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Cerebrovascular Dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#1
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207801/kidney-dysfunction-and-cerebral-microbleeds-in-neurologically-healthy-adults
#2
Sang Hyuck Kim, Dong Wook Shin, Jae Moon Yun, Ji Eun Lee, Jae-Sung Lim, Be Long Cho, Hyung-Min Kwon, Jin-Ho Park
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral microbleed (CMB) is a potent risk factor for overt cerebrovascular disease. Although some studies indicated the possible role of renal dysfunction as a risk factor of CMB, the findings could not be generalized. This study aimed to investigate the association between renal dysfunction and cerebral microbleed (CMB) in neurologically healthy adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2,518 subjects who underwent brain MRI as part of health screening were involved in the study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28180074/regional-staging-of-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Emily R Lindemer, Douglas N Greve, Bruce R Fischl, Jean C Augustinack, David H Salat
White matter lesions, quantified as 'white matter signal abnormalities' (WMSA) on neuroimaging, are common incidental findings on brain images of older adults. This tissue damage is linked to cerebrovascular dysfunction and is associated with cognitive decline. The regional distribution of WMSA throughout the cerebral white matter has been described at a gross scale; however, to date no prior study has described regional patterns relative to cortical gyral landmarks which may be important for understanding functional impact...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178960/ultrasound-and-dynamic-functional-imaging-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Branko Malojcic, Panteleimon Giannakopoulos, Farzaneh A Sorond, Elsa Azevedo, Marina Diomedi, Janja Pretnar Oblak, Nicola Carraro, Marina Boban, Laszlo Olah, Stephan J Schreiber, Aleksandra Pavlovic, Zsolt Garami, Nantan M Bornstein, Bernhard Rosengarten
BACKGROUND: The vascular contributions to neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation may be assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). This review summarises the methodology for these widely available, safe and relatively low cost tools and analyses recent work highlighting their potential utility as biomarkers for differentiating subtypes of cognitive impairment and dementia, tracking disease progression and evaluating response to treatment in various neurocognitive disorders...
February 9, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174096/retinal-biomarkers-provide-insight-into-cortical-pharmacology-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Christine To Nguyen, Flora Hui, Jason Charng, Shajan Velaedan, Anna van Koeverden, Jeremiah Kh Lim, Zheng He, Vickie Hy Wong, Algis J Vingrys, Bang V Bui, Magnus Ivarsson
The retina is an easily accessible out-pouching of the central nervous system (CNS) and thus lends itself favourable to being a biomarker of the brain. More specifically, the presence of neuronal, vascular and blood-neural barrier parallels in the eye and brain coupled with fast and inexpensive methods to quantify retinal changes make ocular biomarkers an attractive option. This includes its utility as a biomarker for multiple cerebrovascular diseases as well as a drug pharmacology and safety biomarker for the CNS...
February 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169530/intranasal-pretreatment-with-z-ligustilide-the-main-volatile-component-of-rhizoma-chuanxiong-confers-prophylaxis-against-cerebral-ischemia-via-nrf2-and-hsp70-signaling-pathways
#6
Juan Li, Jie Yu, Hui Ma, Na Yang, Li Li, Ding-Ding Zheng, Ming-Xia Wu, Zhi-Long Zhao, Hong-Yi Qi
Z-Ligustilide (Z-LIG) is a major component in Rhizoma Chuanxiong, which has been traditionally used as a health food supplement for the prevention of cerebrovascular disease in China. This study investigates the ability of intranasal Z-LIG pretreatment to enhance protection against neuronal damage in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and the role of cellular stress response mechanisms Nrf2 and HSP70. Z-LIG significantly mitigated infarct volume, neurological dysfunction, blood-brain barrier disruption, and brain edema (p < 0...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166312/association-between-subclinical-cardiac-biomarkers-and-clinically-manifest-cardiac-diseases-with-cortical-cerebral-microinfarcts
#7
Saima Hilal, Yuek Ling Chai, Susanne van Veluw, Muhammad Amin Shaik, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Arthur Mark Richards, Geert Jan Biessels, Christopher Chen
Importance: Subclinical and clinical cardiac diseases have been previously linked to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) manifestations of cerebrovascular disease, such as lacunes and white matter hyperintensities, as well as dementia. Cortical cerebral microinfarcts (CMIs), a novel MRI marker of cerebral vascular disease, have not been studied, to date, in relation to subclinical and clinical cardiac diseases. Objective: To examine the association of blood biomarkers of subclinical cardiac disease and clinically manifest cardiac diseases with CMIs graded on 3-T MRI in a memory clinic population...
February 6, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164774/tauopathies-focus-on-changes-at-the-neurovascular-unit
#8
Alena Michalicova, William A Banks, Jaroslav Legath, Andrej Kovac
In the past, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) had been characterized mainly as a layer of endothelial cells forming the vessel/capillary wall of the brain. More recently, the BBB is considered to be a part of a highly dynamic and interactive system called the neurovascular unit (NVU), consisting of vascular cells, glial cells, and neurons. The list of central nervous system (CNS) pathologies involving BBB dysfunction is rapidly growing. The opening of the BBB and subsequent infiltration of serum components to the brain can lead to host of processes resulting in progressive synaptic and neuronal dysfunction and loss...
February 3, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161255/neurovascular-uncoupling-in-the-triple-transgenic-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-impaired-cerebral-blood-flow-response-to-neuronal-derived-nitric-oxide-signaling
#9
Cátia F Lourenço, Ana Ledo, Rui M Barbosa, João Laranjinha
Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent pathways and cerebrovascular dysfunction have been shown to contribute to the cognitive decline and neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) but whether they represent initial factors or later changes of the disease is still a matter of debate. In this work, we aimed at investigating whether and to what extent neuronal-derived NO signaling and related neurovascular coupling are impaired along aging in the hippocampus of the triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease (3xTg-AD)...
February 1, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161100/the-future-of-omics-in-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Gemma Currie, Christian Delles
Despite decades of research and clinical practice, the pathogenesis of hypertension remains incompletely understood, and blood pressure is often suboptimally controlled. "Omics" technologies allow the description of a large number of molecular features and have the potential to identify new factors that contribute to blood pressure regulation and how they interact. In this review, we focus on the potential of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics and explore their roles in unraveling the pathophysiology and diagnosis of hypertension, the prediction of organ damage and treatment response, and monitoring treatment effect...
December 7, 2016: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154097/cerebral-vascular-disease-and-neurovascular-injury-in-ischemic-stroke
#11
Xiaoming Hu, T Michael De Silva, Jun Chen, Frank M Faraci
The consequences of cerebrovascular disease are among the leading health issues worldwide. Large and small cerebral vessel disease can trigger stroke and contribute to the vascular component of other forms of neurological dysfunction and degeneration. Both forms of vascular disease are driven by diverse risk factors, with hypertension as the leading contributor. Despite the importance of neurovascular disease and subsequent injury after ischemic events, fundamental knowledge in these areas lag behind our current understanding of neuroprotection and vascular biology in general...
February 3, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151862/a-lower-baseline-glomerular-filtration-rate-predicts-high-mortality-and-newly-cerebrovascular-accidents-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-patients
#12
Kai Dong, Xiaoqin Huang, Qian Zhang, Zhipeng Yu, Jianping Ding, Haiqing Song
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is gradually recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cardio-/cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to examine the association of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and clinical outcomes at 3 months after the onset of ischemic stroke in a hospitalized Chinese population.Totally, 972 patients with acute ischemic stroke were enrolled into this study. Modified of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations were used to calculate eGFR and define CKD...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141793/sex-specific-associations-between-cerebrovascular-blood-pressure-autoregulation-and-cardiopulmonary-injury-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#13
Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Jamie Perin, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Charlamaine Parkinson, Maureen Gilmore, Jacky Jennings, Frances J Northington, Jennifer K Lee
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary injury is common in neonatal encephalopathy, but the link with cerebrovascular dysfunction is unknown. We hypothesized that cerebral autoregulation is associated with cardiopulmonary injury in neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS: The cerebral hemoglobin volume index (HVx) from near-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) with optimal autoregulatory vasoreactivity (MAPOPT)...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137973/a-critical-role-for-astrocytes-in-hypercapnic-vasodilation-in-brain
#14
C Howarth, B A Sutherland, H B Choi, C Martin, B L Lind, L Khennouf, J M LeDue, J M P Pakan, R W Ko, G C R Ellis-Davies, M J Lauritzen, N R Sibson, A M Buchan, B A MacVicar
: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is controlled by arterial blood pressure, arterial CO2, arterial O2, and brain activity and is largely constant in the awake state. Although small changes in arterial CO2 are particularly potent to change CBF (1 mmHg variation in arterial CO2 changes CBF by 3-4%), the coupling mechanism is incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that astrocytic prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) plays a key role for cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and that preserved synthesis of glutathione is essential for the full development of this response...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130811/relation-between-brown-adipose-tissue-and-measures-of-obesity-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Bas T Franssens, Hans Hoogduin, Tim Leiner, Yolanda van der Graaf, Frank L J Visseren
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in middle-aged patients with cardiovascular comorbidities and to quantify how BAT presence associates with obesity and metabolic dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Supraclavicular and subcutaneous adipose tissue fat-signal-fraction (FF) was determined with 1.5T water-fat magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 50 patients with coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral artery disease...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130053/vascular-protective-effects-of-klf2-on-a%C3%AE-induced-toxicity-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Xuejun Fang, Xiaoli Zhong, Gang Yu, Si Shao, Qidong Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by excessive amounts of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, and cerebrovascular pathologies in AD are attracting increasingly more attention. Krüppel-like factor (KLF) 2, a transcription regulator expressed in the mouse embryonic vasculature and involved in the regulation of vascular gene expression, serves as a protective factor in endothelial cells. However, whether KLF2 is involved in neurodegenerative disease, and especially in AD, remains unknown...
January 24, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126368/circulating-bacterial-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammation-reduces-flow-in-brain-irrigating-arteries-independently-from-cerebrovascular-prostaglandin-production
#17
Frédéric Villéga, Jean-Christophe Delpech, Marion Griton, Caroline André, Jean-Michel Franconi, Sylvain Miraux, Jan Pieter Konsman
Brain dysfunction is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response to bacterial infection or sepsis. In the present work, the effects of intravenous bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration on cerebral arterial blood flow were assessed with time-of-flight (TOF)-based magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in mice. Cerebral expression of the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and c-Fos and that of enzymes synthesizing vasoactive mediators, such as prostaglandins and nitric oxide, known to be increased under inflammatory conditions, were studied in the same animals...
January 23, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123058/procalcitonin-and-midregional-proatrial-natriuretic-peptide-as-biomarkers-of-subclinical-cerebrovascular-damage-the-northern-manhattan-study
#18
Mira Katan, Yeseon Moon, Arnold von Eckardstein, Kathartina Spanaus, Janet DeRosa, Jose Gutierrez, Charles DeCarli, Clinton Wright, Ralph Sacco, Mitchell Elkind
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Chronic infections and cardiac dysfunction are risk factors for stroke. We hypothesized that blood biomarkers of infection (procalcitonin) and cardiac dysfunction (midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide [MR-proANP]), previously associated with small vessel stroke and cardioembolic stroke are also associated with subclinical cerebrovascular damage, including silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensity volume. METHODS: The NOMAS (Northern Manhattan Study) was designed to assess risk factors for incident vascular disease in a multiethnic cohort...
January 25, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119405/impact-of-gender-on-long-term-outcomes-after-surgical-repair-for-acute-stanford-a-aortic-dissection-a-propensity-score-matched-analysis%C3%A2
#19
Anton Sabashnikov, Stephanie Heinen, Antje Christin Deppe, Mohamed Zeriouh, Alexander Weymann, Ingo Slottosch, Kaveh Eghbalzadeh, Aron-Frederik Popov, Oliver Liakopoulos, Parwis B Rahmanian, Navid Madershahian, Axel Kroener, Yeong-Hoon Choi, Ferdinand Kuhn-Régnier, André R Simon, Thorsten Wahlers, Jens Wippermann
OBJECTIVES: Previous research suggests that female gender is associated with increased mortality rates after surgery for Stanford A acute aortic dissection (AAD). However, women with AAD usually present with different clinical symptoms that may bias outcomes. Moreover, there is a lack of long-term results regarding overall mortality and freedom from major cerebrovascular events. We analysed the impact of gender on long-term outcomes after surgery for Stanford A AAD by comparing genders with similar risk profiles using propensity score matching...
January 23, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110422/interventions-for-neurocognitive-dysfunction
#20
REVIEW
Jacqueline Ellero, Michal Lubomski, Bruce Brew
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This study aimed to evaluate current barriers to HIV cure strategies and interventions for neurocognitive dysfunction with a particular focus on recent advancements over the last 3 years. RECENT FINDINGS: Optimal anti-retroviral therapy (ART) poses challenges to minimise neurotoxicity, whilst ensuring blood-brain barrier penetration and minimising the risk of cerebrovascular disease. CSF biomarkers, BCL11B and neurofilament light chain may be implicated with a neuroinflammatory cascade leading to cognitive impairment...
January 21, 2017: Current HIV/AIDS Reports
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