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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601053/implications-of-information-theory-for-computational-modeling-of-schizophrenia
#1
Steven M Silverstein, Michael Wibral, William A Phillips
Information theory provides a formal framework within which information processing and its disorders can be described. However, information theory has rarely been applied to modeling aspects of the cognitive neuroscience of schizophrenia. The goal of this article is to highlight the benefits of an approach based on information theory, including its recent extensions, for understanding several disrupted neural goal functions as well as related cognitive and symptomatic phenomena in schizophrenia. We begin by demonstrating that foundational concepts from information theory-such as Shannon information, entropy, data compression, block coding, and strategies to increase the signal-to-noise ratio-can be used to provide novel understandings of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and metrics to evaluate their integrity...
October 2017: Computational psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578030/practices-and-pitfalls-in-inferring-neural-representations
#2
REVIEW
Vencislav Popov, Markus Ostarek, Caitlin Tenison
A key challenge for cognitive neuroscience is deciphering the representational schemes of the brain. Stimulus-feature-based encoding models are becoming increasingly popular for inferring the dimensions of neural representational spaces from stimulus-feature spaces. We argue that such inferences are not always valid because successful prediction can occur even if the two representational spaces use different, but correlated, representational schemes. We support this claim with three simulations in which we achieved high prediction accuracy despite systematic differences in the geometries and dimensions of the underlying representations...
March 22, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478669/the-enfacement-illusion-a-window-on-the-plasticity-of-the-self
#3
REVIEW
Giuseppina Porciello, Ilaria Bufalari, Ilaria Minio-Paluello, Enrico Di Pace, Salvatore Maria Aglioti
Understanding how self-representation is built, maintained and updated across the lifespan is a fundamental challenge for cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Studies demonstrate that the detection of body-related multisensory congruency builds bodily and facial self-representations that are crucial to developing self-recognition. Studies showing that the bodily self is more malleable than previously believed were mainly concerned with full-bodies and non-facial body parts. Crucially, however, intriguing recent evidence indicates that simple experimental manipulations could even affect self-face representation that has long been considered a stable construct impervious to change...
February 9, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275186/neuroimaging-of-person-perception-a-social-visual-interface
#4
REVIEW
Jeffrey A Brooks, Jonathan B Freeman
The visual system is able to extract an enormous amount of socially relevant information from the face, including social categories, personality traits, and emotion. While facial features may be directly tied to certain perceptions, emerging research suggests that top-down social cognitive factors (e.g., stereotypes, social-conceptual knowledge, prejudice) considerably influence and shape the perceptual process. The rapid integration of higher-order social cognitive processes into visual perception can give rise to systematic biases in face perception and may potentially act as a mediating factor for intergroup behavioral and evaluative biases...
December 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259111/toward-a-unified-theory-of-efficient-predictive-and-sparse-coding
#5
Matthew Chalk, Olivier Marre, Gašper Tkačik
A central goal in theoretical neuroscience is to predict the response properties of sensory neurons from first principles. To this end, "efficient coding" posits that sensory neurons encode maximal information about their inputs given internal constraints. There exist, however, many variants of efficient coding (e.g., redundancy reduction, different formulations of predictive coding, robust coding, sparse coding, etc.), differing in their regimes of applicability, in the relevance of signals to be encoded, and in the choice of constraints...
January 2, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197616/the-effect-of-monitor-raster-latency-on-veps-erps-and-brain-computer-interface-performance
#6
Sebastian Nagel, Werner Dreher, Wolfgang Rosenstiel, Martin Spüler
BACKGROUND: Visual neuroscience experiments and Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) control often require strict timings in a millisecond scale. As most experiments are performed using a personal computer (PC), the latencies that are introduced by the setup should be taken into account and be corrected. As a standard computer monitor uses a rastering to update each line of the image sequentially, this causes a monitor raster latency which depends on the position, on the monitor and the refresh rate...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091725/rate-not-selectivity-determines-neuronal-population-coding-accuracy-in-auditory-cortex
#7
Wensheng Sun, Dennis L Barbour
The notion that neurons with higher selectivity carry more information about external sensory inputs is widely accepted in neuroscience. High-selectivity neurons respond to a narrow range of sensory inputs, and thus would be considered highly informative by rejecting a large proportion of possible inputs. In auditory cortex, neuronal responses are less selective immediately after the onset of a sound and then become highly selective in the following sustained response epoch. These 2 temporal response epochs have thus been interpreted to encode first the presence and then the content of a sound input...
November 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018336/encoding-and-decoding-models-in-cognitive-electrophysiology
#8
REVIEW
Christopher R Holdgraf, Jochem W Rieger, Cristiano Micheli, Stephanie Martin, Robert T Knight, Frederic E Theunissen
Cognitive neuroscience has seen rapid growth in the size and complexity of data recorded from the human brain as well as in the computational tools available to analyze this data. This data explosion has resulted in an increased use of multivariate, model-based methods for asking neuroscience questions, allowing scientists to investigate multiple hypotheses with a single dataset, to use complex, time-varying stimuli, and to study the human brain under more naturalistic conditions. These tools come in the form of "Encoding" models, in which stimulus features are used to model brain activity, and "Decoding" models, in which neural features are used to generated a stimulus output...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863136/differential-receptive-field-organizations-give-rise-to-nearly-identical-neural-correlations-across-three-parallel-sensory-maps-in-weakly-electric-fish
#9
Volker Hofmann, Maurice J Chacron
Understanding how neural populations encode sensory information thereby leading to perception and behavior (i.e., the neural code) remains an important problem in neuroscience. When investigating the neural code, one must take into account the fact that neural activities are not independent but are actually correlated with one another. Such correlations are seen ubiquitously and have a strong impact on neural coding. Here we investigated how differences in the antagonistic center-surround receptive field (RF) organization across three parallel sensory maps influence correlations between the activities of electrosensory pyramidal neurons...
September 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827699/attraction-effect-in-risky-choice-can-be-explained-by-subjective-distance-between-choice-alternatives
#10
Peter N C Mohr, Hauke R Heekeren, Jörg Rieskamp
Individuals make decisions under risk throughout daily life. Standard models of economic decision making typically assume that people evaluate choice options independently. There is, however, substantial evidence showing that this independence assumption is frequently violated in decision making without risk. The present study extends these findings to the domain of decision making under risk. To explain the independence violations, we adapted a sequential sampling model, namely Multialternative Decision Field Theory (MDFT), to decision making under risk and showed how this model can account for the observed preference shifts...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751458/information-theoretic-evidence-for-predictive-coding-in-the-face-processing-system
#11
Alla Brodski-Guerniero, Georg-Friedrich Paasch, Patricia Wollstadt, Ipek Özdemir, Joseph T Lizier, Michael Wibral
Predictive coding suggests that the brain infers the causes of its sensations by combining sensory evidence with internal predictions based on available prior knowledge. However, the neurophysiological correlates of (pre)activated prior knowledge serving these predictions are still unknown. Based on the idea that such preactivated prior knowledge must be maintained until needed, we measured the amount of maintained information in neural signals via the active information storage (AIS) measure. AIS was calculated on whole-brain beamformer-reconstructed source time courses from MEG recordings of 52 human subjects during the baseline of a Mooney face/house detection task...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744722/temporal-encoding-strategies-result-in-boosts-to-final-free-recall-performance-comparable-to-spatial-ones
#12
Nichole Bouffard, Jared Stokes, Hannah J Kramer, Arne D Ekstrom
The method of loci is a highly effective mnemonic that recruits existing salient memory for spatial locations and uses the information as a scaffold for remembering a list of items (Yates, 1966). One possible account for the effectiveness of the spatial method of loci comes from the perspective that it utilizes evolutionarily preserved mechanisms for spatial navigation within the hippocampus (Maguire et al. in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(8), 4398-4403, 2000; O'Keefe & Nadel, 1978; Rodriguez et al...
January 2018: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726177/the-reliability-paradox-why-robust-cognitive-tasks-do-not-produce-reliable-individual-differences
#13
Craig Hedge, Georgina Powell, Petroc Sumner
Individual differences in cognitive paradigms are increasingly employed to relate cognition to brain structure, chemistry, and function. However, such efforts are often unfruitful, even with the most well established tasks. Here we offer an explanation for failures in the application of robust cognitive paradigms to the study of individual differences. Experimental effects become well established - and thus those tasks become popular - when between-subject variability is low. However, low between-subject variability causes low reliability for individual differences, destroying replicable correlations with other factors and potentially undermining published conclusions drawn from correlational relationships...
July 19, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654358/predicting-motivation-computational-models-of-pfc-can-explain-neural-coding-of-motivation-and-effort-based-decision-making-in-health-and-disease
#14
Eliana Vassena, James Deraeve, William H Alexander
Human behavior is strongly driven by the pursuit of rewards. In daily life, however, benefits mostly come at a cost, often requiring that effort be exerted to obtain potential benefits. Medial PFC (MPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) are frequently implicated in the expectation of effortful control, showing increased activity as a function of predicted task difficulty. Such activity partially overlaps with expectation of reward and has been observed both during decision-making and during task preparation. Recently, novel computational frameworks have been developed to explain activity in these regions during cognitive control, based on the principle of prediction and prediction error (predicted response-outcome [PRO] model [Alexander, W...
October 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634436/dual-coding-theory-explains-biphasic-collective-computation-in-neural-decision-making
#15
Bryan C Daniels, Jessica C Flack, David C Krakauer
A central question in cognitive neuroscience is how unitary, coherent decisions at the whole organism level can arise from the distributed behavior of a large population of neurons with only partially overlapping information. We address this issue by studying neural spiking behavior recorded from a multielectrode array with 169 channels during a visual motion direction discrimination task. It is well known that in this task there are two distinct phases in neural spiking behavior. Here we show Phase I is a distributed or incompressible phase in which uncertainty about the decision is substantially reduced by pooling information from many cells...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626813/hallucinations-as-top-down-effects-on-perception
#16
Albert R Powers, Megan Kelley, Philip R Corlett
The problem of whether and how information is integrated across hierarchical brain networks embodies a fundamental tension in contemporary cognitive neuroscience, and by extension, cognitive neuropsychiatry. Indeed, the penetrability of perceptual processes in a 'top-down' manner by higher-level cognition-a natural extension of hierarchical models of perception-may contradict a strictly modular view of mental organization. Furthermore, some in the cognitive science community have challenged cognitive penetration as an unlikely, if not impossible, process...
September 2016: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619529/on-the-partnership-between-neural-representations-of-object-categories-and-visual-features-in-the-ventral-visual-pathway
#17
Stefania Bracci, J Brendan Ritchie, Hans Op de Beeck
A dominant view in the cognitive neuroscience of object vision is that regions of the ventral visual pathway exhibit some degree of category selectivity. However, recent findings obtained with multivariate pattern analyses (MVPA) suggest that apparent category selectivity in these regions is dependent on more basic visual features of stimuli. In which case a rethinking of the function and organization of the ventral pathway may be in order. We suggest that addressing this issue of functional specificity requires clear coding hypotheses, about object category and visual features, which make contrasting predictions about neuroimaging results in ventral pathway regions...
October 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599113/implementing-a-bayes-filter-in-a-neural-circuit-the-case-of-unknown-stimulus-dynamics
#18
Sacha Sokoloski
In order to interact intelligently with objects in the world, animals must first transform neural population responses into estimates of the dynamic, unknown stimuli that caused them. The Bayesian solution to this problem is known as a Bayes filter, which applies Bayes' rule to combine population responses with the predictions of an internal model. The internal model of the Bayes filter is based on the true stimulus dynamics, and in this note, we present a method for training a theoretical neural circuit to approximately implement a Bayes filter when the stimulus dynamics are unknown...
September 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448499/when-do-correlations-increase-with-firing-rates-in-recurrent-networks
#19
Andrea K Barreiro, Cheng Ly
A central question in neuroscience is to understand how noisy firing patterns are used to transmit information. Because neural spiking is noisy, spiking patterns are often quantified via pairwise correlations, or the probability that two cells will spike coincidentally, above and beyond their baseline firing rate. One observation frequently made in experiments, is that correlations can increase systematically with firing rate. Theoretical studies have determined that stimulus-dependent correlations that increase with firing rate can have beneficial effects on information coding; however, we still have an incomplete understanding of what circuit mechanisms do, or do not, produce this correlation-firing rate relationship...
April 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377690/increasing-our-insular-world-view-interoception-and-psychopathology-for-psychotherapists
#20
REVIEW
Patrice Duquette
Interoception has been determined to be an elemental aspect of the neural foundations of physiological homeostasis, subjective experience, and motivated behavior. This paper reviews current neuroscience research regarding interoception and forms of interoceptive dysfunction that may result in psychopathology, focusing on depression, and anxiety, in a manner conducive to psychotherapists engaging with it to consider clinical applications. Pertinent aspects of interoceptive system processes in relation to psychopathology are addressed: Functional interoceptive ability and the forms of its expression, the difficulty of accurate measurement of such within an individual or group, interoceptive inference processes and perturbations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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