Exercise Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747844/running-economy-measurement-norms-and-determining-factors
#19
Kyle R Barnes, Andrew E Kilding
Running economy (RE) is considered an important physiological measure for endurance athletes, especially distance runners. This review considers 1) how RE is defined and measured and 2) physiological and biomechanical factors that determine or influence RE. It is difficult to accurately ascertain what is good, average, and poor RE between athletes and studies due to variation in protocols, gas-analysis systems, and data averaging techniques. However, representative RE values for different caliber of male and female runners can be identified from existing literature with mostly clear delineations in oxygen uptake across a range of speeds in moderately and highly trained and elite runners...
December 2015: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741056/differences-in-spatio-temporal-parameters-between-trained-runners-and-untrained-participants
#20
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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