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Cerebrovascular Dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108549/relation-of-renal-dysfunction-with-incident-atrial-fibrillation-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-the-prevend-study
#1
Ernaldo G Marcos, Bastiaan Geelhoed, Pim Van Der Harst, Stefan J L Bakker, Ron T Gansevoort, Hans L Hillege, Isabelle C Van Gelder, Michiel Rienstra
AIMS: Renal dysfunction is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, including atrial fibrillation (AF) and mortality. However, the exact pathobiology linking different renal dysfunction measures, such as albumin excretion or glomerular filtration rate (GFR), to cardiovascular- and AF risk are unclear. In this study, we investigated the association of several renal function measures and incident AF, and whether the relation between renal measures and outcomes is modified by AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 8265 individuals (age 49 ± 13 years, 50% women) included in the PREVEND study...
January 20, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100970/sickle-cell-disease-with-cyanotic-congenital-heart-disease-long-term-outcomes-in-5-children
#2
Glen J Iannucci, Olufolake A Adisa, Matthew E Oster, Michael McConnell, William T Mahle
Sickle cell disease is a risk factor for cerebrovascular accidents in the pediatric population. This risk is compounded by hypoxemia. Cyanotic congenital heart disease can expose patients to prolonged hypoxemia. To our knowledge, the long-term outcome of patients who have combined sickle cell and cyanotic congenital heart disease has not been reported. We retrospectively reviewed patient records at our institution and identified 5 patients (3 girls and 2 boys) who had both conditions. Their outcomes were uniformly poor: 4 died (age range, 12 mo-17 yr); 3 had documented cerebrovascular accidents; and 3 developed ventricular dysfunction...
December 2016: Texas Heart Institute Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099179/traditional-sternotomy-versus-minimally-invasive-aortic-valve-replacement-in-patients-stratified-by-ejection-fraction
#3
Tom C Nguyen, Vinod H Thourani, Justin Q Pham, Yelin Zhao, Matthew D Terwelp, Prakash Balan, Daniel Ocazionez, Catalin Loghin, Richard W Smalling, Anthony L Estrera, Joseph Lamelas
OBJECTIVE: Low ejection fraction (EF < 40%) portends adverse outcomes in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery. The role of traditional median sternotomy aortic valve replacement (SAVR) compared with minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) in this cohort remains incompletely understood. METHODS: A multi-institutional retrospective review of 1503 patients who underwent SAVR (n = 815) and MIAVR via right anterior thoracotomy (n = 688) from 2011 to 2014 was performed...
January 17, 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098098/a-study-of-clinical-assessment-of-frailty-in-patients-on-maintenance-hemodialysis-supported-by-cashless-government-scheme
#4
Manjusha Yadla, Jyothi Priyadarshini John, Mahesh Mummadi
This is a prospective cohort study to assess the prevalence of frailty in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD) under the government-funded scheme at our center and to assess the relationship between frailty and falls, hospitalizations, and mortality. This was done at our center which is completely supported by the government, which provides HD to all the patients under poverty line. Epidemiological data, anthropometric measurements, comorbidities assessment, frailty assessment using Fried criteria, subsequent hospitalizations, falls, and mortality were recorded in our prevalent dialysis population at our center between October 2014 and October 2015...
January 2017: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042028/urb597-improves-cognitive-impairment-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-by-inhibiting-mtor-dependent-autophagy
#5
Dapeng Wang, Qi Lin, Shaohua Su, Kejia Liu, Yifang Wu, Jian Hai
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is associated with various ischemic cerebrovascular diseases that are characterized by cognitive impairment. The role of autophagy in cognitive dysfunction under conditions of CCH is poorly understood. To address this issue, the present study investigated the effect of the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor URB597 on autophagy and cognition in a CCH model as well as the underlying mechanisms. Cognitive function was evaluated with the Morris water maze and by assessing long-term potentiation (LTP)...
December 30, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998900/randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-investigating-the-effects-of-inorganic-nitrate-on-vascular-function-platelet-reactivity-and-restenosis-in-stable-angina-protocol-of-the-nitrate-oct-study
#6
Krishnaraj S Rathod, Daniel A Jones, T J A Van-Eijl, Hilda Tsang, Helen Warren, Stephen M Hamshere, Vikas Kapil, Ajay K Jain, Andrew Deaner, Neil Poulter, Mark J Caulfield, Anthony Mathur, Amrita Ahluwalia
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay treatment for reducing the symptoms of angina and long-term risk of heart attacks in patients with heart disease is stent implantation in the diseased coronary artery. While this procedure has revolutionised treatment, the incidence of secondary events remains a concern. These repeat events are thought to be due, in part, to continued enhanced platelet reactivity, endothelial dysfunction and ultimately restenosis of the stented artery. In this study, we will investigate whether a once a day inorganic nitrate administration might favourably modulate platelet reactivity and endothelial function leading to a decrease in restenosis...
December 20, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998205/2015-parapan-american-games-autonomic-function-but-not-physical-activity-is-associated-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment-in-spinal-cord-injury
#7
Aaron A Phillips, Jordan W Squair, Katharine Dianne Currie, Shieak Tzeng, Phil Ainslie, Andrei V Krassioukov
Autonomic dysfunction and diminished capacity for physical exercise are commonly implicated in the 3-4 fold increased risk of cerebrovascular disease after spinal cord injury (SCI). We assessed cerebrovascular function [transcranial Doppler; neurovascular coupling (NVC) and cerebral pressure-flow regulation] in elite national level wheelchair rugby players (n=23), normally active SCI individuals (n=12), and able-bodied controls (n=13). Cognitive (Stroop) and autonomic function (postural change) was also evaluated...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987381/hypoxia-ischemia-activate-processing-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-impact-of-vascular-dysfunction-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Antero Salminen, Anu Kauppinen, Kai Kaarniranta
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with deficiencies in cerebrovascular functions, e.g. reduced cerebral blood flow and capillary amyloid angiopathy, both of which are evident during the early phase of AD, thus local hypoxia/ischemia could augment the pathogenesis of AD. There is abundant literature revealing that exposures to hypoxia/ischemia increase the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) leading to the accumulation of amyloid-β peptides in brain. This hypoxia-induced response has been attributed to a significant increase in the activities of β- and γ-secretases, whereas α-secretase activity decreases in hypoxia...
December 17, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978784/correlation-between-decreased-parasympathetic-activity-and-reduced-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-patients-with-lacunar-infarct
#9
Kannakorn Intharakham, Kesorn Suwanprasert, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa
Reduced cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was found in patients with recent lacunar infarct. However, its mechanisms were controversial. The breath holding maneuver as vasodilatory stimulus is clinically useful for an estimation of cerebrovasomotor reactivity in well co-operative patients. Patients with lacunar infarct have no higher cortical dysfunction and remain well co-operation. The breath holding maneuver is feasible and safe to perform in patients with lacunar infarct. Autonomic nervous system regulates systemic vascular activity...
13, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960152/effects-of-diabetic-hyperglycemia-on-central-ang-1-7-mas-r-nnos-pathways-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#10
He Li, Xian Liu, Zhongqiao Ren, Jinxia Gu, Yingjie Lu, Xiaoyun Wang, Lan Zhang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hypertension is a major cause of stroke, and diabetes can increase incidence of this disease. We determined the role played by central angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] pathway in modulating spontaneously hypertension with diabetic hyperglycemia. METHODS: Western Blot analysis and ELISA were used to determine the protein expression of Ang-(1-7) and its signal pathway Mas-R-nNOS in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and control animals...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916030/-short-term-outcomes-of-lung-transplant-recipients-using-organs-from-brain-death-donors
#11
W X He, C Jiang, X G Liu, W Huang, C Chen, L Jiang, B Yang, K Wu, Q K Chen, Y Yang, Y M Yu, G N Jiang
Objective: To assess short-term outcomes after lung transplantation with organs procured following brain death. Methods: Between April 2015 and July 2016, all 17 recipients after lung transplantation using organs from brain death donors (DBD) at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine were enrolled in this study. All patients were male, aging (60±7) years, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 5 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 1 silicosis...
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903371/-impact-of-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-on-all-cause-mortality-of-75-years-old-and-over-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-aortic-stenosis
#12
Z Li, Y Q Ye, M Y Wang, H Y Xu, S Y Teng, J Qian, W Wang, X Wang, Y J Wu
Objective: To evaluate the impact of left ventricular systolic dysfunction on all-cause mortality of 75 years old and over patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis. Methods: Clinical data of 301 consecutive aged (≥75 years old) patients with a diagnosis of non-rheumatic moderate to severe aortic stenosis by echocardiography between January 1, 2008 and January 1, 2015 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. According to the LVEF, patients were divided into normal LVEF subjects and low LVEF subjects, and the low LVEF level was set at below 60%(≤60%(n=171)vs...
October 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890830/time-course-of-glial-changes-in-the-hyperhomocysteinemia-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#13
Tiffany L Sudduth, Erica M Weekman, Brittani R Price, Jennifer L Gooch, Abigail Woolums, Christopher M Norris, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent co-morbidity with AD. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Astrocytic end-feet almost completely surround intraparenchymal blood vessels in the brain and express a variety of channels and markers indicative of their specialized functions in the maintenance of ionic and osmotic homeostasis and gliovascular signaling...
January 26, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875362/relationship-between-hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-inflammatory-markers-and-cerebrovascular-endothelial-function-among-adults-in-urban-china
#14
Felicia C Chow, Yanling Li, Yinghuan Hu, Joy Chan, Huanling Wang, Weihai Xu, Richard W Price, Farzaneh A Sorond, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular risk is increased in people living with HIV infection compared with age-matched uninfected individuals. Cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction related to antiretroviral therapy and inflammation may contribute to higher stroke risk in HIV infection. METHODS: We compared cerebral vasoreactivity-a measure of cerebrovascular endothelial function assessed by the breath holding index (BHI) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound-between virologically suppressed Chinese HIV-infected individuals followed in an HIV clinic in Beijing, China and uninfected controls...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862767/dynamics-of-cerebral-blood-flow-in-patients-with-mild-non-ischaemic-heart-failure
#15
Christian D Erkelens, Haye H van der Wal, Bauke M de Jong, Jan-Willem Elting, Remco Renken, Marleen Gerritsen, Peter Jan van Laar, Vincent M van Deursen, Peter van der Meer, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Adriaan A Voors, Gert-Jan Luijckx
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is associated with tissue hypoperfusion and congestion leading to organ dysfunction. Although cerebral blood flow (CBF) is preserved over a wide range of perfusion pressures in healthy subjects, it is impaired in end-stage HF. We aimed to compare CBF, autoregulation, and cognitive function in patients with mild non-ischaemic HF with healthy controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen patients with mild idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 15 matched healthy controls were studied...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859650/profile-of-cognitive-impairment-and-underlying-pathology-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#16
Shunsuke Koga, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, William P Cheshire, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to elucidate any potential association between α-synuclein pathology and cognitive impairment and to determine the profile of cognitive impairment in multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients. To do this, we analyzed the clinical and pathologic features in autopsy-confirmed MSA patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records, including neuropsychological test data, in 102 patients with autopsy-confirmed MSA in the Mayo Clinic brain bank...
November 15, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853624/endothelial-dysfunction-of-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-measured-by-peripheral-arterial-tonometry
#17
Kimihiro Igari, Toshifumi Kudo, Takahiro Toyofuku, Yoshinori Inoue
Objective. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in atherosclerotic disease. Several methods have been reported to be useful for evaluating the endothelial dysfunction, and we investigated the endothelial dysfunction in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) test in this study. Furthermore, we examined the factors significantly correlated with PAT test. Methods. We performed PAT tests in 67 patients with PAD. In addition, we recorded the patients' demographics, including comorbidities, and hemodynamical status, such as ankle brachial pressure index (ABI)...
2016: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834539/chronic-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Cillian E Lynch, Gogce Crynen, Scott Ferguson, Benoit Mouzon, Daniel Paris, Joseph Ojo, Paige Leary, Fiona Crawford, Corbin Bachmeier
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of the cerebrovasculature following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: TBI is a risk factor for development of various neurodegenerative disorders. A common feature of neurodegenerative disease is cerebrovascular dysfunction which includes alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF). TBI can result in transient reductions in CBF, with severe injuries often accompanied by varying degrees of vascular pathology post-mortem...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798498/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#20
David B Clifford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disease is the most active topic for neuroAIDS investigations at present. Although impairment is mild in patients successfully treated with modern antiviral regimens, it remains an ongoing problem for HIV patients. It is important to update the emerging research concerning HIV-associated neurocognitive disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The virus enters the brain during acute infection, with evidence for abnormal functioning that may occur early and often persists...
February 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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