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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437812/infection-rate-in-1033-elective-neurosurgical-procedures-at-a-university-hospital-in-south-china
#1
Hongwei Zhu, Xiyao Liu, Zhanxiang Wang
Objective Infection following surgery is a serious complication, especially in neurosurgery. The aim of the study is to report the change of incidence rates of infection in patients undergoing elective neurosurgical procedures at a university hospital in South China as well as the risk factors. Material and Methods The medical records and postoperative courses for patients undergoing 1,033 neurosurgical procedures from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed retrospectively to determine the incidence of neurosurgical infection, the identity of the offending organisms, and the factors associated with infection...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437295/clozapine-associated-agranulocytosis-treatment-with-granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-a-systematic-review
#2
John Lally, Steffi Malik, Eromona Whiskey, David M Taylor, Fiona P Gaughran, Amir Krivoy, Robert J Flanagan, Aleksandar Mijovic, James H MacCabe
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Clozapine is associated with hematological abnormalities, notably neutropenia, which may progress to agranulocytosis. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) have been used to reduce the frequency and duration of clozapine-associated neutropenia. This review aims to explore the use, efficacy, and tolerability of these cytokines in the treatment of clozapine-associated agranulocytosis. METHODS/PROCEDURES: We conducted a systematic review of published interventional and observational studies, case series, and case reports where G-CSF/GM-CSF was used to treat clozapine-associated agranulocytosis...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436390/biomarkers-for-early-diagnosis-of%C3%A2-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-oldest-old-yes-or-no
#3
Lucia Paolacci, David Giannandrea, Patrizia Mecocci, Lucilla Parnetti
In recent years, many efforts have been spent to identify sensitive biomarkers able to improve the accuracy of Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis. Two different workgroups (NIA-AA and IWG) included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and neuroimaging findings in their sets of criteria in order to improve diagnostic accuracy as well as early diagnosis. The number of subjects with cognitive impairment increases with aging but the oldest old (≥85 years of age), the fastest growing age group, is still the most unknown from a biological point of view...
April 15, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435899/hematologic-parameters-to-predict-negative-cerebrospinal-fluid-examination-results-among-neurologically-intact-patients-who-underwent-lumbar-puncture-on-suspicion-of-central-nervous-system-infection
#4
Ji Hwan Kim, Hong-Jik Kim, Ji Ung Na, Sang Kuk Han, Pil Cho Choi, Dong Hyuk Shin
OBJECTIVE: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination is mandatory whenever central nervous system (CNS) infection is suspected. However, pleocytosis is not detected in a substantial number of suspected patients who undergo CSF examination. This study aimed to identify parameters that can aid in predicting negative CSF examination results (defined as a white blood cell count of <5 cells/high-power field). METHODS: The study included 101 neurologically intact patients who underwent lumbar puncture because of suspicion of CNS infection...
March 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435890/gene-expression-profile-of-human-cytokines-in-response-to-burkholderia-pseudomallei-infection
#5
Shivankari Krishnananthasivam, Harindra Darshana Sathkumara, Enoka Corea, Mohan Natesan, Aruna Dharshan De Silva
Melioidosis is an underreported infectious disease, caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Understanding the disease susceptibility and pathogenesis is crucial for developing newer diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for this life-threatening infection. In this study, we aimed to analyze the gene expression levels of important cytokines in melioidosis patients and establish useful correlates with disease biomarkers compared to cases of sepsis infection caused by other pathogens and healthy individuals...
March 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435853/preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-and-longitudinal-driving-decline
#6
Catherine M Roe, Ganesh M Babulal, Denise M Head, Sarah H Stout, Elizabeth K Vernon, Nupur Ghoshal, Brad Garland, Peggy P Barco, Monique M Williams, Ann Johnson, Rebecca Fierberg, M Scot Fague, Chengjie Xiong, Elizabeth Mormino, Elizabeth A Grant, David M Holtzman, Tammie L S Benzinger, Anne M Fagan, Brian R Ott, David B Carr, John C Morris
INTRODUCTION: Links between preclinical AD and driving difficulty onset would support the use of driving performance as an outcome in primary and secondary prevention trials among older adults (OAs). We examined whether AD biomarkers predicted the onset of driving difficulties among OAs. METHODS: 104 OAs (65+ years) with normal cognition took part in biomarker measurements, a road test, clinical and psychometric batteries and self-reported their driving habits. RESULTS: Higher values of CSF tau/Aβ42 and ptau181/Aβ42 ratios, but not uptake on PIB amyloid imaging (p=...
January 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435840/microbial-flora-probiotics-bacillus-subtilis-and-the-search-for-a-long-and-healthy-human-longevity
#7
COMMENT
Facundo Rodriguez Ayala, Carlos Bauman, Sebastián Cogliati, Cecilia Leñini, Marco Bartolini, Roberto Grau
Probiotics are live microorganisms that have beneficial effects on host health, including extended lifespan, when they are administered or present in adequate quantities. However, the mechanisms by which probiotics stimulate host longevity remain unclear and very poorly understood. In a recent study (Nat. Commun. 8, 14332 (2017) doi: 10.1038/ncomms14332), we used the spore-forming probiotic bacterium Bacillus subtilis and the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to study the mechanism by which a probiotic bacterium affects host longevity...
March 16, 2017: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435404/phase-ii-study-of-adjuvant-docetaxel-and-carboplatin-with-without-doxorubicin-and-cyclophosphamide-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-a-randomised-controlled-clinical-trial
#8
Safa Najafi, Mehrdad Payandeh, Masoud Sadeghi, Vahideh Shafaei, Fateme Shojaiyan, Fereshte Abbasvandi
AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this trial was to compare overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and toxicity of two adjuvant regimens in triple negative patients with Iranian ethnicity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a phase II trial, patients with previously untreated triple negative breaststroke cancer were randomly assigned by using docetaxel 70 mg/m(2) and carboplatin AUC = 7 every three weeks with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for sin courses (arm A) or doxorubicin hydrochloride 60 mg/m(2) and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m(2) every three weeks with G-CSF for four courses followed by docetaxel 70 mg/m(2) and carboplatin AUC = 7 every three weeks with G-CSF for four courses (arm B)...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435324/symptomatic-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-adult-patients-with-acute-myeloid-leukemia
#9
Nael Alakel, Friedrich Stölzel, Brigitte Mohr, Michael Kramer, Uta Oelschlägel, Christoph Röllig, Martin Bornhäuser, Gerhard Ehninger, Markus Schaich
INTRODUCTION: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) rarely involves the central nervous system (CNS). Little is known about the clinical course in adult AML patients since most studies examined pediatric patients. Therefore, this study analyzed the data of patients treated in three prospective trials of the "Study Alliance Leukemia" (SAL) study group for CNS involvement. METHODS: In all, 3,261 AML patients included in the prospective AML96, AML2003, and AML60+ trials of the SAL study group were analyzed...
2017: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435023/the-clinical-significance-of-neutrophilic-pleocytosis-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-patients-with-viral-central-nervous-system-infections
#10
Siraya Jaijakul, Lucrecia Salazar, Susan H Wootton, Elizabeth Aguilera, Rodrigo Hasbun
BACKGROUND: Viral central nervous system infections are typically characterized by a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocytic pleocytosis. A CSF neutrophilic pleocytosis presentation has been described but its prognostic and clinical significance is unknown. The objectives of our study were to 1) compare the clinical and laboratory characteristics of viral CNS infections with CSF neutrophilic pleocytosis to those with a lymphocytic pleocytosis and 2) evaluate factors associated with an adverse clinical outcome...
April 20, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434245/simultaneous-quantitation-of-the-bace1-inhibitor-azd3293-and-its-metabolite-az13569724-in-human-matrices-by-lc-ms-ms
#11
Yan Li, Paul H Severin, Mark R Hoffmann, Dennis L Miller, Scott A Monk, Alan R Kugler
AIM: AZD3293 is a novel BACE1 inhibitor in Phase III development for Alzheimer's disease. Sensitive and robust bioanalytical methods were required to quantitate AZD3293 and its metabolite AZ13569724 in human biological matrices. METHODOLOGY/RESULTS: Human plasma was prepared by protein precipitation. Linearity for both analytes was in the range of 0.5-500 ng/ml with up to 100-fold dilution. Plasma ultrafiltrate samples were prepared using Centrifree(®) ultrafiltration device...
April 24, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434164/microglia-loss-contributes-to-the-development-of-major-depression-induced-by-different-types-of-chronic-stresses
#12
Lijuan Tong, Yu Gong, Peng Wang, Wenfeng Hu, Jili Wang, Zhuo Chen, Wei Zhang, Chao Huang
Recently, the loss and dystrophy of hippocampal microglia induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) has been reported to mediate the development of major depression in mice whose microglial cells were labeled with enhanced green fluorescent protein-conjuncted-CX3C receptor type 1. However, whether this happens in endogenous microglia with no genetic intervention remains unclear. Here, we addressed this issue in mice treated with different types of chronic stresses, including the CUS, chronic restraint stress (CRS) and chronic social defeat stress (CSDS)...
April 22, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433849/clinical-significance-of-long-term-follow-up-of-children-with-posttraumatic-skull-base-fracture
#13
Sharon Leibu, Guy Rosenthal, Yigal Shoshan, Mony Benifla
BACKGROUND: To assess in children with skull base fractures, incidences of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, meningitis, and the need for prophylactic antibiotics, anti-pneumococcal vaccination, and surgical interventions. METHODS: We reviewed the records of children with skull base fractures who were admitted to our tertiary care center during 2009-2014. RESULTS: 196 children (153 male) were hospitalized with skull base fractures, aged 1 month to 18 years (mean 6 ± 4 years)...
April 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433841/a-simple-and-reliable-method-for-diagnosis-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-malfunction
#14
Hongri Zhang, Jinghua Peng, Xiaowei Hao, Xiaofan Guo, Gang Li
OBJECTIVE: To provide a simple and reliable method for diagnosis of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunction. METHODS: A total of 14 participants were enrolled in this study, consisting of seven patients with suspected shunt malfunction and seven control cases with apparent normal drainage. In all cases, 0.1 mL of 5% glucose solution was injected into the reservoir and 0.1 mL of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was withdrawn from the reservoir 20 min later for glucose concentration measurement...
April 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433688/vitamin-d-downregulates-the-il-23-receptor-pathway-in-human-mucosal-ilc3
#15
Viktoria Konya, Paulo Czarnewski, Marianne Forkel, Anna Rao, Efthymia Kokkinou, Eduardo J Villablanca, Sven Almer, Ulrik Lindforss, Danielle Friberg, Charlotte Höög, Peter Bergman, Jenny Mjösberg
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The IL-23-driven tissue-resident ILC3 play essential roles in intestinal immunity, and targeting IL-23/12 is a promising approach in IBD therapy. OBJECTIVE: We set out to define the role of 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 (1,25D) in regulating functional responses of human mucosal ILC3 to IL-23 plus IL-1β stimulation. METHODS: Transcriptomes of sorted tonsil ILC3 were assessed by microarray analysis...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433374/peritoneal-fluid-cytokines-related-to-endometriosis-in-patients-evaluated-for-infertility
#16
Hilde Jørgensen, Abby S Hill, Michael T Beste, Manu P Kumar, Evan Chiswick, Peter Fedorcsak, Keith B Isaacson, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Linda G Griffith, Erik Qvigstad
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize peritoneal cytokine profiles in patients with infertility, with and without endometriosis, to illuminate potential differences in immune profiles that may reflect mechanistic differences between these two patient populations. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: University hospital and research center. PATIENT(S): Women undergoing laparoscopy for infertility investigation (n = 107)...
April 19, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432750/effect-of-feeding-two-rrr-alpha-tocopherol-formulations-on-serum-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-muscle-alpha-tocopherol-concentrations-in-horses-with-subclinical-vitamin-e-deficiency
#17
J C Brown, S J Valberg, M Hogg, C J Finno
BACKGROUND: Alpha tocopherol (α-TP) supplementation is recommended for the prevention of various equine neuromuscular disorders. Formulations available include RRR-α-TP acetate powder and a more expensive but rapidly water-dispersible liquid RRR-α-TP (WD α-TP). A cost-effective means to rapidly increase serum and CSF α-TP with WD-α-TP and then sustain concentrations with RRR-α-TP acetate has not been reported. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate serum, CSF and muscle α-TP concentrations in an 8-week dosing regimen where horses were transitioned from WD RRR-α-TP to RRR-α-TP acetate...
April 22, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432279/il-35-induces-n2-phenotype-of-neutrophils-to-promote-tumor-growth
#18
Jiu-Ming Zou, Jian Qin, Yong-Chao Li, Yu Wang, Dong Li, Yu Shu, Chao Luo, Shan-Shan Wang, Gang Chi, Fang Guo, Gui-Mei Zhang, Zuo-Hua Feng
IL-35 is an immunosuppressive cytokine and exerts regulatory effects on T cells, B cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. Neutrophils are important innate immune cells that play key roles in tumor development. The effect of IL-35 on neutrophils remains unknown. Here, we report that IL-35 can induce N2 neutrophil polarization (protumor phenotype) by increasing G-CSF and IL-6 production, and promote neutrophil infiltration into tumor microenvironment. The sustained expression of IL-35 could promote chronic inflammation to augment the proangiogenic and immunosuppressive function of neutrophils...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431478/successful-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-meningitis-with-ampicillin-sulbactam-in-primary-hospital
#19
Leitao Sun, Xiaohong Wang, Zefu Li
INTRODUCTION: Acinetobacter baumannii nosocomial infections, especially those due to multi-drug resistant strains, are increasingly detected. We want to find the effective treatment measures about multi-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii infections through this research. METHODOLOGY: The clinical features and the outcomes of twelve cases of nosocomial Acinetobacter baumannii meningitis treated with ampicillin sulbactam and intrathecal use of amikacin are reported in primary hospital...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431404/upregulation-of-microrna-125b-by-g-csf-promotes-metastasis-in-colorectal-cancer
#20
Xinghua Zhang, Xiao Ma, Huaying An, Changqing Xu, Wenjo Cao, Wei Yuan, Jie Ma
Although there are reports of miR-125b being dysregulated in colorectal cancer (CRC) and associated with CRC progression, little is known about its intrinsic regulatory mechanisms. Here we detected the expression of miR-125b in CRC tissues, subsequently investigated the effect of miR-125b on the proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle and metastasis on CRC cells. Our results showed that the expression of miR-125b was significantly decreased in CRC tissues comparing to adjacent tissues. However, with the stimulation of Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), which was highly expressed in CRC tissues, the expression of miR-125b could be improved...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
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