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Cerebrovascular Dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653065/tet2-a-novel-epigenetic-regulator-and-potential-intervention-target-for-atherosclerosis
#1
Yami Liu, Wen Peng, Kai Qu, Xiaolong Lin, Zhaolin Zeng, Jiaojiao Chen, Dangheng Wei, Zuo Wang
Atherosclerosis is the underlying cause of cardio-cerebrovascular disease. However, the mechanisms of atherosclerosis are still unclear. The modification of DNA methylation has an important role in atherosclerosis development. As a member of the Ten-eleven translocation (TET) family, TET methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) can modify DNA methylation by catalyzing 5-methylcytosine to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and mediate DNA demethylation. Recent findings suggest that TET2 is related to the phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation of macrophage, the key factors of atherosclerosis...
April 13, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652541/dynamic-cerebral-autoregulation-is-impaired-during-sub-maximal-isometric-handgrip-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#2
Juliana R Caldas, Ronney B Panerai, Angela S M Salinet, Edson Bor-Seng-Shu, Filomena R B G Galas, Graziela S R Ferreira, Ligia Camara, Rogerio Hora Passos, Juliano P Almeida, Ricardo C Nogueira, Marcelo de Lima Oliveira M, Thompson G Robinson, Ludhmila A Hajjar
BACKGROUND: The incidence of neurological complications, including stroke and cognitive dysfunction is elevated in heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction. We hypothesized that the cerebrovascular response to isometric handgrip (iHG) is altered in HF patients. METHODS: Adults with HF and healthy volunteers were included. Cerebral blood velocity (CBV, transcranial Doppler, middle cerebral artery) and arterial blood pressure (BP, Finometer) were continuously recorded supine for 6 minutes, corresponding to one min baseline, three min of iHG exercise, at 30% maximum voluntary contraction, followed by two min of recovery...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623244/the-relationship-between-bone-mineral-density-and-cardiovascular-function-in-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Tara Kervin, Mathula Thangarajh
INTRODUCTION: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked genetic disorder that causes progressive skeletal and cardiac muscle weakness in boys. Cardiac dysfunction is a frequent cause of death in DMD. Glucocorticoids are the standard of care in DMD. The long-term use of oral glucocorticoids in DMD is complicated by poor bone health. Epidemiological studies suggest a biological link between the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and cardiovascular disease, including coronary artery and cerebrovascular diseases...
March 22, 2018: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618309/genetics-and-gene-therapy-of-anderson-fabry-disease
#4
Irene Simonetta, Antonino Tuttolomondo, Tiziana Di Chiara, Salvatore Miceli
Fabry's disease is a genetic disorder of X-linked inheritance caused by mutations in the alpha galactosidase A gene resulting in deficiency of this lysosomal enzyme. The progressive accumulation of glycosphingolipids, caused by the inadequate enzymatic activity, is responsible of organ dysfunction and thus of clinical manifestations. In presence of a high clinical suspicion, a careful physical examination and specific laboratory tests are required, finally diagnosis of Fabry's disease is confirmed by demonstration of absence or reduced alpha galactosidase A enzyme activity in hemizygous men and gene typing in heterozygous females; in fact the performance of enzymatic activity assay alone in women is inconclusive...
April 4, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600936/association-between-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome-cardiovascular-and-cerebrovascular-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Wai Chung Yong, Anawin Sanguankeo, Sikarin Upala
OBJECTIVES: Acute systemic inflammation and chronic systemic vasculitis are associated with endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic plaque formation. Studies on cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) are limited, with conflicting results. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the risk of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in pSS. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed from date of inception through August 2017...
March 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599834/improvement-of-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-attention-network-function-of-patients-with-ischemic-cerebrovascular-disease-via-dexmedetomidine
#6
Jingchao Zhang, Guoliang Wang, Fangxiang Zhang, Qian Zhao
The protective effect of dexmedetomidine on cognitive dysfunction and decreased attention network function of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease after stenting was investigated. Fifty-eight patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease undergoing stenting in Guizhou Provincial People's Hospital were selected and randomly divided into control group (n=29) and dexmedetomidine group (n=29). The dexmedetomidine group was treated with dexmedetomidine before induced anesthesia, while the control group was given the same dose of normal saline; and the normal volunteers of the same age were selected as the normal group (n=29)...
March 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581524/exercise-mitigates-alcohol-induced-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-cognitive-impairment-through-atf6-herp-signaling
#7
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Nandan K Mondal, Kennedy P Richardson, Neetu Tyagi
Chronic ethanol/alcohol (AL) dosing causes an elevation in homocysteine (Hcy) levels, which leads to the condition known as Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy). HHcy enhances oxidative stress and blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption through modulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress; in part by epigenetic alternation, leading to cognitive impairment. Clinicians have recommended exercise as a therapy; however, its protective effect on cognitive functions has not been fully explored. The present study was designed to observe the protective effects of exercise (EX) against alcohol-induced epigenetic and molecular alterations leading to cerebrovascular dysfunction...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580963/neurovascular-coupling-during-visual-stimulation-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-meg-fmri-study
#8
Rachael Stickland, Marek Allen, Lorenzo Magazzini, Krish D Singh, Richard G Wise, Valentina Tomassini
The process of neurovascular coupling ensures that increases in neuronal activity are fed by increases in cerebral blood flow. Evidence suggests that neurovascular coupling may be impaired in multiple sclerosis (MS) due to a combination of brain hypoperfusion, altered cerebrovascular reactivity and oxygen metabolism, and altered levels of vasoactive compounds. Here, we tested the hypothesis that neurovascular coupling is impaired in MS. We characterised neurovascular coupling as the relationship between changes in neuronal oscillatory power within the gamma frequency band (30-80 Hz), as measured by magnetoencephalography (MEG), and associated haemodynamic changes (blood oxygenation level dependent, BOLD, and cerebral blood flow, CBF)as measured by functional MRI...
March 23, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575939/mechanism-of-malat1-preventing-apoptosis-of-vascular-endothelial-cells-induced-by-oxygen-glucose-deficiency-and-reoxidation
#9
Guoping Wang, Yuanbo Wu, Yuyou Zhu
BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury leads to cerebrovascular dysfunction characterized by endothelial cell injury or death. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1(MALAT1) has been reported to be associated with endothelial dysfunction. Our study aimed to investigate the effect of MALAT1 on vascular endothelium. METHODS: In this study, oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD-R) were used as in vitro studies to investigate the role of MALAT1 in I/R-induced apoptosis of cerebrovascular endothelial cells in an I/R injury model...
March 26, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569186/takotsubo-syndrome-clinical-features-pathogenesis-treatment-and-relationship-with-cerebrovascular-diseases
#10
REVIEW
M Ranieri, J Finsterer, G Bedini, E A Parati, A Bersano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review paper aims to provide a complete and updated overview on the clinical and pathophysiological aspects of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS), including prognosis, therapy, and the association with cerebrovascular conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: TTS is an increasingly recognized non-ischemic cardiomyopathy characterized by sudden, temporary weakening of the myocardium, of which the pathogenesis is unknown. Although pathogenesis of TTS remains unclear, a complex interaction between catecholamine-mediated stimulation, myocardial stunning, and subsequent stress-related myocardial dysfunction seems to be the main pathophysiological mechanism...
March 22, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556795/novel-biomarkers-to-detect-target-organ-damage-in-acute-hypertension
#11
REVIEW
Stephen Boone, Dick Kuo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Early lowering of blood pressure is advised for patients with severe hypertension associated with signs of impending or progressive organ damage, whereas aggressive treatment is not recommended in patients with asymptomatic severe hypertension. As treatment goals for asymptomatic hypertension and true hypertensive emergency drastically differ, it is essential to identify patients with evidence of impending or progressive organ damage. Biomarkers may assist providers in identifying high-risk patients who would benefit from early blood pressure reduction...
March 19, 2018: Current Hypertension Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551557/surgical-management-of-anatomic-bladder-outlet-obstruction-in-males-with-neurogenic-bladder-dysfunction-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Toscane C Noordhoff, Jan Groen, Jeroen R Scheepe, Bertil F M Blok
CONTEXT: Surgical treatment of anatomic bladder outlet obstruction (BOO) may be indicated in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction. A bothersome complication after surgery is urinary incontinence. OBJECTIVE: To identify the optimal practice in the surgical treatment of anatomic BOO in males with neurogenic bladder dysfunction, due to multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, spinal cord injury (SCI), spina bifida, or cerebrovascular accident (CVA). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement...
March 15, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547051/thyroid-hormone-replacement-reduces-the-risk-of-cardiovascular-diseases-in-diabetic-nephropathy-patients-with-subclinical-hypothyroidism
#13
Changhwan Seo, Seonghun Kim, Misol Lee, Min-Uk Cha, Hyoungnae Kim, Seohyun Park, Hae-Ryong Yun, Jong Hyun Jhee, Youn Kyung Kee, Seung Hyeok Han, Tae-Hyun Yoo, Shin-Wook Kang, Jung Tak Park
OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetic nephropathy (DMN) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, strategies to reduce this risk are limited. Thyroid hormone replacement therapy (THRT) in patients with hypothyroidism has been shown to reduce several surrogate markers of CVD. Therefore, we performed a study to determine if THRT would reduce CVD risk in patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) and DMN. METHODS: This was a retrospective, nonrandomized study of patients with type 2 diabetes, DMN, and SCH...
March 2018: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534402/-multicenter-retrospectie-analysis-on-clinical-characteristics-and-pharmaceutical-therapy-of-elderly-patients-with-chronic-heart-failure
#14
L Li, Q Mo, T Mo, Y Liu, J L Tian, Z Wan
Objective: To investigate the clinical characteristics and pharmaceutical therapy of elderly patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Methods: Using the multi-center retrospective cross-sectional survey, we analyzed 1 799 hospitalized patients with CHF as the main cause and NYHA heart function classification Ⅱ-Ⅳ from nine tertiary hospitals of Tianjin during March 2014 to February 2016. According to age, we divided them into non- elderly group(age<65 years), normal elderly group (age ≥65-79 years), and the old elderly group(age≥80 years)...
March 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516292/peripheral-post-ischemic-vascular-repair-is-impaired-in-a-murine-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Tatyana Merkulova-Rainon, Chris S Mantsounga, Dong Broquères-You, Cristina Pinto, José Vilar, Diana Cifuentes, Philippe Bonnin, Nathalie Kubis, Daniel Henrion, Jean-Sébastien Silvestre, Bernard I Lévy
The pathophysiology of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains uncertain. Along with brain amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits and neurofibrillary tangles, cerebrovascular dysfunction is increasingly recognized as fundamental to the pathogenesis of AD. Using an experimental model of limb ischemia in transgenic APPPS1 mice, a model of AD (AD mice), we showed that microvascular impairment also extends to the peripheral vasculature in AD. At D70 following femoral ligation, we evidenced a significant decrease in cutaneous blood flow (- 29%, P < 0...
March 7, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515436/association-between-age-and-changes-in-heart-rate-variability-after-hemodialysis-in-patients-with-diabetes
#16
Sheng-Wen Niu, Jiun-Chi Huang, Szu-Chia Chen, Hugo Y-H Lin, I-Ching Kuo, Pei-Yu Wu, Yi-Wen Chiu, Jer-Ming Chang
Background: Heart rate variability (HRV) represents changes in the time between successive heart beats, and it has been used to assess the autonomic nervous system. Previous studies have reported autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD), however, no studies have evaluated the effects of age on changes in HRV in these patients. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of age on changes in HRV in diabetic HD patients. Methods: We enrolled 84 diabetic patients receiving maintenance HD...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507847/does-a-spontaneous-intracerebral-hemorrhage-predispose-to-a-secondary-distant-intracerebral-hemorrhage-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Nakul Katyal, Christopher R Newey
Cerebrovascular autoregulation may be dysfunctional after acute intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). This disruption in autoregulation can potentially result in secondary neurological damage that may present as an intracranial hemorrhage at locations distant from the primary site of hemorrhage. We discuss a case of 68-year-old female who presented with acute left hemiparesis from a spontaneous right frontal ICH. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was negative for any other blooming artifact. Her weakness was improving, but after 72 hours from admission, she had an acute change in her mental status and was found to have a new left frontal ICH distant from the primary hemorrhage...
December 29, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506031/cognition-and-dementia-in-older-patients-with-epilepsy
#18
Arjune Sen, Valentina Capelli, Masud Husain
With advances in healthcare and an ageing population, the number of older adults with epilepsy is set to rise substantially across the world. In developed countries the highest incidence of epilepsy is already in people over 65 and, as life expectancy increases, individuals who developed epilepsy at a young age are also living longer. Recent findings show that older persons with epilepsy are more likely to suffer from cognitive dysfunction and that there might be an important bidirectional relationship between epilepsy and dementia...
February 28, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505736/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induces-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-and-astrogliosis-through-angiotensin-ii-type-1-receptor-mediated-signaling-pathways
#19
Brice Ongali, Nektaria Nicolakakis, Xin-Kang Tong, Clotilde Lecrux, Hans Imboden, Edith Eh Hamel
Transgenic mice constitutively overexpressing the cytokine transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) (TGF mice) display cerebrovascular alterations as seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID), but no or only subtle cognitive deficits. TGF-β1 may exert part of its deleterious effects through interactions with angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1R) signaling pathways. We test such interactions in the brain and cerebral vessels of TGF mice by measuring cerebrovascular reactivity, levels of protein markers of vascular fibrosis, nitric oxide synthase activity, astrogliosis and mnemonic performance in mice treated (6 months) with the AT1R blocker, losartan (10 mg/kg/day), or the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril (ACEi,3 mg/kg/day)...
March 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504901/association-of-cerebrovascular-dysfunction-with-the-development-of-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology-in-oxys-rats
#20
Natalia A Stefanova, Kseniya Yi Maksimova, Ekaterina A Rudnitskaya, Natalia A Muraleva, Nataliya G Kolosova
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular dysfunction plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD): the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. The involvement of neurovasculature disorders in the progression of AD is now increasingly appreciated, but whether they represent initial factors or late-stage pathological changes during the disease is unclear. Using senescence-accelerated OXYS rats, which simulate key characteristics of sporadic AD, we evaluated contributions of cerebrovascular alterations to the disease development...
February 9, 2018: BMC Genomics
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