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Feline evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331087/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-evolutionarily-acquires-two-proteins-vif-and-protease-capable-of-antagonizing-feline-apobec3
#1
Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Naoko Misawa, Yuichi Kimura, Fengrong Ren, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
The interplay between viral and host proteins has been well studied to elucidate virus-host interactions and their relevance to virulence. Mammalian genes encode apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins, which act as intrinsic restriction factors against lentiviruses. To overcome APOBEC3-mediated anti-viral actions, lentiviruses have evolutionarily acquired an accessory protein, viral infectivity factor (Vif), and Vif degrades host APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059480/polarization-microscopy-as-a-tool-for-quantitative-evaluation-of-collagen-using-picrosirius-red-in-different-stages-of-ckd-in-cats
#2
G B Morais, D A Viana, F M O Silva, F A F Xavier Júnior, K M Farias, C D'Ó Pessoa, J A M Silveira, A P N N Alves, M R L Mota, F D O Silva, C M S Sampaio, J M G Verdugo, J S A M Evangelista
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a relevant disease in feline clinic. The tubulointerstitial damage, with collagen deposition and fibrosis, is an important result of this process. The aim of this study was to quantify and correlate the deposition of collagen and severity of interstitial fibrosis (IF) in the kidney from cats in different stages of CKD. Kidney fragments from 10 adult cats with CKD were analyzed and stained by Masson's trichrome (MT) and Picrosirius red (PSR) for circular polarized microscopy. Random quantitative analysis was performed on MT sections to classify the degree of IF, per field area, with and without circular polarization...
January 6, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956908/analysis-of-feline-and-canine-allergen-components-in-patients-sensitized-to-pets
#3
Natalia Ukleja-Sokołowska, Ewa Gawrońska-Ukleja, Magdalena Żbikowska-Gotz, Ewa Socha, Kinga Lis, Łukasz Sokołowski, Andrzej Kuźmiński, Zbigniew Bartuzi
BACKGROUND: Component resolved allergen diagnosis allows for a precise evaluation of the sensitization profiles of patients sensitized to felines and canines. An accurate interpretation of these results allows better insight into the evolution of a given patients sensitizations, and allows for a more precise evaluation of their prognoses. METHODS: 70 patients (42 women and 28 men, aged 18-65, with the average of 35.5) with a positive feline or canine allergy diagnosis were included in the research group...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902382/genetic-diversity-and-phenotypic-associations-of-feline-caliciviruses-from-cats-in-switzerland
#4
Andrea M Spiri, Julien Thézé, Marina L Meli, Valentino Cattori, Alice Berger, Adolf Steinrigl, Oliver G Pybus, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral pathogen in domestic cats worldwide. The variable regions of the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV have one of the highest recorded rates of molecular evolution. Understanding the genetic diversity and phylogeny of FCV is a prerequisite to exploring the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this virus and to the development of efficacious vaccine strategies. In this study, we undertook a nationwide molecular characterization of FCV using for the first time nearly complete capsid (VP1) gene sequences...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871815/identification-and-genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-rat-bocavirus-from-brown-rats-in-china
#5
Susanna K P Lau, Hazel C Yeung, Kenneth S M Li, Carol S F Lam, Jian-Piao Cai, Ming-Chi Yuen, Ming Wang, Bo-Jian Zheng, Patrick C Y Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Despite recent discoveries of novel animal bocaparvoviruses, current understandings on the diversity and evolution of bocaparvoviruses are still limited. We report the identification and genome characterization of a novel bocaparvovirus, rat bocaparvovirus (RBoV), in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in China. RBoV was detected in 11.5%, 2.4%, 16.2% and 0.3% of alimentary, respiratory, spleen and kidney samples respectively, of 636 brown rats by PCR, but not in samples of other rodent species, suggesting that brown rats are the primary reservoir of RBoV...
January 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502089/molecular-characterisation-of-parvoviruses-from-domestic-cats-reveals-emergence-of-newer-variants-in-india
#6
Hirak K Mukhopadhyay, Mangadevi Nookala, Nobal Rk Thangamani, Amsaveni Sivaprakasam, Prabhakar X Antony, Jacob Thanislass, Mouttou V Srinivas, Raghavan M Pillai
OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to characterise the viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of parvovirus from domestic cats in India. METHODS: The faecal samples from diarrhoeic/healthy domestic cats were collected from different geographical regions of India for screening by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the VP2 gene. RESULTS: Canine parvovirus (CPV)/feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infections were found in 12 samples (11...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368163/determinants-of-fiv-and-hiv-vif-sensitivity-of-feline-apobec3-restriction-factors
#7
Zeli Zhang, Qinyong Gu, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva Vasudevan, Anika Hain, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Sascha Hasheminasab, Daniel Mulnaes, Kei Sato, Klaus Cichutek, Dieter Häussinger, Ignacio G Bravo, Sander H J Smits, Holger Gohlke, Carsten Münk
BACKGROUND: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a global pathogen of Felidae species and a model system for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced AIDS. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), APOBEC3 (A3) genes encode for single-domain A3Z2s, A3Z3 and double-domain A3Z2Z3 anti-viral cytidine deaminases. The feline A3Z2Z3 is expressed following read-through transcription and alternative splicing, introducing a previously untranslated exon in frame, encoding a domain insertion called linker...
July 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016753/chondroitinase-ac-a-host-associated-genetic-feature-of-helicobacter-bizzozeronii
#8
Ramesh Babu Namburi, Olivier Berteau, Dorothe Spillmann, Mirko Rossi
Investigating mechanisms involved in host adaptation is crucial to understand pathogen evolution. Helicobacter species appear to have a host species-specific tropism, coevolving with their natural hosts, and to develop several strategies allowing the colonization of the stomach throughout lifetime of their hosts. However, little is known about genetic features associated with the adaptation to a specific animal host. In this study we discovered a polysaccharide lyase that is expressed by the canine-associated species H...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689419/retroviral-dna-the-silent-winner-blood-transfusion-containing-latent-feline-leukemia-provirus-causes-infection-and-disease-in-na%C3%A3-ve-recipient-cats
#9
Stefanie Nesina, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, Barbara Riond, Felicitas S Boretti, Barbara Willi, Marina L Meli, Paula Grest, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gamma-retrovirus of domestic cats that was discovered half a century ago. Cats that are infected with FeLV may develop a progressive infection resulting in persistent viremia, immunodeficiency, tumors, anemia and death. A significant number of cats mount a protective immune response that suppresses viremia; these cats develop a regressive infection characterized by the absence of viral replication and the presence of low levels of proviral DNA...
2015: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655039/ability-of-vaccine-strain-induced-antibodies-to-neutralize-field-isolates-of-caliciviruses-from-swedish-cats
#10
Jonas Johansson Wensman, Ayman Samman, Anna Lindhe, Jean-Christophe Thibault, Louise Treiberg Berndtsson, Margaret J Hosie
BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats worldwide. Its characteristically high mutation rate leads to escape from the humoral immune response induced by natural infection and/or vaccination and consequently vaccines are not always effective against field isolates. Thus, there is a need to continuously investigate the ability of FCV vaccine strain-induced antibodies to neutralize field isolates. METHODS: Seventy-eight field isolates of FCV isolated during the years 2008-2012 from Swedish cats displaying clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease were examined in this study...
December 12, 2015: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26581999/ancestral-mutations-acquired-in-refrex-1-a-restriction-factor-against-feline-retroviruses-during-its-cooption-and-domestication
#11
Jumpei Ito, Takuya Baba, Junna Kawasaki, Kazuo Nishigaki
UNLABELLED: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancestral retroviral infections of germ cells. Retroviral endogenization is an adaptation process for the host genome, and ERVs are gradually attenuated or inactivated by mutation. However, some ERVs that have been "domesticated" by their hosts eventually gain physiological functions, such as placentation or viral resistance. We previously reported the discovery of Refrex-1, a soluble antiretroviral factor in domestic cats that specifically inhibits infection by feline leukemia virus subgroup D (FeLV-D), a chimeric virus of FeLV, and a feline ERV, ERV-DC...
February 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26491161/a-naturally-occurring-domestic-cat-apobec3-variant-confers-resistance-to-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#12
Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Taisuke Izumi, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Naoko Misawa, Fengrong Ren, Michael A Carpenter, Terumasa Ikeda, Carsten Münk, Reuben S Harris, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
UNLABELLED: Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412533/anatomopathological-staging-of-feline-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-through-quantitative-evaluation-based-on-morphometric-and-histopathological-data
#13
I Biasato, L Francescone, G La Rosa, M Tursi
Diagnosis of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is both clinical and anatomopathological. Since standardized echocardiographic parameters have previously been established for its diagnosis and classification, the aim of the present study is to provide an original, complete and repeatable quantitative anatomopathological evaluation of this myocardial disease. Since ES-HCM is a clearly defined clinicopathological entity of feline HCM, the present study also aims to investigate its temporal evolution. The hearts of 21 cats with previous diagnosis or suspicion of HCM and 6 control animals were submitted for morphometric and histopathological investigations...
October 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26241945/evolution-of-animal-models-in-cancer-vaccine-development
#14
REVIEW
Wei-Zen Wei, Richard F Jones, Csaba Juhasz, Heather Gibson, Jesse Veenstra
Advances in cancer vaccine development are facilitated by animal models reflecting key features of human cancer and its interface with host immunity. Several series of transplantable preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary lesions have been used to delineate mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. Mimicking immune tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) such as HER2/neu, transgenic mice developing spontaneous mammary tumors are strong model systems for pre-clinical vaccine testing. In these models, HER2 DNA vaccines are easily administered, well-tolerated, and induce both humoral and cellular immunity...
December 16, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25896240/investigation-of-inherited-diseases-in-cats-genetic-and-genomic-strategies-over-three-decades
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Gandolfi, Hasan Alhaddad
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: The health of the cat mirrors a complex interaction between its environment (nurture) and its genetics (nature). To date, over 70 genetic mutations (variants) have been defined in the cat; many involve diseases, structural anomalies, coat color and texture, including numerous that are clinically relevant. This trend will continue as more of the feline genome is deciphered. Genetic testing, and eventually whole-genome sequencing, should become routine diagnostic tools in feline healthcare within the foreseeable future...
May 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25814618/complete-genome-sequence-of-feline-panleukopenia-virus-strain-hrb-cs1-isolated-from-a-domestic-cat-in-northeastern-china
#16
Chunguo Liu, Yongxiang Liu, Dafei Liu, Zheng Qiu, Jin Tian, Dongchun Guo, Zhijie Li, Ming Liu, Yijing Li, Liandong Qu
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strain HRB-CS1, isolated from a dead domestic cat showing enteric symptoms in China in 2014. The genome of HRB-CS1 was sequenced and analyzed, which will help to understand the genetic characteristics and evolution of FPLV in China.
2015: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25801938/novel-assay-to-quantify-recombination-in-a-calicivirus
#17
Sally J Symes, Natalie Job, Nino Ficorilli, Carol A Hartley, Glenn F Browning, James R Gilkerson
Recombination is an important contributor to genomic evolution in many viral families, including the Caliciviridae. While it is known that genomic recombination in caliciviruses contributes to their rapid evolution, the precise molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The majority of reported recombination events in feline calicivirus (FCV) occur at a "hot spot" between the non-structural protein coding region (open reading frame 1) and structural protein coding region (open reading frame 2). To gain a better understanding of the rate of recombination at this point, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay to quantify the rate of recombination between two divergent strains of FCV during co-infection in cell culture...
May 15, 2015: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25590025/immunocontraceptives-how-far-from-reality
#18
REVIEW
Seema Lekhwani, Nd Vaswani, Veena Singh Ghalaut, Vijay Shanker, Ragini Singh
Despite high expectations of safer, effective, economical, longer acting contraceptives, to date, there are no licensed contraceptive vaccines available in the market. Nevertheless, a role for vaccines undoubtedly exists as an aid to birth spacing and as a nonsurgical means of generating sterility. The research concerned in the area so far has been successful on the feline population, with room still for exhaustive studies on humans. The future of contraceptive vaccines holds great promise in terms of comfort, price, efficacy, rare complications, and possibly nonselective action on animal populations as well as on humans...
2014: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25537945/serum-ionised-calcium-as-a-prognostic-risk-factor-in-the-clinical-course-of-pancreatitis-in-cats
#19
Claúdia Dias, L Miguel Carreira
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to assess the possible effects of sex, age and breed on the evolution of pancreatitis, and to understand if low values of serum ionised calcium ([Ca(2+)i]) can be considered as a prognostic risk factor for determining the clinical course of the disease. METHODS: A sample of 24 cats (n = 24) with pancreatitis was used and grouped according to the disease progress into two groups: (i) non-fatal (NF) for those that recovered and (ii) fatal (F) for those that died...
December 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25535323/rapid-evolution-of-the-env-gene-leader-sequence-in-cats-naturally-infected-with-feline-immunodeficiency-virus
#20
Paweł M Bęczkowski, Joseph Hughes, Roman Biek, Annette Litster, Brian J Willett, Margaret J Hosie
Analysing the evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) at the intra-host level is important in order to address whether the diversity and composition of viral quasispecies affect disease progression. We examined the intra-host diversity and the evolutionary rates of the entire env and structural fragments of the env sequences obtained from sequential blood samples in 43 naturally infected domestic cats that displayed different clinical outcomes. We observed in the majority of cats that FIV env showed very low levels of intra-host diversity...
April 2015: Journal of General Virology
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