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Cerebrovascular Dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916030/-short-term-outcomes-of-lung-transplant-recipients-using-organs-from-brain-death-donors
#1
W X He, C Jiang, X G Liu, W Huang, C Chen, L Jiang, B Yang, K Wu, Q K Chen, Y Yang, Y M Yu, G N Jiang
Objective: To assess short-term outcomes after lung transplantation with organs procured following brain death. Methods: Between April 2015 and July 2016, all 17 recipients after lung transplantation using organs from brain death donors (DBD) at Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine were enrolled in this study. All patients were male, aging (60±7) years, including 11 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 5 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 1 silicosis...
December 1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903371/-impact-of-reduced-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-on-all-cause-mortality-of-75-years-old-and-over-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-aortic-stenosis
#2
Z Li, Y Q Ye, M Y Wang, H Y Xu, S Y Teng, J Qian, W Wang, X Wang, Y J Wu
Objective: To evaluate the impact of left ventricular systolic dysfunction on all-cause mortality of 75 years old and over patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis. Methods: Clinical data of 301 consecutive aged (≥75 years old) patients with a diagnosis of non-rheumatic moderate to severe aortic stenosis by echocardiography between January 1, 2008 and January 1, 2015 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. According to the LVEF, patients were divided into normal LVEF subjects and low LVEF subjects, and the low LVEF level was set at below 60%(≤60%(n=171)vs...
October 24, 2016: Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890830/time-course-of-glial-changes-in-the-hyperhomocysteinemia-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-vcid
#3
Tiffany L Sudduth, Erica M Weekman, Brittani R Price, Jennifer L Gooch, Abigail Woolums, Christopher M Norris, Donna M Wilcock
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) is the second leading cause of dementia behind Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is a frequent co-morbidity with AD. Despite its prevalence, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the cognitive dysfunction resulting from cerebrovascular disease. Astrocytic end-feet almost completely surround intraparenchymal blood vessels in the brain and express a variety of channels and markers indicative of their specialized functions in the maintenance of ionic and osmotic homeostasis and gliovascular signaling...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875362/relationship-between-hiv-infection-antiretroviral-therapy-inflammatory-markers-and-cerebrovascular-endothelial-function-among-adults-in-urban-china
#4
Felicia C Chow, Yanling Li, Yinghuan Hu, Joy Chan, Huanling Wang, Weihai Xu, Richard W Price, Farzaneh A Sorond, Taisheng Li
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular risk is increased in people living with HIV infection compared with age-matched uninfected individuals. Cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction related to antiretroviral therapy and inflammation may contribute to higher stroke risk in HIV infection. METHODS: We compared cerebral vasoreactivity-a measure of cerebrovascular endothelial function assessed by the breath holding index (BHI) using transcranial Doppler ultrasound-between virologically suppressed Chinese HIV-infected individuals followed in an HIV clinic in Beijing, China and uninfected controls...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862767/dynamics-of-cerebral-blood-flow-in-patients-with-mild-non-ischaemic-heart-failure
#5
Christian D Erkelens, Haye H van der Wal, Bauke M de Jong, Jan-Willem Elting, Remco Renken, Marleen Gerritsen, Peter Jan van Laar, Vincent M van Deursen, Peter van der Meer, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Adriaan A Voors, Gert-Jan Luijckx
AIMS: Heart failure (HF) is associated with tissue hypoperfusion and congestion leading to organ dysfunction. Although cerebral blood flow (CBF) is preserved over a wide range of perfusion pressures in healthy subjects, it is impaired in end-stage HF. We aimed to compare CBF, autoregulation, and cognitive function in patients with mild non-ischaemic HF with healthy controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifteen patients with mild idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 15 matched healthy controls were studied...
November 14, 2016: European Journal of Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859650/profile-of-cognitive-impairment-and-underlying-pathology-in-multiple-system-atrophy
#6
Shunsuke Koga, Adam Parks, Ryan J Uitti, Jay A van Gerpen, William P Cheshire, Zbigniew K Wszolek, Dennis W Dickson
BACKGROUND: The objectives of this study were to elucidate any potential association between α-synuclein pathology and cognitive impairment and to determine the profile of cognitive impairment in multiple system atrophy (MSA) patients. To do this, we analyzed the clinical and pathologic features in autopsy-confirmed MSA patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records, including neuropsychological test data, in 102 patients with autopsy-confirmed MSA in the Mayo Clinic brain bank...
November 15, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853624/endothelial-dysfunction-of-patients-with-peripheral-arterial-disease-measured-by-peripheral-arterial-tonometry
#7
Kimihiro Igari, Toshifumi Kudo, Takahiro Toyofuku, Yoshinori Inoue
Objective. Endothelial dysfunction plays a key role in atherosclerotic disease. Several methods have been reported to be useful for evaluating the endothelial dysfunction, and we investigated the endothelial dysfunction in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) using peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT) test in this study. Furthermore, we examined the factors significantly correlated with PAT test. Methods. We performed PAT tests in 67 patients with PAD. In addition, we recorded the patients' demographics, including comorbidities, and hemodynamical status, such as ankle brachial pressure index (ABI)...
2016: International Journal of Vascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834539/chronic-cerebrovascular-abnormalities-in-a-mouse-model-of-repetitive-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Cillian E Lynch, Gogce Crynen, Scott Ferguson, Benoit Mouzon, Daniel Paris, Joseph Ojo, Paige Leary, Fiona Crawford, Corbin Bachmeier
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate the status of the cerebrovasculature following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI). RESEARCH DESIGN: TBI is a risk factor for development of various neurodegenerative disorders. A common feature of neurodegenerative disease is cerebrovascular dysfunction which includes alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF). TBI can result in transient reductions in CBF, with severe injuries often accompanied by varying degrees of vascular pathology post-mortem...
2016: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830572/inflammation-associated-co-morbidity-between-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease
#9
Angelos Halaris
Morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is exceedingly high worldwide. Depressive illness is a serious psychiatric illness that afflicts a significant portion of the world population. Epidemiological studies have confirmed the high co-morbidity between these two disease entities. The co-morbidity is bidirectional and the mechanisms responsible for it are complex and multifaceted. In addition to genetic, biological systems, psychosocial, and behavioral factors that are involved include the central and autonomic nervous systems, the neuroendocrine, immune, and the vascular and hematologic systems...
November 10, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798498/hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder
#10
David B Clifford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated neurocognitive disease is the most active topic for neuroAIDS investigations at present. Although impairment is mild in patients successfully treated with modern antiviral regimens, it remains an ongoing problem for HIV patients. It is important to update the emerging research concerning HIV-associated neurocognitive disease. RECENT FINDINGS: The virus enters the brain during acute infection, with evidence for abnormal functioning that may occur early and often persists...
October 27, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788676/epidermal-growth-factor-prevents-apoe4-and-amyloid-beta-induced-cognitive-and-cerebrovascular-deficits-in-female-mice
#11
Riya Thomas, Paulina Zuchowska, Alan W J Morris, Felecia M Marottoli, Sangeeta Sunny, Ryan Deaton, Peter H Gann, Leon M Tai
Cerebrovascular (CV) dysfunction is emerging as a critical component of Alzheimer's disease (AD), including altered CV coverage. Angiogenic growth factors (AGFs) are key for controlling CV coverage, especially during disease pathology. Therefore, evaluating the effects of AGFs in vivo can provide important information on the role of CV coverage in AD. We recently demonstrated that epidermal growth factor (EGF) prevents amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced damage to brain endothelial cells in vitro. Here, our goal was to assess the protective effects of EGF on cognition, CV coverage and Aβ levels using an AD-Tg model that incorporates CV relevant AD risk factors...
October 27, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776801/classification-and-prognostic-evaluation-of-left-ventricular-remodeling-in-patients-with-asymptomatic-heart-failure
#12
Nicola Riccardo Pugliese, Iacopo Fabiani, Salvatore La Carrubba, Lorenzo Conte, Francesco Antonini-Canterin, Paolo Colonna, Pio Caso, Frank Benedetto, Veronica Santini, Scipione Carerj, Maria Francesca Romano, Rodolfo Citro, Vitantonio Di Bello
Patients with asymptomatic heart failure (HF; stage A and B) are characterized by maladaptive left ventricular (LV) remodeling. Classic 4-group classification of remodeling considers only LV mass index and relative wall thickness as variables. Complex remodeling classification (CRC) includes also LV end-diastolic volume index. Main aim was to assess the prognostic impact of CRC in stage A and B HF. A total of 1,750 asymptomatic subjects underwent echocardiographic examination as a screening evaluation in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors...
September 29, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774907/mutations-of-mitochondrial-dna-in-chronic-non-inflammatory-diseases-target-candidates-for-treatment
#13
Elena V Galitsyna, Margarita A Sazonova, Tatiana P Shkurat, Natalya A Demakova, Alexsandra A Melnichenko, Vasily V Sinyov, Anastasia I Ryzhkova, Konstantin Y Mitrofanov, Andrey V Zhelankin, Igor A Sobenin, Alexander N Orekhov
The present article considers chronic diseases of non-inflammatory genesis, the reasons of which may be mitochondrial dysfunctions. Among them are: coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, cardiomyopathy, cerebrovascular accidents and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Very often, in the long course of the disease, complications may occur, leading to myocardial infarction or ischemic stroke and as a result, death. The main cause of mitochondrial dysfunction are point mitochondrial genome mutations. During the analysis of the literature, data showing the association of the mitochondrial genome mutations with the above diseases were revealed...
October 18, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753900/os-01-09-markers-of-early-renal-impairment-in-prehypertension
#14
Ana Vrdoljak, Vanja Ivković, Sandra Karanović, Živka Dika, Ivana Vuković, Jelena Kos, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Margareta Fištrek Prlić, Ivan Pećin, Bojan Jelaković
OBJECTIVE: It was observed that glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is associated with progression of kidney disease in diabetics, patients in stage 1 hypertension (HT), and we found previously that eGFR decreased faster also in prehypertensives (PHT) with GHF. Here we analyzed whether GHF in PHT is associated with other biomarkers of early renal impairment. DESIGN AND METHOD: From 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371(137 m;mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal,72 with normal BP,70 with PHT(high normal BP),and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753880/ish-ada-01-critical-role-of-telomerase-in-regulating-cerebral-vascular-function-and-redox-environment
#15
Karima Ait-Aissa, Joseph Hockenberry, David Gutterman, Aron Geurts, Andreas Beyer
OBJECTIVE: Flow mediated dilation (FMD) is the most physiological relevant form of endothelial-mediated vasodilation. Our laboratory has previously shown that telomerase, a ribo-nucleoprotein that counteracts telomere shortening, has a protective effect on endothelial function under conditions of oxidative stress in the human microcirculation. In the presence of coronary artery disease, decreased telomerase activity contributes to a shift in the mediator of FMD from atheroprotective nitric oxide (NO) to pro-inflammatory and atherogenic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752478/aortic-stiffness-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-memory
#16
Leroy L Cooper, Gary F Mitchell
BACKGROUND: Aortic stiffness is associated with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events and cognitive decline. This mini-review focuses on relations of aortic stiffness with microvascular dysfunction and discusses the contribution of abnormal pulsatile hemodynamics to cerebrovascular damage and cognitive decline. We also provide a rationale for considering aortic stiffness as a putative and important contributor to memory impairment in older individuals. SUMMARY: Aging is associated with stiffening of the aorta but not the muscular arteries, which reduces wave reflection and increases the transmission of pulsatility into the periphery...
September 2016: Pulse (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738237/effect-of-estimated-glomerular-filtration-rate-decline-on-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-clopidogrel-with-aspirin-in-minor-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack-chance-substudy-clopidogrel-in-high-risk-patients-with-acute-nondisabling-cerebrovascular-events
#17
Yilun Zhou, Yuesong Pan, Yu Wu, Xingquan Zhao, Hao Li, David Wang, S Claiborne Johnston, Liping Liu, Chunxue Wang, Xia Meng, Yilong Wang, Yongjun Wang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at a particularly high risk for ischemic and bleeding events. Limited data exist as to the efficacy and safety of clopidogrel in stroke patients with renal dysfunction. Therefore, we sought to assess the impact of decreased kidney function on clinical outcomes for stroke patients on clopidogrel-aspirin treatment. METHODS: Patients in the CHANCE trial (Clopidogrel in High-Risk Patients With Acute Nondisabling Cerebrovascular Events) were randomized to clopidogrel-aspirin or aspirin-alone treatment...
November 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736719/cerebrovascular-dysfunction-following-subfailure-axial-stretch
#18
E David Bell, Anthony J Donato, Kenneth L Monson
Cerebral blood vessels are vital to maintaining the health of the brain. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) commonly results in autoregulatory dysfunction and associated failure of cerebral vessels to maintain homeostasis in the brain. While post-injury changes to brain biochemistry are known to contribute to this dysfunction, tissue deformation may also directly alter vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) function. As a first step toward understanding stretch-induced dysfunction, this study investigates the effect of overstretch on the contractile behavior of SMCs in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27719650/the-insular-cortex-and-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#19
Michiaki Nagai, Keigo Dote, Masaya Kato, Shota Sasaki, Noboru Oda, Eisuke Kagawa, Yoshinori Nakano, Aya Yamane, Tasuku Higashihara, Shunsuke Miyauchi, Akane Tsuchiya, Wakako Harada, Kazuomi Kario
Transient left ventricular dysfunction in patients under emotional stress, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity. Recent studies have supported the concept notion that the cardiovascular system is regulated by cortical modulation. A network consisting of the insular cortex (Ic), anterior cingulate gyrus, and amygdala plays a crucial role in the regulation of the central autonomic nervous system in relation to emotional stress such as anxiety, fear and sadness...
October 6, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716145/kidney-function-is-associated-with-severity-of-white-matter-hyperintensity-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-tia
#20
Lixia Zong, Ming Yao, Jun Ni, Lixin Zhou, Jing Yuan, Bin Peng, Yi-Cheng Zhu, Liying Cui
BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggested the potential interactions between cerebrovascular diseases and impaired renal function. However, the relationship between renal function and white matter hyperintensity (WMH), marker of cerebral small vessel disease, in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) remains unknown. METHODS: We consecutively enrolled 1632 subjects with AIS or TIA who underwent brain MRI for this analysis. The severity of WMH in both of periventricular (PVH) and deep subcortical white matter (SDWMH) was evaluated using Fazekas scale...
October 6, 2016: BMC Neurology
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