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Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909230/the-protective-role-of-sex-hormones-in-females-and-exercise-prehabilitation-in-males-on-sternotomy-induced-cranial-hypoperfusion-in-aortic-banded-mini-swine
#1
T Dylan Olver, Jessica A Hiemstra, Jenna C Edwards, Brian S Ferguson, Harold Laughlin, Craig A Emter
During cardiac surgery, specifically sternotomy, cranial hypoperfusion is linked to cerebral ischemia, increased risk of perioperative watershed stroke and other neurocognitive complications. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively examine the effect of sex hormones in females and exercise prehabilitation in males on median sternotomy-induced changes in cranial perfusion in a large animal model of heart failure. Cranial blood flow (CBF) before, 10- and 60 min post-sternotomy was analyzed in eight groups of Yucatan mini-swine: female-control, aortic-banded, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized+aortic-banded; male-control, aortic-banded, aortic-banded+continuous exercise trained, and aortic-banded+interval exercise trained...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889749/contribution-of-p38-mapk-to-the-ameliorating-effect-of-enriched-environment-on-the-cognitive-deficits-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#2
Yu-Wang Li, Qing-Yun Li, Jin-Hua Wang, Xiao-Lin Xu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: An enriched environment (EE) ameliorates learning and memory impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) signaling pathway exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on the nervous system during the progression of ischemia. METHODS: The present study investigated whether p38 MAPK participates in the process by which EE exposure ameliorates the cognitive deficits induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864848/age-related-small-vessel-disease-a-potential-contributor-to-neurodegeneration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Ruth Geraldes, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca, Jacqueline Palace
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system wherein, after an initial phase of transient neurological defects, slow neurological deterioration due to progressive neuronal loss ensues. Age is a major determinant of MS progression onset and disability. Over the past years, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the key drivers of neurodegeneration and disability accumulation in MS. However, the effect of commonly encountered age-related cerebral vessel disease, namely small vessel disease (SVD), has been largely neglected and constitutes the aim of this review...
November 19, 2016: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864280/edaravone-injection-reverses-learning-and-memory-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-dementia
#4
Xu Li, Fen Lu, Wei Li, Lingzhi Qin, Yong Yao, Xuerong Ge, Qingkai Yu, Xinliang Liang, Dongmei Zhao, Xiaohong Li, Jiewen Zhang
Edaravone is a novel free radical scavenger that exerts neuroprotective effects by inhibiting endothelial injury and by ameliorating neuronal damage in brain ischemia. Recently, it was reported that edaravone could alleviate the pathology and cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease patients. However, its relevance to vascular dementia (VaD) is not clear. In this study, we partially occluded the bilateral carotid arteries of rats surgically to induce chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH), a well-known rat model of VaD...
November 17, 2016: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857746/protective-effects-of-carnosine-on-white-matter-damage-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#5
Jing Ma, Shu-Hong Bo, Xiao-Tong Lu, A-Jing Xu, Jian Zhang
Carnosine is a dipeptide that scavenges free radicals, inhibits inflammation in the central nervous system, and protects against ischemic and hypoxic brain damage through its anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic actions. Therefore, we hypothesized that carnosine would also protect against white matter damage caused by subcortical ischemic injury. White matter damage was induced by right unilateral common carotid artery occlusion in mice. The animals were treated with 200, 500 or 750 mg/kg carnosine by intraperitoneal injection 30 minutes before injury and every other day after injury...
September 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834741/impaired-collateral-flow-compensation-during-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-the-type-2-diabetic-mice
#6
Yasuo Nishijima, Yosuke Akamatsu, Shih Yen Yang, Chih Cheng Lee, Utku Baran, Shaozhen Song, Ruikang K Wang, Teiji Tominaga, Jialing Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The presence of collaterals is associated with a reduced risk of stroke and transient ischemic attack in patients with steno-occlusive carotid artery disease. Although metabolic syndrome negatively impacts collateral status, it is unclear whether and to what extent type 2 diabetes mellitus affects cerebral collateral flow regulation during hypoperfusion. METHODS: We examined the spatial and temporal changes of the leptomeningeal collateral flow and the flow dynamics of the penetrating arterioles in the distal middle cerebral artery and anterior cerebral artery branches over 2 weeks after unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO) using optical coherent tomography in db/+ and db/db mice...
November 10, 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27823628/leonurine-ameliorates-cognitive-dysfunction-via-antagonizing-excitotoxic-glutamate-insults-and-inhibiting-autophagy
#7
Chunhua Liu, Hongqiang Yin, Jing Gao, Xiaxia Xu, Tao Zhang, Zhuo Yang
BACKGROUND: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is related with cognitive deficits in different types of dementia. PURPOSE: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect and potential mechanisms of leonurine on chronic cerebral hypoperfusion both in vitro and in vivo. STUDY DESIGN: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was duplicated by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in vitro and by ligation of bilateral common carotid arteries (2-VO) in vivo. METHODS: In in vitro study, there were control group, OGD group, OGD+ 100µM leonurin group, and OGD+ 10µM donepezil group...
December 1, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815377/endovascular-recanalization-of-the-common-carotid-artery-in-a-patient-with-radio-induced-chronic-occlusion
#8
Lorena Nico, Giacomo Cester, Federica Viaro, Claudio Baracchini, Francesco Causin
Recanalization of chronic occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with a history of neck irradiation is challenging, both for vascular surgeons and interventional neuroradiologists. We describe a case of successful stenting of radio induced chronic occlusion of the right CCA in a 41-year-old patient with neurological deterioration and minor stroke due to cerebral hypoperfusion caused by concomitant bilateral arterial occlusions. Direct surgery and surgical bypass were considered contraindicated...
November 4, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803080/endovascular-recanalization-of-the-common-carotid-artery-in-a-patient-with-radio-induced-chronic-occlusion
#9
Lorena Nico, Giacomo Cester, Federica Viaro, Claudio Baracchini, Francesco Causin
Recanalization of chronic occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) in patients with a history of neck irradiation is challenging, both for vascular surgeons and interventional neuroradiologists. We describe a case of successful stenting of radio induced chronic occlusion of the right CCA in a 41-year-old patient with neurological deterioration and minor stroke due to cerebral hypoperfusion caused by concomitant bilateral arterial occlusions. Direct surgery and surgical bypass were considered contraindicated...
November 1, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765355/ginkgo-biloba-l-extract-protects-against-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-by-modulating-neuroinflammation-and-the-cholinergic-system
#10
Min-Soo Kim, Ji Hye Bang, Jun Lee, Jung-Soo Han, Tae Gon Baik, Won Kyung Jeon
BACKGROUND: Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE)-a widely used nutraceutical-is reported to have diverse functions, including positive effects on memory and vasodilatory properties. Although numerous studies have assessed the neuroprotective properties of GBE in ischemia, only a few studies have investigated the neuro-pharmacological mechanisms of action of GBE in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH). PURPOSE: In the present study, we sought to determine the effects of GBE on CCH-induced neuroinflammation and cholinergic dysfunction in a rat model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo)...
November 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755938/arterial-spin-labeling-perfusion-of-the-brain-emerging-clinical-applications
#11
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741481/oxiracetam-can-improve-cognitive-impairment-after-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion-in-rats
#12
Xiao-Li Yao, Zhao-Hui Yao, Li Li, Li Nie, Shao-Feng Zhang
Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) induces cognitive deficits. Although CCH can be improved, cognitive impairment is not improved accordingly. To date, many studies have focused on investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of CCH; however, the treatment of the induced cognitive impairment remains ineffective. Thus, the mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CCH and potential agents for treating this impairment need to be explored further. Oxiracetam is a nootropic drug that improves clinical outcomes for some central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
October 4, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725116/everolimus-rad001-ameliorates-vascular-cognitive-impairment-by-regulating-microglial-function-via-the-mtorc1-signaling-pathway
#13
Li Chen, Yanjun Zhang, Daojing Li, Nong Zhang, Ruiqiong Liu, Bin Han, Changjuan Wei, Haijie Liu, Xiaolin Xu, Junwei Hao
Vascular dementia (VaD) is a widely prevalent and devastating disease. Despite the tremendous complexity that limits understanding of the pathophysiology of VaD, microglial dysfunction has been attributed, in part, to immune microenviroment disorder and finally leads to cognitive deficits. Considered the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a key player in regulation of glial function, our work focused on whether the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) could overcome the destructive microglial function, change the phenotype and ameliorate cognitive decline induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720797/neuronal-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-2-deficiency-improves-cognitive-abilities-in-a-murine-model-of-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#14
Daniel Gruneberg, Felipe A Montellano, Konstanze Plaschke, Lexiao Li, Hugo H Marti, Reiner Kunze
Episodes of cerebral hypoxia/ischemia increase the risk of dementia, which is associated with impaired learning and memory. Previous studies in rodent models of dementia indicated a favorable effect of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and erythropoietin (Epo). In the present study we thus investigated whether activation of the entire adaptive HIF pathway in neurons by cell-specific deletion of the HIF suppressor prolyl-4-hydroxylase 2 (PHD2) improves cognitive abilities in young (3months) and old (18-28months) mice suffering from chronic brain hypoperfusion...
October 5, 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693240/the-impact-of-cerebrovascular-aging-on-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#15
REVIEW
Tuo Yang, Yang Sun, Zhengyu Lu, Rehana K Leak, Feng Zhang
As human life expectancy rises, the aged population will increase. Aging is accompanied by changes in tissue structure, often resulting in functional decline. For example, aging within blood vessels contributes to a decrease in blood flow to important organs, potentially leading to organ atrophy and loss of function. In the central nervous system, cerebral vascular aging can lead to loss of the integrity of the blood-brain barrier, eventually resulting in cognitive and sensorimotor decline. One of the major of types of cognitive dysfunction due to chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID)...
September 28, 2016: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681054/revisiting-current-golden-rules-in-managing-acute-ischemic-stroke-evaluation-of-new-strategies-to-further-improve-treatment-selection-and-outcome
#16
William T C Yuh, Matthew David Alexander, Toshihiro Ueda, Masayuki Maeda, Toshiaki Taoka, Kei Yamada, Norman J Beauchamp
OBJECTIVE: Advanced stroke imaging has generated much excitement for the early diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and facilitation of intervention. However, its therapeutic impact has not matched its diagnostic utility; most notably, lacking significant contributions to recent major AIS clinical trials. It is time to reexamine the fundamental hypotheses from the enormous body of imaging research on which clinical practices are based and reassess the current standard clinical and imaging strategies, or golden rules, established over decades for AIS...
September 28, 2016: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663285/interleukin-1%C3%AE-impedes-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-recruitment-and-white-matter-repair-following-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#17
Yiting Zhou, Jing Zhang, Lu Wang, Ying Chen, Yushan Wan, Yang He, Lei Jiang, Jing Ma, Rujia Liao, Xiangnan Zhang, Liyun Shi, Zhenghong Qin, Yudong Zhou, Zhong Chen, Weiwei Hu
Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion exhibits progressive white matter and cognitive impairments. However, its pathogenetic mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated the role of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and its receptor IL-1 receptor type 1 (IL-1R1) in an experimental SIVD model generated via right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO) in mice. We found that IL-1β expression was elevated in the corpus callosum at the early stages after rUCCAO...
September 20, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662851/adenosine-a1-receptors-modulate-mtor-signaling-to-regulate-white-matter-inflammatory-lesions-induced-by-chronic-cerebral-hypoperfusion
#18
Pengfei Cheng, Xuzheng Zuo, Yifei Ren, Shunjie Bai, Weiju Tang, Xiuying Chen, Gong Wang, Haoxiang Wang, Wen Huang, Peng Xie
We sought to investigate the role of the adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) in white matter lesions under chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) and explore the potential repair mechanisms by activation of the receptors. A right unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (rUCCAO) method was used to construct a CCH model. 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a specific agonist of A1ARs, was used to explore the biological mechanisms of repair in white matter lesions under CCH. The expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylation of mTOR (P-mTOR), myelin basic protein (MBP, a marker of white matter myelination) were detected by Western-blot...
December 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27662637/major-pathogenic-mechanisms-in-vascular-dementia-roles-of-cellular-stress-response-and-hormesis-in-neuroprotection
#19
Vittorio Calabrese, James Giordano, Anna Signorile, Maria Laura Ontario, Sergio Castorina, Concetta De Pasquale, Gunter Eckert, Edward J Calabrese
Vascular dementia (VaD), considered the second most common cause of cognitive impairment after Alzheimer disease in the elderly, involves the impairment of memory and cognitive function as a consequence of cerebrovascular disease. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion is a common pathophysiological condition frequently occurring in VaD. It is generally associated with neurovascular degeneration, in which neuronal damage and blood-brain barrier alterations coexist and evoke beta-amyloid-induced oxidative and nitrosative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammasome- promoted neuroinflammation, which contribute to and exacerbate the course of disease...
December 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27649877/total-cerebral-blood-flow-in-patients-with-cardioembolic-stroke-is-it-clinically-meaningful
#20
Joan Martí-Fàbregas, Sebastián Figueroa, Eva Martínez-Lizana, Irati Zubizarreta, David Carrera, Alejandro Martínez-Domeño, Luis Prats-Sánchez, Pol Camps-Renom, Elena Jiménez-Xarrié, Raquel Delgado-Mederos
Chronic hypoperfusion may hinder the washout of emboli coming from the heart and facilitate the formation of intra-cavitary thrombi. We investigated whether a decreased total cerebral blood flow (tCBF) resulted in recurrence of stroke and other vascular events in consecutive patients with cardioembolic stroke. We excluded patients with extra-cranial carotid or vertebral stenosis. The recorded tCBF was the sum of blood flow in both the carotid and vertebral extra-cranial arteries as measured with ultrasonography...
December 2016: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
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