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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334553/a-multi-matrix-hilic-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantitation-of-endogenous-small-molecule-neurological-biomarker-n-acetyl-aspartic-acid-naa
#1
Dewakar Sangaraju, Sheerin K Shahidi-Latham, Braydon L Burgess, Brian Dean, Xiao Ding
A multi-matrix hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric method (HILIC-MS/MS) was developed for the quantitation of N-Acetyl Aspartic acid (NAA) using stable isotope labeled internal standard, D3-NAA in various biological matrices such as human plasma, human CSF, mouse plasma, brain and spinal cord. A high throughput 96-well plate format supported liquid extraction (SLE) procedure was developed and used for sample preparation. Mass spectrometric analysis of NAA was performed using selected reaction monitoring transitions in positive electrospray ionization mode...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333467/stereospecific-nucleophilic-substitution-of-enantioenriched-tertiary-benzylic-amines-via-in-situ-activation-with-benzyne
#2
Yang Gui, Shi-Kai Tian
A one-pot protocol has been developed for sequential benzyne activation and nucleophilic substitution of enantioenriched tertiary benzylic amines. In the presence of 2-(trimethylsilyl)phenyl triflate and CsF, a range of enantioenriched tertiary benzylic amines were substituted by various nucleophiles, delivering structurally diverse benzylic compounds in moderate to excellent yields with excellent retention of enantiopurity. Importantly, this operationally simple protocol permitted formation of various chiral C-S, C-Se, C-C, and C-N bonds with excellent enantiopurity under metal-free conditions...
March 23, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333330/genomic-landscape-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-resistance-in-escherichia-coli-from-an-urban-african-setting
#3
Patrick Musicha, Nicholas A Feasey, Amy K Cain, Teemu Kallonen, Chrispin Chaguza, Chikondi Peno, Margaret Khonga, Sarah Thompson, Katherine J Gray, Alison E Mather, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas R Thomson, Chisomo L Msefula
Objectives: Efforts to treat Escherichia coli infections are increasingly being compromised by the rapid, global spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Whilst AMR in E. coli has been extensively investigated in resource-rich settings, in sub-Saharan Africa molecular patterns of AMR are not well described. In this study, we have begun to explore the population structure and molecular determinants of AMR amongst E. coli isolates from Malawi. Methods: Ninety-four E...
March 5, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333312/establishment-maintenance-and-functional-integrity-of-the-blood-testis-barrier-in-organotypic-cultures-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-prepubertal-mouse-testes
#4
C Rondanino, A Maouche, L Dumont, A Oblette, N Rives
STUDY QUESTION: Can the spatio-temporal formation of an intact blood-testis barrier (BTB), which is essential for the progression of spermatogenesis, be reproduced in cultures of fresh or frozen/thawed prepubertal mouse testes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Organotypic cultures allow the establishment and maintenance of major BTB components and the formation of a functional BTB in mouse testicular tissues. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In vitro maturation of prepubertal testicular tissues is a promising approach to restore fertility in adult survivors of childhood cancer...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332697/alpha-1-antitrypsin-inhibits-rankl-induced-osteoclast-formation-and-functions
#5
Mohammad Ahsanul Akbar, David Nardo, Mong-Jen Chen, Ahmed S Elshikha, Rubina Ahamed, Eslam M Elsayed, Claire Bigot, Lexie Shannon Holliday, Sihong Song
Osteoporosis is a global public health problem affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. We previously showed that treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a multifunctional protein with anti-inflammatory properties, mitigated bone loss in an ovariectomized mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of AAT on bone tissue are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of AAT on osteoclast formation and function in vitro. Our results showed that AAT dose-dependently inhibited the formation of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) induced osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow macrophages/monocyte (BMM) lineage cells and the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264...
March 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332604/phenotype-of-postural-instability-gait-difficulty-in-parkinson-disease-relevance-to-cognitive-impairment-and-mechanism-relating-pathological-proteins-and-neurotransmitters
#6
Li-Jun Zuo, Ying-Shan Piao, Li-Xia Li, Shu-Yang Yu, Peng Guo, Yang Hu, Teng-Hong Lian, Rui-Dan Wang, Qiu-Jin Yu, Zhao Jin, Ya-Jie Wang, Xiao-Min Wang, Piu Chan, Sheng-Di Chen, Yong-Jun Wang, Wei Zhang
Parkinson disease (PD) is identified as tremor-dominant (TD) and postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) phenotypes. The relationships between motor phenotypes and cognitive impairment and the underlying mechanisms relating pathological proteins and neurotransmitters in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are unknown. We evaluated the motor symptoms and cognitive function by scales, and detected the levels of pathological proteins and neurotransmitters in CSF. TD group and PIGD group had significantly higher levels of total tau, tau phosphorylated at the position of threonine 181(P-tau181t), threonine 231, serine 396, serine 199 and lower β amyloid (Aβ)1-42 level in CSF than those in control group; PIGD group had significantly higher P-tau181t level and lower Aβ1-42 level than those in TD group...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332471/cjd-surveillance-in-the-republic-of-ireland-from-2005-to-2015-a-suggested-algorithm-for-referrals
#7
Teresa Loftus, Daphne Chen, Seamus Looby, Albi Chalissery, Rachel Howley, Ciara Heaney, Josephine Heffernan, Michael Farrell, Francesca Brett
Definitive diagnosis of Creutzfeldt Jakob disease (CJD) remains tissue-based. Possible and probable CJD are useful clinical terms but may be used indiscriminately. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the Irish surveillance system and to ascertain how diagnostic accuracy in identifying clinically "definite" cases might be improved. We reviewed the clinical information, relevant investigations, and samples n = 100; (autopsy n = 87; biopsy n = 13) in 96 patients between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2015...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332262/haploidentical-peripheral-blood-stem-cell-transplantation-without-irradiation-or-busulfan-after-reduced-intensity-conditioning-for-kmt2a-mll-rearranged-infant-b-cell-precursor-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-report-of-two-cases
#8
Ai Yoshimi, Keisuke Kato, Sho Hosaka, Ryoko Suzuki, Hiroko Fukushima, Tomohei Nakao, Chie Kobayashi, Takashi Fukushima, Kazutoshi Koike, Ryo Sumazaki, Masahiro Tsuchida
We present two infants with KMT2A(MLL)-gene-R-associated BCP-ALL, who received HLA haploidentical PBSCT after RIC. The patients developed ALL at age 6 months and 3 months, respectively. Case 1 underwent PBSCT at the second CR with detectable KMT2A-AFF1(MLL-AF4) fusion gene transcript at 11 months of age, and Case 2 at the first CR without KMT2A-MLLT1(MLL-ENL) fusion gene transcript at 8 months of age. Both patients received G-CSF-mobilized unmanipulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from their HLA haploidentical mothers after administration of FLU, MEL, and ATG...
March 22, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332154/altered-cerebrospinal-fluid-dynamics-in-neurofibromatosis-type-l-severe-arachnoid-thickening-in-patients-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-may-cause-abnormal-csf-dynamic
#9
Young Sill Kang, Eun-Kyung Park, Yong-Oock Kim, Ju-Seong Kim, Dong-Seok Kim, U W Thomale, Kyu-Won Shim
INTRODUCTION: The object of this study is to understand abnormal dynamic of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), which may cause temporal lobe herniation and bulging of temporal fossa. METHODS: Four patients, three females and one male, with NF1 were studied retrospectively. They presented with a similar craniofacial deformity, which consisted of pulsatile exophthalmos, an enlarged bony orbit, dysplasia of the sphenoid wing with the presence of a herniation of the temporal lobe into the orbit, and a bulging temporal fossa...
March 22, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331772/an-automated-gravity-driven-csf-drainage-system-decreases-complications-and-lowers-costs
#10
Robert E Lieberson, Jan Eckermann, William Meyer, Tung Trang
BACKGROUND: FlowSafe(TM) (BeckerSmith Medical, Irvine, CA, USA) is a novel, robotic, external lumbar drainage (ELD) system, which was designed to control cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage, reduce complications, and decrease treatment costs. METHODS:  Forty-seven consecutive neurosurgical patients requiring ELD were treated using the FlowSafe system. RESULTS: In 39 of 40 patients with traumatic and surgical dural openings, potential CSF leaks were avoided...
February 3, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331360/clear-differences-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-between-women-with-chronic-widespread-pain-and-healthy-women-a-multivariate-explorative-cross-sectional-study
#11
Patrik Olausson, Bijar Ghafouri, Emmanuel Bäckryd, Björn Gerdle
INTRODUCTION: Frequent chronic local pain can develop into chronic widespread pain (CWP). The spread of pain is correlated with pain intensity, anxiety, and depression, conditions that ultimately lead to a poor quality of life. Knowledge is incomplete about CWP's etiology, although it has been suggested that both central hyperexcitability and/or a combination with peripheral factors may be involved. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) could act as a mirror for the central nervous system as proteins are signal substances that activate the formation of algesics and control nociceptive processes...
2017: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331099/interferon-inducible-oligoadenylate-synthetase-like-protein-acts-as-an-antiviral-effector-against-classical-swine-fever-virus-via-the-mda5-mediated-type-i-interferon-signaling-pathway
#12
Lian-Feng Li, Jiahui Yu, Yuexiu Zhang, Qian Yang, Yongfeng Li, Lingkai Zhang, Jinghan Wang, Su Li, Yuzi Luo, Yuan Sun, Hua-Ji Qiu
Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of classical swine fever (CSF), which poses a serious threat to the global pig industry. Interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) play a key role in host antiviral defense. We have previously screened the porcine 2' -5' -oligoadenylate synthase-like protein (pOASL) as a potential anti-CSFV ISG using a reporter CSFV. This study aimed to clarify the underlying antiviral mechanism of pOASL against CSFV. We confirmed that CSFV replication was significantly suppressed in lentivirus-delivered, pOASL-overexpressing PK-15 cells, whereas silencing the expression of endogenous pOASL by small interfering RNAs markedly enhanced CSFV growth...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330963/decrease-in-a%C3%AE-42-predicts-dopa-resistant-gait-progression-in-early-parkinson-disease
#13
Lynn Rochester, Brook Galna, Sue Lord, Alison J Yarnall, Rosie Morris, Gordon Duncan, Tien K Khoo, Brit Mollenhauer, David J Burn
OBJECTIVE: This prospective observational study investigates the role of CSF biomarkers in predicting progression of dopa-resistant gait impairments in Parkinson disease (PD) in the first 36 months from diagnosis. METHODS: Quantitative gait analysis was carried out longitudinally using an instrumented walkway (GAITRite) in 108 people with PD and 130 age-matched controls. A subgroup of 44 people with PD underwent lumbar puncture from which a battery of CSF biomarkers was measured: β-amyloid 1-42 and 1-40 (Aβ42 and Aβ40), total and phosphorylated tau protein (t-tau/p-tau181), and α-synuclein (αSyn)...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330960/a-multi-institutional-study-of-brainstem-gliomas-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#14
Jasia Mahdi, Amish C Shah, Aimee Sato, Stephanie M Morris, Robert C McKinstry, Robert Listernick, Roger J Packer, Michael J Fisher, David H Gutmann
OBJECTIVE: To define the clinical and radiologic features of brainstem gliomas (BSGs) in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). METHODS: We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study of 133 children with NF1 and concurrent BSGs cared for at 4 NF1 referral centers. BSG was determined using radiographic criteria. Age at diagnosis, tumor location and appearance, clinical symptoms, treatment, and presence of a concurrent optic pathway glioma were assessed...
March 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330873/amp-activated-protein-kinase-%C3%AE-1-promotes-atherogenesis-by-increasing-monocyte-to-macrophage-differentiation
#15
Miao Zhang, Huaiping Zhu, Ye Ding, Zhaoyu Liu, Zhejun Cai, Ming-Hui Zou
Monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation, which can be initiated by physiological or atherogenic factors, is a pivotal process in atherogenesis, a disorder in which monocytes adhere to endothelial cells and subsequently migrate into the sub-endothelial spaces, where they differentiate into macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells and cause atherosclerotic lesions. However, the monocyte-differentiation signaling pathways that are activated by atherogenic factors are poorly defined. Here we report that the AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 in monocytes promotes atherosclerosis by increasing monocyte differentiation and survival...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330718/adult-glucocorticoid-receptor-mrna-expression-volatility-in-response-to-an-acute-stressor-and-juvenile-csf-corticotropin-releasing-factor-a-pilot-neurodevelopmental-study
#16
Shariful A Syed, Eric L P Smith, Olcay Batuman, Leonard A Rosenblum, Michael J Owens, Charles B Nemeroff, Jeremy D Coplan
INTRODUCTION: Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to play a role in establishing persistent maladaptive HPA axis modifications that may contribute to the pathogenesis of mood and anxiety disorders. Central glucocorticoid receptor (GR) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression may facilitate (mal)adaptive responsivity to ELS. The role of adult monocytic GR mRNA expression, a putative CNS proxy, during acute stress exposure was explored as well as the ELS marker, juvenile cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) corticotropin-releasing factor...
March 19, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330628/analysis-of-the-dura-involvement-in-cholesteatoma-surgery
#17
David Schwarz, Antoniu-Oreste Gostian, Sami Shabli, Philipp Wolber, Karl Bernd Hüttenbrink, Andreas Anagiotos
OBJECTIVE: The involvement of the dura is a rare yet potentially life-threatening complication during cholesteatoma surgery. Thus, the knowledge about treatment and consequences of this issue is of great importance to every ear surgeon. METHODS: This retrospective study analyzed the dura involvement with regard to the type of defect, reconstruction method used, and the post-operative complications of 1291 pediatric and adult cholesteatoma surgeries performed at an academic tertiary care center over a twelve-year period...
March 19, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329257/lessons-learned-at-the-epicenter-of-brazil-s-congenital-zika-epidemic-evidence-from-87-confirmed-cases
#18
Jucille do Amaral Meneses, Ana Catarina Ishigami, Luisa Medeiros de Mello, Luciano Lira de Albuquerque, Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Lindomar José Pena
Congenital Zika virus infection has stimulated great international concern. A prospective case series of 87 infants with laboratory-confirmed congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) at the epicenter of the Brazilian Zika epidemic in Pernambuco state is presented. Mothers were interviewed for symptoms of possible Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy and fetal ultrasounds were obtained. Infant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were tested for ZIKV specific antibodies and sera were screened for other congenital infections...
February 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329191/management-of-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-infections-in-adults-analysis-of-risk-factors-associated-with-treatment-failure
#19
Iván Pelegrín, Jaime Lora-Tamayo, Joan Gómez-Junyent, Nuria Sabé, Dolors García-Somoza, Andreu Gabarrós, Javier Ariza, Pedro Fernández Viladrich, Carmen Cabellos
Background.: Little is known regarding the optimal treatment of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infections in adults. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of treatment strategies and to identify factors that predict failure. Methods.: Retrospective, observational study of patients aged ≥12 years with VP shunt infections (1980 -2014). Therapeutic approaches were classified under 4 headings: only antibiotics (OA), one-stage shunt replacement (OSSR), two-stage shunt replacement (TSSR), and shunt removal without replacement (SR)...
March 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329096/diffuse-white-matter-signal-abnormalities-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-are-associated-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-type-1-viral-escape-in-the-central-nervous-system-among-patients-with-neurological-symptoms
#20
Ruthiran Kugathasan, Dami A Collier, Lewis J Haddow, Kate El Bouzidi, Simon G Edwards, Jonathan D Cartledge, Robert F Miller, Ravindra K Gupta
Background.: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can replicate independently in extravascular compartments such as the central nervous system, resulting in either cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) discordance (viral load [VL] in CSF 0.5 log10 copies HIV-1 RNA greater than plasma VL) or escape (detection of HIV VL >50 copies/mL in CSF in patients with suppressed plasma VL <50 copies/mL). Both discordance and escape may be associated with neurological symptoms. We explored risk factors for CSF discordance and escape in patients presenting with diverse neurological problems...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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