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Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

Min-Soo Kim, Ji Hye Bang, Jun Lee, Jung-Soo Han, Tae Gon Baik, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties. Although numerous studies have assessed the neuroprotective properties of GBE in ischemia, only a few studies have investigated the neuro-pharmacological mechanisms of action of GBE in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). PURPOSE: In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo)...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Xiao-Li Yao, Zhao-Hui Yao, Li Li, Li Nie, Shao-Feng Zhang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) induces cognitive deficits. Although CCH can be improved, cognitive impairment is not improved accordingly. To date, many studies have focused on investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of CCH; however, the treatment of the induced cognitive impairment remains ineffective. Thus, the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CCH and potential agents for treating this impairment need to be explored further. Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug that improves clinical outcomes for some central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
October 4, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Li Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Daojing Li, Nong Zhang, Ruiqiong Liu, Bin Han, Changjuan Wei, Haijie Liu, Xiaolin Xu, Junwei Hao
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a widely prevalent and devastating disease. Despite the tremendous complexity that limits understanding of the pathophysiology of VaD, microglial dysfunction has been attributed, in part, to immune microenviroment disorder and finally leads to cognitive deficits. Considered the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key player in regulation of glial function, our work focused on whether the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) could overcome the destructive microglial function, change the phenotype and ameliorate cognitive decline induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Daniel Gruneberg, Felipe A Montellano, Konstanze Plaschke, Lexiao Li, Hugo H Marti, Reiner Kunze
Episodes of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia increase the risk of dementia, which is associated with impaired learning and memory. Previous studies in rodent models of dementia indicated a favorable effect of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and erythropoietin (Epo). In the present study we thus investigated whether activation of the entire adaptive HIF pathway in neurons by cell-specific deletion of the HIF suppressor prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) improves cognitive abilities in young (3months) and old (18-28months) mice suffering from chronic brain hypoperfusion...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Neurology
Tuo Yang, Yang Sun, Zhengyu Lu, Rehana K Leak, Feng Zhang
As human life expectancy rises, the aged population will increase. Aging is accompanied by changes in tissue structure, often resulting in functional decline. For example, aging within blood vessels contributes to a decrease in blood flow to important organs, potentially leading to organ atrophy and loss of function. In the central nervous system, cerebral vascular aging can lead to loss of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, eventually resulting in cognitive and sensorimotor decline. One of the major of types of cognitive dysfunction due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID)...
September 27, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
William T C Yuh, Matthew David Alexander, Toshihiro Ueda, Masayuki Maeda, Toshiaki Taoka, Kei Yamada, Norman J Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: Advanced stroke imaging has generated much excitement for the early diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and facilitation of intervention. However, its therapeutic impact has not matched its diagnostic utility; most notably, lacking significant contributions to recent major AIS clinical trials. It is time to reexamine the fundamental hypotheses from the enormous body of imaging research on which clinical practices are based and reassess the current standard clinical and imaging strategies, or golden rules, established over decades for AIS...
September 28, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Yiting Zhou, Jing Zhang, Lu Wang, Ying Chen, Yushan Wan, Yang He, Lei Jiang, Jing Ma, Rujia Liao, Xiangnan Zhang, Liyun Shi, Zhenghong Qin, Yudong Zhou, Zhong Chen, Weiwei Hu
Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion exhibits progressive white matter and cognitive impairments. However, its pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and its receptor IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) in an experimental SIVD model generated via right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO) in mice. We found that IL-1β expression was elevated in the corpus callosum at the early stages after rUCCAO...
September 20, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Pengfei Cheng, Xuzheng Zuo, Yifei Ren, Shunjie Bai, Weiju Tang, Xiuying Chen, Gong Wang, Haoxiang Wang, Wen Huang, Peng Xie
We sought to investigate the role of the adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) in white matter lesions under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) and explore the potential repair mechanisms by activation of the receptors. A right unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (rUCCAO) method was used to construct a CCH model. 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a specific agonist of A1ARs, was used to explore the biological mechanisms of repair in white matter lesions under CCH. The expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylation of mTOR (P-mTOR), myelin basic protein (MBP, a marker of white matter myelination) were detected by Western-blot...
September 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Vittorio Calabrese, James Giordano, Anna Signorile, Maria Laura Ontario, Sergio Castorina, Concetta De Pasquale, Gunter Eckert, Edward J Calabrese
Vascular dementia (VaD), considered the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer disease in the elderly, involves the impairment of memory and cognitive function as a consequence of cerebrovascular disease. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a common pathophysiological condition frequently occurring in VaD. It is generally associated with neurovascular degeneration, in which neuronal damage and blood-brain barrier alterations coexist and evoke beta-amyloid-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammasome- promoted neuroinflammation, which contribute to and exacerbate the course of disease...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Joan Martí-Fàbregas, Sebastián Figueroa, Eva Martínez-Lizana, Irati Zubizarreta, David Carrera, Alejandro Martínez-Domeño, Luis Prats-Sánchez, Pol Camps-Renom, Elena Jiménez-Xarrié, Raquel Delgado-Mederos
Chronic hypoperfusion may hinder the washout of emboli coming from the heart and facilitate the formation of intra-cavitary thrombi. We investigated whether a decreased total cerebral blood flow (tCBF) resulted in recurrence of stroke and other vascular events in consecutive patients with cardioembolic stroke. We excluded patients with extra-cranial carotid or vertebral stenosis. The recorded tCBF was the sum of blood flow in both the carotid and vertebral extra-cranial arteries as measured with ultrasonography...
September 17, 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Donghee Kim, Seung-Yul Lee, Kwon-Duk Seo
Introduction. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintense vessels (FHVs) can be seen in patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the cerebral arteries. FHVs are known to reflect stagnant or slow blood flow within the cerebral artery. Case Report. A 75-year-old woman presented with suddenly developed gait disturbance. She had a history of hypertension, heart failure, and dementia. Brain MRI demonstrated FHVs within both middle cerebral arteries (MCAs). However, there was no acute ischemic lesion and severe stenosis or occlusion of the cerebral arteries...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
Paolo Zamboni, Erica Menegatti, Corrado Cittanti, Francesco Sisini, Sergio Gianesini, Fabrizio Salvi, Francesco Mascoli
OBJECTIVE: Increased ventricle volume and brain hypoperfusion are linked to neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that in patients with restricted jugular flow, surgical restoration may reduce brain ventricle volume, because it should improve the pressure gradient, hence promoting cerebrospinal fluid reabsorption into the venous system. METHODS: The effects of restoring the jugular flow were assessed by means of a validated echocardiography with color Doppler (ECD) protocol of flow quantification, magnetic resonance venography, and single-photon emission computed tomography combined with computed tomography (SPECT-CT)...
October 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery. Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Surbhi Gupta, Prabhat Singh, Bhupesh Sharma
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-induced chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) is associated with reduced cerebral blood flow and vascular dementia (VaD). Brain mitochondrial potassium (adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium [KATP]) channels have a beneficial role in various brain conditions. The utility of KATP channels in CCH-induced VaD is still unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of nicorandil, a selective KATP channel opener, in CCH-induced VaD. METHODS: The method of 2-vessel occlusion (2VO) was used to induce CCH in mice...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Shalini Jayant, Bhupesh Sharma
Vascular dementia is the second most common cause of cognitive decline in aged people but the effectual therapeutic target is still missing. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been widely found in vascular dementia (VaD) patients. CCH is thought to link with neurodegenerative disorders and their subsequent cognitive impairment. The present study has been framed to investigate the role of selective agonist of CB2 receptor (1-phenylisatin) in CCH induced VaD. Permanent bilateral common carotid arteries ligation or two vessels occlusion (2VO) technique was used to induce CCH in rats...
September 6, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Shalini Jayant, Bhupesh Sharma
Vascular dementia is the highly devastating neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mainly found in aged people but the effectual therapeutic target is still not there. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) has been broadly found in vascular dementia (VaD) patients. CCH is thought to link with neurodegenerative disorders and their subsequent cognitive deteriorate on. This study has been framed to examine the role of a selective agonist of cannabinoid receptor type 2(CB2); 1-phenylisatin in CCH induced VaD...
September 2, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
Alexander Seiler, Ralf Deichmann, Waltraud Pfeilschifter, Elke Hattingen, Oliver C Singer, Marlies Wagner
PURPOSE: Quantitative T2'-mapping detects regional changes of the relation of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) by using their different magnetic properties in gradient echo imaging and might therefore be a surrogate marker of increased oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) in cerebral hypoperfusion. Since elevations of cerebral blood volume (CBV) with consecutive accumulation of Hb might also increase the fraction of deoxygenated Hb and, through this, decrease the T2'-values in these patients we evaluated the relationship between T2'-values and CBV in patients with unilateral high-grade large-artery stenosis...
2016: PloS One
Michael Ingrisch, Steven Sourbron, Sina Herberich, Moritz Jörg Schneider, Tania Kümpfel, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Maximilian F Reiser, Birgit Ertl-Wagner
OBJECTIVES: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and has been associated with reduced perfusion in normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). The magnitude of this hypoperfusion is unclear. The present study aims to quantify NAWM perfusion with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with relapsing-remitting (RR) MS and in a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The statistical power of a DCE-MRI acquisition to reveal hypoperfusion in MS was estimated using a Monte Carlo simulation: synthetic tissue curves with a contrast-to-noise ratio of 8 were generated for MS patients and control group using perfusion values reported in previous studies...
August 19, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Yorito Hattori, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Satoshi Iguchi, Satoshi Saito, Yumi Yamamoto, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka, Hidehiro Iida, Masafumi Ihara
The bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) mouse model, which replicates chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and white matter ischemic lesions, is considered to model some aspects of vascular cognitive impairment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in the brain surface post-BCAS have been demonstrated by laser speckle flowmetry, but CBF levels in the brain parenchyma remain unknown. Adult C57BL/6J male mice were subjected to BCAS using external microcoils. Brain magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was conducted to visualize the intracranial main arteries while arterial spin labeling (ASL) was used to measure cortical and subcortical parenchymal CBF levels before and after BCAS...
2016: Scientific Reports
Noboru Toda, Tomio Okamura
Cerebral blood flow is mainly regulated by nitrergic (parasympathetic, postganglionic) nerves and nitric oxide (NO) liberated from endothelial cells in response to shear stress and stretch of vasculature, whereas sympathetic vasoconstrictor control is quite weak. On the other hand, peripheral vascular resistance and blood flow are mainly controlled by adrenergic vasoconstrictor nerves; endothelium-derived NO and nitrergic nerves play some roles as vasodilator factors. Cigarette smoking impairs NO synthesis in cerebral vascular endothelial cells and nitrergic nerves leading to interference with cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in the brain...
August 2016: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
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