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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792528/dissociation-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-amyloid-%C3%AE-and-tau-levels-in-patients-with-prolonged-posttraumatic-disorders-of-consciousness
#1
Sergio Bagnato, Maria Andriolo, Cristina Boccagni, Antonino Sant'Angelo, Maria Enza D'Ippolito, Giuseppe Galardi
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the mechanisms that lead to AD after a TBI are unclear, we hypothesize that changes in amyloid-β (Aβ) metabolism and abnormal tau phosphorylation are reasonable candidates. OBJECTIVE: To investigate Aβ and tau dynamics in the chronic phase of TBI. METHODS: We evaluated Aβ1-42 , total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 15 patients who developed a prolonged disorder of consciousness after a severe TBI (mean time from TBI 271...
May 24, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792103/prolonged-use-of-antibiotics-after-birth-is-associated-with-increased-morbidity-in-preterm-infants-with-negative-cultures
#2
C Fajardo, B Alshaikh, A Harabor
BACKGROUND: Most preterm infants are exposed to a variable duration of antibiotic therapy after birth despite negative cultures. Data is emerging about the risks of prolonged antibiotics. We sought to assess the association between length of initial antibiotic course and neonatal outcomes in a cohort from a single large perinatal centre. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of prospectively collected data on all infants with a birth weight of less than 1250 g hospitalized in our NICU in a 4-year window and who had negative blood and CSF cultures in the first 2 days of life...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791307/symptomatic-pneumocephalus-a-rare-complication-of-discal-herniation-s-surgery
#3
Ghassen Gader, Nadhir Karmeni, Imed Ben Saïd, Hafedh Jemel
Context We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with no pathological history, operated from an L4-L5 disc herniation by a left unilateral approach. The dura mater enveloping the left L5 root was accidentally injured at its lateral face causing a breach with CSF leakage. This breach could not be sutured. A few hours after waking, the patient presented an agitation followed by three generalized tonico-clonic seizures. Cerebral imaging revealed pneumocephalus. The patient was hospitalized in an intensive care unit...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791207/activation-of-trpv4-stimulates-transepithelial-ion-flux-in-a-porcine-choroid-plexus-cell-line
#4
Daniel Preston, Stefanie Simpson, Dan Halm, Alexandra Hochstetler, Christian Schwerk, Horst Schroten, Bonnie L Blazer-Yost
The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium plays a major role in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A polarized cell line, the porcine choroid plexus - Riems (PCP-R) line, that exhibits many of the characteristics of the native epithelium, was used to study the effect of activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channel found in the PCP-R cells as well as in the native epithelium. Ussing-style electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of TRPV4 with a specific agonist, GSK 1016790A, resulted in an immediate increase in both transepithelial ion flux and conductance...
May 23, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791186/markedly-elevated-intracranial-pressure-treated-with-cranial-vault-expansion-instead-of-csf-shunting-in-a-child-with-hurler-scheie-syndrome-and-multiple-suture-craniosynostosis
#5
Jessica A Ching, Jared S Troy, Ernesto J Ruas, Joshua M Beckman, Gerald F Tuite
Despite a known association of mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) and craniosynostosis, treatment of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) in these patients is primarily cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting. We present a unique case of Hurler-Scheie syndrome with multisuture craniosynostosis and elevated ICP, without ventriculomegaly, where elevated ICP was successfully treated with extensive cranial vault expansion and shunt placement was avoided. Patients with MPS should be evaluated for craniosynostosis, and calvarial vault expansion may be considered as a viable treatment alternative to CSF shunting for elevated ICP in select patients...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791013/frontline-science-buprenorphine-decreases-ccl2-mediated-migration-of-cd14-cd16-monocytes
#6
Matias Jaureguiberry-Bravo, Lillie Lopez, Joan W Berman
HIV infection of the CNS causes neuroinflammation and damage that contributes to the development of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) in greater than 50% of HIV-infected individuals, despite antiretroviral therapy (ART). Opioid abuse is a major risk factor for HIV infection. It has been shown that opioids can contribute to increased HIV CNS pathogenesis, in part, by modulating the function of immune cells. HIV enters the CNS within two weeks after peripheral infection by transmigration of infected monocytes across the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790404/clinical-and-neurophysiological-changes-after-targeted-intrathecal-injections-of-bone-marrow-stem-cells-in-a-c3-tetraplegic-subject
#7
Andrea Jimena Santamaria, Francisco D Benavides, Darcy L DiFede, Aisha Khan, Marietsy V Pujol, W Dalton Dietrich, Antonio Marttos, Barth A Green, Joshua M Hare, James Guest
High-level quadriplegia is a devastating condition with limited treatment options. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) are reported to have immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects in spinal cord injury (SCI). We report a subject with complete C2 SCI who received 3 anatomically targeted intrathecal infusions of BMSCs under a single-patient expanded access IND. She underwent intensive physical therapy and was followed for over 2 years. At end-point, her AIS grade improved from A to B and she recovered focal pressure touch sensation over several body areas...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790398/acute-inflammatory-biomarker-responses-to-diffuse-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-monitored-by-a-novel-microdialysis-technique
#8
Fredrik Clausen, Niklas Marklund, Lars Hillered
Neuroinflammation is a major contributor to the progressive brain injury process induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI), and may play an important role in the pathophysiology of axonal injury. The immediate neuroinflammatory cascade cannot be characterized in the human setting. Therefore, we used the midline fluid percussion injury model of diffuse TBI in rats and a novel microdialysis (MD) method providing stable diffusion-driven biomarker sampling. Immediately post-injury, bilateral amphiphilic tri-block polymer coated MD probes (100 kDa cut off membrane) were inserted and perfused with Dextran 500 kDa-supplemented artificial CSF to optimize protein capture...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789537/detection-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-rna-in-human-throat-samples-in-laos-a-pilot-study
#9
Tehmina Bharucha, Onanong Sengvilaipaseuth, Malee Seephonelee, Malavanh Vongsouvath, Manivanh Vongsouvath, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Géraldine Piorkowski, Marc Lecuit, Christopher Gorman, Jean-David Pommier, Paul N Newton, Xavier de Lamballerie, Audrey Dubot-Pérès
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most commonly identified cause of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Asia. The WHO recommended test is anti-JEV IgM-antibody-capture-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay (JEV MAC-ELISA). However, data suggest this has low positive predictive value, with false positives related to other Flavivirus infections and vaccination. JEV RT-PCR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or serum is highly specific, but is rarely positive; 0-25% of patients that fulfil the WHO definition of JE (clinical Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) and JEV MAC-ELISA positive)...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789140/changes-in-concentrations-of-tau-reactive-antibodies-are-dependent-on-sex-in-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#10
Michala Krestova, Jan Ricny, Ales Bartos
The presence of pre-existing natural antibodies against Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathological proteins might interfere with immune responses to therapeutic vaccination with these proteins. We aimed to compare levels of antibodies in CSF and serum: We observed higher reactivity of natural tau-reactive antibodies towards phosphorylated bovine tau protein than to human recombinant (non-phosphorylated) tau protein. Males with MCI-AD had higher amounts of these antibodies than corresponding controls. Concentrations of antibodies were lower in females with the MCI-AD than in control females...
May 19, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788790/eeg-differences-in-two-clinically-similar-rapid-dementias-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-associated-autoimmune-encephalitis-and-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#11
Brin Freund, John C Probasco, Mackenzie C Cervenka, Raoul Sutter, Peter W Kaplan
Distinguishing treatable causes for rapidly progressive dementia from those that are incurable is vital. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and voltage-gated potassium channel complex-associated autoimmune encephalitis (VGKC AE) are 2 such conditions with disparate outcomes and response to treatment. To determine the differences in electroencephalography between CJD and VGKC AE, we performed a retrospective review of medical records and examined clinical data, neuroimaging, and electroencephalographs performed in patients admitted for evaluation for rapidly progressive dementia diagnosed with CJD and VGKC AE at the Johns Hopkins Hospital and Bayview Medical Center between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2015...
May 1, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788439/repair-of-temporal-bone-defects-via-the-middle-cranial-fossa-approach-treatment-of-2-pathologies-with-1-operation
#12
Daniel B Eddelman, Stephan Munich, Ryan B Kochanski, Michael Eggerstedt, Robert P Kazan, Roham Moftakhar, Lorenzo Munoz, Rich W Byrne, R Mark Wiet
BACKGROUND: Temporal bone dehiscence (TBD) often results in leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and/or encephalocele. TBD can also occur over the superior semicircular canal, causing debilitating vertigo. Both can be repaired surgically, but traditional treatment is focused only on one pathology, not both. OBJECTIVE: To report our experience in the treatment of TBD via the middle cranial fossa (MCF) approach. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted for all patients who underwent MCF approach for surgical repair of any temporal fossa dehiscence...
May 17, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788431/novel-treatment-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-via-neurapheresistm-therapy
#13
Gordon J Smilnak, Lefko T Charalambous, Drew Cutshaw, Alykhan M Premji, Charles D Giamberardino, Christi G Ballard, Andrew P Bartuska, Tiffany U Ejikeme, Huaxin Sheng, Laura Zitella Verbick, Blake A Hedstrom, Promila C Pagadala, Aaron R McCabe, John R Perfect, Shivanand P Lad
Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) has emerged as the most common life-threatening fungal meningitis worldwide. Current management involves a sequential, longitudinal regimen of antifungals; despite a significant improvement in survival compared to uniform mortality without treatment, this drug paradigm has not led to a consistent cure. NeurapheresisTM therapy, extracorporeal filtration of yeasts from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in infected hosts, is presented here as a novel, one-time therapy for CM. In vitro filtration of CSF through this platform yielded a five-log reduction in concentration of the yeast and a one-log reduction in its polysaccharide antigen over 24 hours...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788013/cerebrospinal-fluid-bace1-activity-and-sa%C3%AE-pp%C3%AE-as-biomarker-candidates-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Nathalie Thierjung, Timo Grimmer, Marion Ortner, Polychronis Economou, Konstantinos Assimakopoulos, Philippos Gourzis, Antonios Politis, Robert Perneczky
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The utility of β-site amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) activity and soluble AβPP β (sAβPPβ) levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in detecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still elusive. METHODS: BACE1 activity and sAβPPβ concentration were measured in patients with AD dementia (n = 56) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (n = 76) with abnormal routine AD CSF markers, in patients with MCI with normal CSF markers (n = 39), and in controls without preclinical AD (n = 48)...
May 22, 2018: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787561/interplay-of-strain-and-race-ethnicity-in-the-innate-immune-response-to-m-tuberculosis
#15
P Nahid, L G Jarlsberg, M Kato-Maeda, M R Segal, D H Osmond, S Gagneux, K Dobos, M Gold, P C Hopewell, D M Lewinsohn
BACKGROUND: The roles of host and pathogen factors in determining innate immune responses to M. tuberculosis are not fully understood. In this study, we examined host macrophage immune responses of 3 race/ethnic groups to 3 genetically and geographically diverse M. tuberculosis lineages. METHODS: Monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy Filipinos, Chinese and non-Hispanic White study participants (approximately 45 individuals/group) were challenged with M. tuberculosis whole cell lysates of clinical strains Beijing HN878 (lineage 2), Manila T31 (lineage 1), CDC1551 (lineage 4), the reference strain H37Rv (lineage 4), as well as with Toll-like receptor 2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (TLR2/LTA) and TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (TLR4/LPS)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785613/neuroinfections-caused-by-fungi
#16
REVIEW
Katarzyna Góralska, Joanna Blaszkowska, Magdalena Dzikowiec
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections"...
May 21, 2018: Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785412/horizontal-lateral-lamella-as-a-risk-factor-for-iatrogenic-cerebrospinal-fluid-leak-clinical-retrospective-evaluation-of-24-cases
#17
A Preti, F Mozzanica, R Gera, S Gallo, J Zocchi, F Bandi, G Guidugli, F Ambrogi, A Yakirevitch, A Schindler, A Dragonetti, P Castelnuovo, F Ottaviani
BACKGROUND: Several authors highlighted the limitations of the Keros classification system in predicting intracranial entry risk. Recently, our group proposed a new classification system based on the angle formed between the lateral lamella of the cribriform plate (LLCP) and the continuation of an horizontal plane passing through the cribriform plate (Gera classification). The aim of this study was to analyze whether the risk of iatrogenic cerebrospinal fluid leak (CSF-L) was better predicted by Keros or Gera classification...
May 22, 2018: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784961/sarcodon-imbricatus-polysaccharides-improve-mouse-hematopoietic-function-after-cyclophosphamide-induced-damage-via-g-csf-mediated-jak2-stat3-pathway
#18
Xue Wang, Qiubo Chu, Xue Jiang, Yue Yu, Libian Wang, Yaqi Cui, Jiahui Lu, Lirong Teng, Di Wang
Sarcodon imbricatus, a rare medicinal and edible fungus, has various pharmacological bioactivities. We investigated the effects of S. imbricatus polysaccharides (SIPS) on hematopoietic function and identified the underlying mechanisms using in vitro experiments with CHRF, K562, and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) and in vivo experiments with a mouse model of cyclophosphamide-induced hematopoietic dysfunction. We found that SIPS induced proliferation and differentiation of CHRF and K562 cells and upregulated the expression of hematopoietic-related proteins, including p90 ribosomal S6 kinases (RSK1p90), c-Myc, and ETS transcription factor, in the two cell lines...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784938/characterization-of-the-rat-cerebrospinal-fluid-proteome-following-acute-cerebral-ischemia-using-an-aptamer-based-proteomic-technology
#19
Alba Simats, Teresa García-Berrocoso, Laura Ramiro, Dolors Giralt, Natalia Gill, Anna Penalba, Alejandro Bustamante, Anna Rosell, Joan Montaner
The limited accessibility to the brain has turned the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into a valuable source that may contribute to the complete understanding of the stroke pathophysiology. Here we have described the CSF proteome in the hyper-acute phase of cerebral ischemia by performing an aptamer-based proteomic assay (SOMAscan) in CSF samples collected before and 30 min after male Wistar rats had undergone a 90 min Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) or sham-surgery. Proteomic results indicated that cerebral ischemia acutely increased the CSF levels of 716 proteins, mostly overrepresented in leukocyte chemotaxis and neuronal death processes...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783988/tolerogenic-bone-marrow-derived-dendritic-cells-induce-neuroprotective-regulatory-t-cells-in-a-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Charles R Schutt, Howard E Gendelman, R Lee Mosley
BACKGROUND: Administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) increases regulatory T cell (Treg) number and function with control of neuroinflammation and neuronal protection in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated in an early phase 1 clinical trial that GM-CSF also improves motor skills in PD patients. However, the mechanisms of Treg induction and its effects on neuroprotective responses remain unknown...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
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