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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821205/cerebrospinal-fluid-circulating-tumor-cells-a-novel-tool-to-diagnose-leptomeningeal-metastases-from-epithelial-tumors
#1
Xuling Lin, Martin Fleisher, Marc Rosenblum, Oscar Lin, Adrienne Boire, Samuel Briggs, Yevgeniya Bensman, Brenda Hurtado, Larisa Shagabayeva, Lisa M DeAngelis, Katherine S Panageas, Antonio Omuro, Elena I Pentsova
Background: Diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) remains challenging due to low sensitivity of CSF cytology and infrequent unequivocal MRI findings. In a previous pilot study, we showed that rare cell capture technology (RCCT) could be used to detect circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the CSF of patients with LM from epithelial tumors. To establish the diagnostic accuracy of CSF-CTC in the diagnosis of LM, we applied this technique in a distinct, larger cohort of patients. Methods: In this institutional review board-approved prospective study, patients with epithelial tumors and clinical suspicion of LM underwent CSF-CTC evaluation and standard MRI and CSF cytology examination...
September 1, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820702/predictive-model-for-permanent-shunting-in-cryptococcal-meningitis
#2
Woralux Phusoongnern, Siriluck Anunnatsiri, Kittisak Sawanyawisuth, Amnat Kitkhuandee
Cryptococcal meningitis may have long-term morbidity and requires a permanent cerebrospinal fluid shunt. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors and create a predictive model for permanent shunt treatment in cryptococcal meningitis patients. This was a retrospective analytical study conducted at Khon Kaen University. The study period was from January 2005 to December 2015. We enrolled all adult patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis. Risk factors predictive for permanent shunting treatment were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis...
August 14, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819802/significance-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-as-a-predictor-of-resistance-to-standard-chemo-radiotherapy-for-pure-germinoma
#3
Akihiro Inoue, Takanori Ohnishi, Shohei Kohno, Shiro Ohue, Shinji Iwata, Shirabe Matsumoto, Masahiro Nishikawa, Saya Ozaki, Yawara Nakamura, Yosuke Mizuno, Riko Kitazawa, Takeharu Kunieda
Intracranial pure germinomas in children generally respond well to standard chemo-radiotherapy. However, some patients are refractory to standard therapy and require additional treatment. To investigate the characteristics of this subgroup, we retrospectively analyzed the clinical features and treatment outcomes of a cohort of 21 patients with intracranial pure germinomas who were diagnosed between April 2002 and December 2016 at Ehime University Hospital in Japan. Pure germinoma diagnosis was verified by histological examination of the tumor after surgery, and all patients received standard chemo-radiotherapy...
August 18, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819680/quantitative-approach-to-the-posterior-cranial-fossa-and-craniocervical-junction-in-asymptomatic-children-with-achondroplasia
#4
Rosalinda Calandrelli, Marco Panfili, Gabriella D'Apolito, Giuseppe Zampino, Alessandro Pedicelli, Fabio Pilato, Cesare Colosimo
PURPOSE: We propose an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based quantitative morphovolumetric approach to the posterior cranial fossa (PCF) and craniocervical junction (CCJ) changes in achondroplastic patients investigating possible associations with ventriculomegaly and medullary compression. METHODS: We analyzed MRI of 13 achondroplastic children not treated by surgery. 3D FSPGR T1-weighted images were used to analyze (1) PCF synchondroses; (2) PCF volume (PCFV), PCF brain volume (PCFBV), PCFV/PCFBV ratio, cerebellar volume, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) spaces volume, and IV ventricle volume; (3) PCF (clivus, supraocciput, exocciput lengths, tentorial angle) and CCJ (AP and LL diameters of foramen magnum (FM)) morphometry; (4) measurements of FM and jugular foramina (JF) areas; and (5) supratentorial ventricular volume...
August 17, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819671/fullerenol-nanoparticles-suppress-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-by-inhibiting-differentiation-and-maturation
#5
Huan Geng, Ya-Nan Chang, Xue Bai, Shuitao Liu, Qing Yuan, Weihong Gu, Juan Li, Kui Chen, Gengyan Xing, Gengmei Xing
Bone health requires regulation of homeostatic equilibrium between osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The over-activation of osteoclasts can disrupt bone metabolism, resulting in osteoporosis and other bone-loss diseases. Fullerenol, a polyhydroxy derivative of fullerene, exhibits excellent biocompatibility. Here we show that fullerenol nanoparticles exert two functions: inhibition of osteoclastic differentiation and blockage of pre-osteoclast fusion to restructure osteoclast maturation and function. Experimentally, the nanoparticles reduced pre-osteoclast migration and inhibited ruffled border formation to block their maturation...
August 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819362/recurrent-csf-rhinorrhea-misdiagnosed-as-chronic-allergic-rhinitis-with-subsequent-development-of-bacterial-meningitis
#6
Michael T Ulrich, Lawrence K Loo, Michael B Ing
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea results from an abnormal communication of the dura mater to the nasal mucosa. The majority of cases of CSF rhinorrhea are the result of trauma or surgery involving the skull base. Spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea is a rare clinical entity with increased risk of ascending infection. Delay in diagnosis places the patient at risk of developing meningitis. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old African American female with significant medical history of obesity and hypertension presented to the emergency department with headache, altered level of consciousness, fever, and neck stiffness...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819086/measurement-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-dynamics-using-phase-contrast-mr-imaging-with-bilateral-jugular-vein-compression-a-feasibility-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#7
Shintaro Ichikawa, Utaroh Motosugi, Akihiro Okumura, Tatsuya Shimizu, Hiroshi Onishi
We measured the changes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics after compression of the bilateral jugular veins using phase contrast-magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). PC-MRI was performed in 10 healthy male volunteers using a 3T clinical scanner with a two-dimensional gradient echo sequence. We successfully measured the changes in CSF flow velocity using PC-MRI with and without compression of the bilateral jugular veins. The relative velocity range decreased by about 30% when the bilateral jugular veins were compressed...
August 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819024/trastuzumab-increases-her2-uptake-and-cross-presentation-by-dendritic-cells
#8
Victor A Gall, Anne V Philips, Na Qiao, Karen Clise-Dwyer, Alexander A Perakis, Mao Zhang, Guy Travis Clifton, Pariya Sukhumalchandra, Qing Ma, Sangeetha M Reddy, Dihua Yu, Jeffrey J Molldrem, George E Peoples, Gheath Alatrash, Elizabeth A Mittendorf
Early phase clinical trials evaluating CD8+ T cell-eliciting, HER2-derived peptide vaccines administered to HER2-positive breast cancer patients in the adjuvant setting suggest synergy between the vaccines and trastuzumab, the monoclonal antibody targeting the HER2 protein. Among 60 patients enrolled on clinical trials evaluating the E75+GM-CSF and GP2+GM-CSF vaccines, there have been no recurrences in patients vaccinated after receiving trastuzumab as part of standard therapy in the per treatment analyses conducted after a median follow-up of greater than 34 months...
August 17, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818998/lower-body-negative-pressure-reduces-optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-during-head-down-tilt
#9
Karina Marshall-Goebel, Robert Terlević, Darius A Gerlach, Simone Kuehn, Edwin Mulder, Jörn Rittweger
The microgravity ocular syndrome (MOS) results in significant structural and functional ophthalmic changes during 6-month spaceflight missions consistent with an increase in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure compared to the preflight upright position. A ground-based study was performed to assess two of the major hypothesized contributors to MOS, headward fluid shifting and increased ambient CO2, on intracranial and periorbital CSF. In addition, lower body negative pressure (LBNP) was assessed as a countermeasure to headward fluid shifting...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817942/-the-current-status-of-diagnostic-tools-for-leptospirosis
#10
Mitsumasa Saito, Yasuhiko Nikaido, Masahiro Matsumoto, Midori Ogawa, Sharon Y A M Villanueva
Leptospirosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by pathogenic Leptospira spp. The severity of leptospirosis vary from mild, flu-like disease to a more severe form, Weil's disease causing jaundice, hemorrhage, renal failure, and even death. Every year, 300,000‒500,000 cases of severe leptospirosis are reported around the world, with the case fatality rate being 10‒30%. The usual diagnostic tools for leptospirosis are 1) direct observation of leptospires in blood and urine under dark-field microscope, 2) isolation of leptospires from blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or urine samples by culture, 3) microscopic agglutination test (MAT) to detect anti-Leptospira antibodies in serum, and 4) PCR to detect Leptospira DNA...
August 15, 2017: JARMAM: Journal of the Association for Rapid Method and Automation in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817687/morphologic-phenotypic-and-transcriptomic-characterization-of-classically-and-alternatively-activated-canine-blood-derived-macrophages-in-vitro
#11
Franziska Heinrich, Annika Lehmbecker, Barbara B Raddatz, Kristel Kegler, Andrea Tipold, Veronika M Stein, Arno Kalkuhl, Ulrich Deschl, Wolfgang Baumgärtner, Reiner Ulrich, Ingo Spitzbarth
Macrophages are a heterogeneous cell population playing a pivotal role in tissue homeostasis and inflammation, and their phenotype strongly depends on the micromilieu. Despite its increasing importance as a translational animal model for human diseases, there is a considerable gap of knowledge with respect to macrophage polarization in dogs. The present study comprehensively investigated the morphologic, phenotypic, and transcriptomic characteristics of unstimulated (M0), M1- (GM-CSF, LPS, IFNγ-stimulated) and M2- (M-CSF, IL-4-stimulated)-polarized canine blood-derived macrophages in vitro...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817489/the-use-of-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-in-clozapine-rechallenge-a-systematic-review
#12
John Lally, Steffi Malik, Amir Krivoy, Eromona Whiskey, David M Taylor, Fiona P Gaughran, Robert J Flanagan, Aleksandar Mijovic, James H MacCabe
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, with neutropenia and agranulocytosis of most concern. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been used to support clozapine rechallenge after neutropenia with the aim of maintaining the neutrophil count. This study aims to explore the practice, use, safety, and efficacy of G-CSF in this context. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review to identify all studies investigating or describing G-CSF as a prophylaxis to enable continued clozapine treatment during a rechallenge...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816930/associations-among-circulating-csf-1-estrogen-and-bone-mineral-density-in-postmenopausal-women-results-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Andrea V Haas, Elaine Cong, Christine A Simpson, Nitin Sukumar, Yanhong Deng, Karl L Insogna
OBJECTIVE: This study addresses the relationship between circulating levels of colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) and rates of postmenopausal bone loss. The purpose was to test the hypothesis that CSF-1 levels would correlate with the rate of bone loss in estrogen-deficient woman. We further hypothesized that estrogen replacement would eliminate this association. METHODS: This was an ancillary study to the parent Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)-a 4-year randomized placebo-controlled study that evaluated the effects of estrogen therapy on cardiovascular endpoints...
August 14, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816796/intrathecal-infusion-of-haploidentical-nondonor-lymphocytes-for-central-nervous-system-leukemic-relapse-after-haploidentical-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#14
Azusa Mayumi, Akihisa Sawada, Aya Ioi, Kohei Higuchi, Mariko Shimizu, Maho Sato, Masahiro Yasui, Masami Inoue
Leukemic relapse in the central nervous system (CNS) after conventional treatment is associated with a poor prognosis. The effectiveness and safety of IV infusion of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatched lymphocytes for leukemia, and intrathecal (IT) infusion of HLA-mismatched lymphocytes for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dissemination of medulloblastoma have been reported. A 13-year-old girl (HLA-A31) was diagnosed as relapsing from Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute leukemia in the CNS after receiving chemotherapy, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from her father (HLA-A31), and craniospinal irradiation...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816690/complications-of-the-middle-cranial-fossa-approach-for-acoustic-neuroma-removal
#15
Matthias Scheich, Christian Ginzkey, Desiree Ehrmann Müller, Wafaa Shehata Dieler, Rudolf Hagen
OBJECTIVE: To analyze postoperative complications after microsurgery for acoustic neuroma (AN) via the middle fossa approach (MFA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 203 consecutive patients of a tertiary skull base referral center at a university hospital were included in this retrospective chart and database analysis. All patients had undergone primary microsurgery at the Otorhinolaryngology department via MFA between December 2005 and October 2014. Postoperative complications were documented during the inpatient stay and outpatient follow-up...
August 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816232/dual-roles-of-qoa-8a-in-antiosteoporosis-a-combination-of-bone-anabolic-and-anti-resorptive-effects
#16
Jing Wu, Qi Shen, Wei Cui, Yu Zhao, Yue Huai, Yu-Chao Zhang, Bei-Hua Bao, Chen-Xi Liu, Qing Jiang, Jian-Xin Li
Osteoporotic treatments have largely depended on antiresorptive or anabolic drugs; but the former also suppresses new bone formation, and the latter only includes human parathyroid hormone. There is no drug that has a dual effect to inhibit bone resorption and to stimulate bone formation simultaneously. Here, we report a small molecule, a quinoxaline derivative of oleanolic acid (QOA-8a) that plays such dual roles in osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the treatment of osteoporosis. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF, treatment with QOA-8a dose-dependently inhibited the osteoclast formation with an IC50 value of 0...
August 17, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816095/new-astroglial-injury-defined-biomarkers-for-neurotrauma-assessment
#17
Julia Halford, Sean Shen, Kyohei Itamura, Jaclynn Levine, Albert C Chong, Gregg Czerwieniec, Thomas C Glenn, David A Hovda, Paul Vespa, Ross Bullock, W Dalton Dietrich, Stefania Mondello, Joseph A Loo, Ina-Beate Wanner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an expanding public health epidemic with pathophysiology that is difficult to diagnose and thus treat. TBI biomarkers should assess patients across severities and reveal pathophysiology, but currently, their kinetics and specificity are unclear. No single ideal TBI biomarker exists. We identified new candidates from a TBI CSF proteome by selecting trauma-released, astrocyte-enriched proteins including aldolase C (ALDOC), its 38kD breakdown product (BDP), brain lipid binding protein (BLBP), astrocytic phosphoprotein (PEA15), glutamine synthetase (GS) and new 18-25kD-GFAP-BDPs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816001/plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-tau-and-neurofilament-concentrations-in-rapidly-progressive-neurological-syndromes-a-neuropathology-based-cohort
#18
G G Kovacs, U Andreasson, V Liman, G Regelsberger, M I Lutz, K Danics, E Keller, H Zetterberg, K Blennow
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tau and neurofilament light chain (NF-L) proteins have proved to be reliable biomarkers for neuronal damage; however, there is a strong need for blood-based tests. METHODS: The present study included 132 autopsy cases with rapidly progressive neurological syndromes, including Alzheimer disease (AD) (21), sporadic (65) and genetic (21) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), 25 cases with vascular, neoplastic and inflammatory alterations, and additionally 18 healthy control individuals...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815242/-investigation-of-the-effect-of-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-on-inflammatory-cell-recruitment-phenotype-of-oral-cancer-associated-macrophage
#19
Xiao-Tian Zhou, Dong Chen, Zhen-Ning Jin, Ke Huang, Jie Lin, Yi Men, Chun-Jie Li
PURPOSE: To explore the ability of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) in sustaining inflammatory cell recruitment phenotype of oral cancer associated macrophages, by using NFκB inhibitor(-Bay11-7082). METHODS: By primary culture, murine macrophages were harvested. Cal27 conditioned medium (CM) and Bay11-7082 were applied for stimulation of the macrophages. RT-PCR and ELISA were used for detecting the inflammatory cell recruitment related chemotactic factors. GraphPadPrism5 was used for statistical analysis...
April 2017: Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue, Shanghai Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814715/mast-cells-decrease-efficacy-of-anti-angiogenic-therapy-by-secreting-matrix-degrading-granzyme-b
#20
M Wroblewski, R Bauer, M Cubas Córdova, F Udonta, I Ben-Batalla, K Legler, C Hauser, J Egberts, M Janning, J Velthaus, C Schulze, K Pantel, C Bokemeyer, S Loges
Resistance towards VEGF-centered anti-angiogenic therapy still represents a substantial clinical challenge. We report here that mast cells alter the proliferative and organizational state of endothelial cells which reduces the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy. Consequently, absence of mast cells sensitizes tumor vessels for anti-angiogenic therapy in different tumor models. Mechanistically, anti-angiogenic therapy only initially reduces tumor vessel proliferation, however, this treatment effect was abrogated over time as a result of mast cell-mediated restimulation of angiogenesis...
August 16, 2017: Nature Communications
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