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Inclusion body snake

M A Shulepko, E N Lyukmanova, Z O Shenkarev, P V Dubovskii, M V Astapova, A V Feofanov, A S Arseniev, Y N Utkin, M P Kirpichnikov, D A Dolgikh
Cytotoxins or cardiotoxins is a group of polycationic toxins from cobra venom belonging to the 'three-finger' protein superfamily (Ly6/uPAR family) which includes small β-structural proteins (60-90 residues) with high disulfide bond content (4-5 disulfides). Due to a high cytotoxic activity for cancer cells, cytotoxins are considered as potential anticancer agents. Development of the high-throughput production methods is required for the prospective applications of cytotoxins. Here, efficient approach for bacterial production of recombinant analogue of cytotoxin I from N...
October 1, 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Herlinda Clement, Vianey Flores, Guillermo De la Rosa, Fernando Zamudio, Alejandro Alagon, Gerardo Corzo
BACKGROUND: The cysteine-rich neurotoxins from elapid venoms are primarily responsible for human and animal envenomation; however, their low concentration in the venom may hamper the production of efficient elapid antivenoms. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce fully active elapid neurotoxic immunogens for elapid antivenom production. METHOD: Cysteine-rich neurotoxins showed recombinant expression in two strains of E. coli, and were purified using affinity chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC (rpHPLC)...
2016: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Yegor Korzyukov, Udo Hetzel, Anja Kipar, Olli Vapalahti, Jussi Hepojoki
Immunoglobulins (Igs), the key effectors of the adaptive immune system, mediate the specific recognition of foreign structures, i.e. antigens. In mammals, IgM production commonly precedes the production of IgG in the response to an infection. The reptilian counterpart of IgG is IgY, but the exact kinetics of the reptilian immune response are less well known. Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD), an often fatal disease of captive boas and pythons has been linked to reptarenavirus infection, and BIBD is believed to be immunosuppressive...
2016: PloS One
Maureen K Purcell, Schuyler Pearman-Gillman, Rachel L Thompson, Jacob L Gregg, Lucas M Hart, James R Winton, Eveline J Emmenegger, Paul K Hershberger
Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a disease of marine and anadromous fish that is caused by the erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), which was recently identified as a novel member of family Iridoviridae by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the ENV DNA polymerase grouped ENV with other erythrocytic iridoviruses from snakes and lizards. In the present study, we identified the gene encoding the ENV major capsid protein (MCP) and developed a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay targeting this gene...
July 2016: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Yusuf Abba, Hasliza Hassim, Hazilawati Hamzah, Omar Emad Ibrahim, Yusuf Ilyasu, Faruku Bande, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila, Mohamed Mustapha Noordin
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a viral disease of boids caused by reptarenavirus. In this study, tissue from naturally infected boid snakes were homogenized and propagated in African Monkey kidney (Vero) and rat embryonic fibroblast (REF) cells. Virus replication was determined by the presence of cytopathic effect, while viral morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Viral RNA was amplified using RT-PCR with primers specific for the L-segment of reptarenavirus; similarly, quantification of viral replication was done using qPCR at 24-144 h postinfection...
October 2016: Virus Genes
T Aqrawi, A C Stöhr, T Knauf-Witzens, A Krengel, K O Heckers, R E Marschang
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have described the detection and characterisation of new, snake specific arenaviruses in boas and pythons with inclusion body disease (IBD). The objective of this study was to detect arenaviral RNA in live snakes and to determine if these were associated with IBD in all cases. Samples for arenavirus detection in live animals were compared. Detected viruses were compared in order to understand their genetic variability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Esophageal swabs and whole blood was collected from a total of 28 boas and pythons...
2015: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
J Hepojoki, P Salmenperä, T Sironen, U Hetzel, Y Korzyukov, A Kipar, O Vapalahti
Recently, novel arenaviruses were found in snakes with boid inclusion body disease (BIBD); these form the new genus Reptarenavirus within the family Arenaviridae. We used next-generation sequencing and de novo sequence assembly to investigate reptarenavirus isolates from our previous study. Four of the six isolates and all of the samples from snakes with BIBD contained at least two reptarenavirus species. The viruses sequenced comprise four novel reptarenavirus species and a representative of a new arenavirus genus...
August 2015: Journal of Virology
Morena B Wernick, José Novo-Matos, Alessia Ebling, Karolin Kühn, Maja Ruetten, Monika Hilbe, Judith Howard, Rita Chang, Sarah Prohaska, Jean-Michel Hatt
An Argentine boa (Boa constrictor occidentalis) of 5 yr 7 mo of age was presented for respiratory problems and regurgitation. Radiographs revealed evidence of cardiomegaly and pneumonia. Blood smear examination revealed the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in peripheral lymphocytes, consistent with inclusion body disease. Cultures of a tracheal wash sample resulted in growth of Ochrobactrum intermedium and Pseudomonas putida. Echocardiographic examination revealed a large vegetative lesion on the right atrioventricular valve with valvular insufficiency, a mildly dilated right atrium, and pulmonary hypertension...
March 2015: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Tom Hellebuyck, Frank Pasmans, Richard Ducatelle, Veronique Saey, An Martel
A captive bred red tail boa (Boa constrictor constrictor) was presented with a large intraoral mass originating from the buccal gingiva, attached to the right dentary teeth row. Based on the clinical features and histological examination, the diagnosis of a peripheral odontogenic fibromyxoma was made. Sections of liver biopsies and circulating lymphocytes contained relatively few eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies, indistinguishable from those observed in inclusion body disease-affected snakes. Inclusion bodies were not observed in cells comprising the neoplastic mass...
March 2015: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Jussi Hepojoki, Anja Kipar, Yegor Korzyukov, Lesley Bell-Sakyi, Olli Vapalahti, Udo Hetzel
UNLABELLED: Boid inclusion body disease (BIDB) is a fatal disease of boid snakes, the etiology of which has only recently been revealed following the identification of several novel arenaviruses in diseased snakes. BIBD-associated arenaviruses (BIBDAV) are genetically divergent from the classical Old and New World arenaviruses and also differ substantially from each other. Even though there is convincing evidence that BIBDAV are indeed the etiological agent of BIBD, the BIBDAV reservoir hosts--if any exist besides boid snakes themselves--are not yet known...
January 15, 2015: Journal of Virology
Sabina Darke, Rachel E Marschang, Udo Hetzel, Manfred Reinacher
Orthoreoviruses have been associated with disease in reptiles, but have not previously been isolated from snakes with inclusion body disease (IBD). An orthoreovirus was isolated from a Boa constrictor diagnosed with IBD and then used to conduct a transmission study to determine the clinical importance of this virus. For the transmission study, 10 juvenile boas were experimentally infected with the isolated orthoreovirus and compared to 5 sham-infected control animals. Orthoreovirus was reisolated for a period of 18 wk after infection and weight gain was reduced in infected snakes...
June 2014: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Li-Wen Chang, Ann Fu, Edward Wozniak, Marjorie Chow, Diane G Duke, Linda Green, Karen Kelley, Jorge A Hernandez, Elliott R Jacobson
Inclusion body disease (IBD) is a worldwide disease in captive boa constrictors (boa constrictor) and occasionally in other snakes of the families Boidae and Pythonidae. The exact causative agent(s) and pathogenesis are not yet fully understood. Currently, diagnosis of IBD is based on the light microscopic identification of eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in hematoxylin and eosin stained tissues or blood smears. An antigenically unique 68 KDa protein was identified within the IBD inclusion bodies, called IBD protein...
2013: PloS One
C Catoi, A F Gal, M A Taulescu, C Palmieri, A F Catoi
Sixteen captive adult horned vipers (Vipera ammodytes ammodytes) were submitted for necropsy examination following a 2-week history of lethargy, anorexia and dyspnoea. Gross lesions included widespread haemorrhage, serosanguineous effusions in the body cavities and multiple pinpoint white to yellow foci in the liver. Microscopically, there was multifocal hepatic coagulative necrosis associated with intranuclear acidophilic inclusion bodies in sinusoidal endothelial cells. Similar endothelial lesions were observed in the myocardium, fat bodies, kidneys and spleen...
February 2014: Journal of Comparative Pathology
Udo Hetzel, Tarja Sironen, Pasi Laurinmäki, Lassi Liljeroos, Aino Patjas, Heikki Henttonen, Antti Vaheri, Annette Artelt, Anja Kipar, Sarah J Butcher, Olli Vapalahti, Jussi Hepojoki
Boid inclusion body disease (BIBD) is a progressive, usually fatal disease of constrictor snakes, characterized by cytoplasmic inclusion bodies (IB) in a wide range of cell types. To identify the causative agent of the disease, we established cell cultures from BIBD-positive and -negative boa constrictors. The IB phenotype was maintained in cultured cells of affected animals, and supernatants from these cultures caused the phenotype in cultures originating from BIBD-negative snakes. Viruses were purified from the supernatants by ultracentrifugation and subsequently identified as arenaviruses...
October 2013: Journal of Virology
Valéria Pereira Ferrer, Thiago Lopes de Mari, Luiza Helena Gremski, Dilza Trevisan Silva, Rafael Bertoni da Silveira, Waldemiro Gremski, Olga Meiri Chaim, Andrea Senff-Ribeiro, Helena Bonciani Nader, Silvio Sanches Veiga
Loxoscelism is the designation given to clinical symptoms evoked by Loxosceles spider's bites. Clinical manifestations include skin necrosis with gravitational spreading and systemic disturbs. The venom contains several enzymatic toxins. Herein, we describe the cloning, expression, refolding and biological evaluation of a novel brown spider protein characterized as a hyaluronidase. Employing a venom gland cDNA library, we cloned a hyaluronidase (1200 bp cDNA) that encodes for a signal peptide and a mature protein...
2013: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
M A Shulepko, E N Lyukmanova, A S Paramonov, A A Lobas, Z O Shenkarev, I E Kasheverov, D A Dolgikh, V I Tsetlin, A S Arseniev, M P Kirpichnikov
Human protein SLURP-1 is an endogenous neuromodulator belonging to the Ly-6/uPAR family and acting on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In the present work, the gene of SLURP-1 was expressed in E. coli. The bacterial systems engineered for SLURP-1 expression as fused with thioredoxin and secretion with leader peptide STII failed in the production of milligram quantities of the protein. The SLURP-1 was produced with high-yield in the form of inclusion bodies, and different methods of the protein refolding were tested...
February 2013: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
R Bodewes, M J L Kik, V Stalin Raj, C M E Schapendonk, B L Haagmans, S L Smits, A D M E Osterhaus
Arenaviruses are bi-segmented negative-stranded RNA viruses, which were until recently only detected in rodents and humans. Now highly divergent arenaviruses have been identified in boid snakes with inclusion body disease (IBD). Here, we describe the identification of a new species and variants of the highly divergent arenaviruses, which were detected in tissues of captive boid snakes with IBD in The Netherlands by next-generation sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete sequence of the open reading frames of the four predicted proteins of one of the detected viruses revealed that this virus was most closely related to the recently identified Golden Gate virus, while considerable sequence differences were observed between the highly divergent arenaviruses detected in this study...
June 2013: Journal of General Virology
V Schmidt, R E Marschang, M D Abbas, I Ball, I Szabo, R Helmuth, B Plenz, J Spergser, M Pees
Respiratory diseases in boid snakes are common in captivity, but little information is available on their aetiology. This study was carried out to determine the occurrence of lung associated pathogens in boid snakes with and without respiratory signs and/or pneumonia. In total, 80 boid snakes of the families Boidae (n = 30) and Pythonidae (n = 50) from 48 private and zoo collections were included in this survey. Husbandry conditions were evaluated using a detailed questionnaire. All snakes were examined clinically and grouped into snakes with or without respiratory signs...
March 2, 2013: Veterinary Record
Melanie Keilwerth, Ilina Bühler, Rudolf Hoffmann, Hatem Soliman, Mansour El-Matbouli
Our objective was to evaluate diagnostic tools for the detection of Inclusion Body Disease (IBD) in bold snakes. The aetiology of IBD is unknown, and the disease has non-specific clinical signs, hence there is a need for a clinically-applicable, specific diagnostic method. We examined blood smears and liver biopsies from 26 bold snakes (17 boas and nine pythons; some of which were suspected of having IBD) for the presence of characteristic inclusion bodies. We used haematology, histology and electron microscopy to characterise samples as IBD-positive or -negative...
September 2012: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
Pablo Javier Yunes Quartino, José Luis Barra, Gerardo Daniel Fidelio
Bothrops diporus is a very common viper in Argentina. At present, no complete sequence of secreted phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)) from this snake has been reported. We have cloned two sPLA(2) isoenzymes as well as a putative sPLA(2)-like myotoxin from venom gland. The two sPLA(2) were expressed as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal tag of ubiquitin. After in vitro renaturation and cleavage step, using an ubiquitin specific peptidase, the recombinants exhibited sPLA(2) activity when analyzed by means of Langmuir dilauroylphosphatidylcholine monolayers as substrate...
October 19, 2012: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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