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Feline evolution

Hirak K Mukhopadhyay, Mangadevi Nookala, Nobal Rk Thangamani, Amsaveni Sivaprakasam, Prabhakar X Antony, Jacob Thanislass, Mouttou V Srinivas, Raghavan M Pillai
OBJECTIVES: The present study was undertaken to characterise the viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of parvovirus from domestic cats in India. METHODS: The faecal samples from diarrhoeic/healthy domestic cats were collected from different geographical regions of India for screening by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the VP2 gene. RESULTS: Canine parvovirus (CPV)/feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infections were found in 12 samples (11...
August 8, 2016: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Zeli Zhang, Qinyong Gu, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva Vasudevan, Anika Hain, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Sascha Hasheminasab, Daniel Mulnaes, Kei Sato, Klaus Cichutek, Dieter Häussinger, Ignacio G Bravo, Sander H J Smits, Holger Gohlke, Carsten Münk
BACKGROUND: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a global pathogen of Felidae species and a model system for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced AIDS. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), APOBEC3 (A3) genes encode for single-domain A3Z2s, A3Z3 and double-domain A3Z2Z3 anti-viral cytidine deaminases. The feline A3Z2Z3 is expressed following read-through transcription and alternative splicing, introducing a previously untranslated exon in frame, encoding a domain insertion called linker...
2016: Retrovirology
Ramesh Babu Namburi, Olivier Berteau, Dorothe Spillmann, Mirko Rossi
Investigating mechanisms involved in host adaptation is crucial to understand pathogen evolution. Helicobacter species appear to have a host species-specific tropism, coevolving with their natural hosts, and to develop several strategies allowing the colonization of the stomach throughout lifetime of their hosts. However, little is known about genetic features associated with the adaptation to a specific animal host. In this study we discovered a polysaccharide lyase that is expressed by the canine-associated species H...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
Stefanie Nesina, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, Barbara Riond, Felicitas S Boretti, Barbara Willi, Marina L Meli, Paula Grest, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gamma-retrovirus of domestic cats that was discovered half a century ago. Cats that are infected with FeLV may develop a progressive infection resulting in persistent viremia, immunodeficiency, tumors, anemia and death. A significant number of cats mount a protective immune response that suppresses viremia; these cats develop a regressive infection characterized by the absence of viral replication and the presence of low levels of proviral DNA...
2015: Retrovirology
Jonas Johansson Wensman, Ayman Samman, Anna Lindhe, Jean-Christophe Thibault, Louise Treiberg Berndtsson, Margaret J Hosie
BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats worldwide. Its characteristically high mutation rate leads to escape from the humoral immune response induced by natural infection and/or vaccination and consequently vaccines are not always effective against field isolates. Thus, there is a need to continuously investigate the ability of FCV vaccine strain-induced antibodies to neutralize field isolates. METHODS: Seventy-eight field isolates of FCV isolated during the years 2008-2012 from Swedish cats displaying clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease were examined in this study...
2015: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Jumpei Ito, Takuya Baba, Junna Kawasaki, Kazuo Nishigaki
UNLABELLED: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancestral retroviral infections of germ cells. Retroviral endogenization is an adaptation process for the host genome, and ERVs are gradually attenuated or inactivated by mutation. However, some ERVs that have been "domesticated" by their hosts eventually gain physiological functions, such as placentation or viral resistance. We previously reported the discovery of Refrex-1, a soluble antiretroviral factor in domestic cats that specifically inhibits infection by feline leukemia virus subgroup D (FeLV-D), a chimeric virus of FeLV, and a feline ERV, ERV-DC...
February 2016: Journal of Virology
Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Taisuke Izumi, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Naoko Misawa, Fengrong Ren, Michael A Carpenter, Terumasa Ikeda, Carsten Münk, Reuben S Harris, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
UNLABELLED: Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)...
January 2016: Journal of Virology
I Biasato, L Francescone, G La Rosa, M Tursi
Diagnosis of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is both clinical and anatomopathological. Since standardized echocardiographic parameters have previously been established for its diagnosis and classification, the aim of the present study is to provide an original, complete and repeatable quantitative anatomopathological evaluation of this myocardial disease. Since ES-HCM is a clearly defined clinicopathological entity of feline HCM, the present study also aims to investigate its temporal evolution. The hearts of 21 cats with previous diagnosis or suspicion of HCM and 6 control animals were submitted for morphometric and histopathological investigations...
October 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
Wei-Zen Wei, Richard F Jones, Csaba Juhasz, Heather Gibson, Jesse Veenstra
Advances in cancer vaccine development are facilitated by animal models reflecting key features of human cancer and its interface with host immunity. Several series of transplantable preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary lesions have been used to delineate mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. Mimicking immune tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) such as HER2/neu, transgenic mice developing spontaneous mammary tumors are strong model systems for pre-clinical vaccine testing. In these models, HER2 DNA vaccines are easily administered, well-tolerated, and induce both humoral and cellular immunity...
December 16, 2015: Vaccine
Barbara Gandolfi, Hasan Alhaddad
PRACTICAL RELEVANCE: The health of the cat mirrors a complex interaction between its environment (nurture) and its genetics (nature). To date, over 70 genetic mutations (variants) have been defined in the cat; many involve diseases, structural anomalies, coat color and texture, including numerous that are clinically relevant. This trend will continue as more of the feline genome is deciphered. Genetic testing, and eventually whole-genome sequencing, should become routine diagnostic tools in feline healthcare within the foreseeable future...
May 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Chunguo Liu, Yongxiang Liu, Dafei Liu, Zheng Qiu, Jin Tian, Dongchun Guo, Zhijie Li, Ming Liu, Yijing Li, Liandong Qu
Here, we report the complete genome sequence of feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) strain HRB-CS1, isolated from a dead domestic cat showing enteric symptoms in China in 2014. The genome of HRB-CS1 was sequenced and analyzed, which will help to understand the genetic characteristics and evolution of FPLV in China.
2015: Genome Announcements
Sally J Symes, Natalie Job, Nino Ficorilli, Carol A Hartley, Glenn F Browning, James R Gilkerson
Recombination is an important contributor to genomic evolution in many viral families, including the Caliciviridae. While it is known that genomic recombination in caliciviruses contributes to their rapid evolution, the precise molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The majority of reported recombination events in feline calicivirus (FCV) occur at a "hot spot" between the non-structural protein coding region (open reading frame 1) and structural protein coding region (open reading frame 2). To gain a better understanding of the rate of recombination at this point, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assay to quantify the rate of recombination between two divergent strains of FCV during co-infection in cell culture...
May 15, 2015: Veterinary Microbiology
Seema Lekhwani, Nd Vaswani, Veena Singh Ghalaut, Vijay Shanker, Ragini Singh
Despite high expectations of safer, effective, economical, longer acting contraceptives, to date, there are no licensed contraceptive vaccines available in the market. Nevertheless, a role for vaccines undoubtedly exists as an aid to birth spacing and as a nonsurgical means of generating sterility. The research concerned in the area so far has been successful on the feline population, with room still for exhaustive studies on humans. The future of contraceptive vaccines holds great promise in terms of comfort, price, efficacy, rare complications, and possibly nonselective action on animal populations as well as on humans...
2014: Advanced Biomedical Research
Claúdia Dias, L Miguel Carreira
OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to assess the possible effects of sex, age and breed on the evolution of pancreatitis, and to understand if low values of serum ionised calcium ([Ca(2+)i]) can be considered as a prognostic risk factor for determining the clinical course of the disease. METHODS: A sample of 24 cats (n = 24) with pancreatitis was used and grouped according to the disease progress into two groups: (i) non-fatal (NF) for those that recovered and (ii) fatal (F) for those that died...
December 2015: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Paweł M Bęczkowski, Joseph Hughes, Roman Biek, Annette Litster, Brian J Willett, Margaret J Hosie
Analysing the evolution of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) at the intra-host level is important in order to address whether the diversity and composition of viral quasispecies affect disease progression. We examined the intra-host diversity and the evolutionary rates of the entire env and structural fragments of the env sequences obtained from sequential blood samples in 43 naturally infected domestic cats that displayed different clinical outcomes. We observed in the majority of cats that FIV env showed very low levels of intra-host diversity...
April 2015: Journal of General Virology
Yoon-Young Cho, Seong-In Lim, Yong Kwan Kim, Jae-Young Song, Joong-Bok Lee, Dong-Jun An
Aichi virus, a causative agent of human gastroenteritis, is one of a number of animal viruses belonging to the genus Kobuvirus within the family Picornaviridae. The kobuvirus genome encodes several structural and nonstructural proteins; the capsid proteins encoded by the VP1 gene are key immunogenic factors. Here, we used the VP1 region to determine substitution rates and the time to the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) by comparing feline kobuvirus (FKoVs) sequences with kobuvirus sequences isolated from members of other species...
February 2015: Archives of Virology
Andrew B Allison, Dennis J Kohler, Alicia Ortega, Elizabeth A Hoover, Daniel M Grove, Edward C Holmes, Colin R Parrish
Canine parvovirus (CPV) emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that>95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR), the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution...
November 2014: PLoS Pathogens
Punita Gauchan, Eriko Sasaki, Toyoko Nakagomi, Loan Phuong Do, Yen Hai Doan, Masami Mochizuki, Osamu Nakagomi
Feline rotaviruses, members of the species Rotavirus A, are an infrequent source of zoonotic infections, and were previously shown by RNA-RNA hybridization assays to possess two distinct genomic RNA constellations, represented by strains FRV-1 and FRV64. Due to the lack of whole genome sequence information for FRV-1, human rotavirus strain AU-1 has been used as a surrogate for the genotype constellation of feline rotaviruses. The aim of this study was to determine the whole genome sequence of FRV-1 and FRV64 to help understand the genetic relationships among existing feline rotaviruses from the evolutionary perspective...
February 2015: Journal of General Virology
Alaric W D'Souza, Günter P Wagner
Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis...
2014: Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health
Eun-Sil Park, Michio Suzuki, Masanobu Kimura, Keiji Maruyama, Hiroshi Mizutani, Ryuichi Saito, Nami Kubota, Tetsuya Furuya, Tetsuya Mizutani, Koichi Imaoka, Shigeru Morikawa
Feline morbillivirus (FmoPV) has recently been identified in Hong Kong and Japan. FmoPV is considered to belong to the genus Morbillivirus, in the family Paramyxoviridae. In this study, the complete nucleotide sequences of three strains of FmoPV detected in cats in Japan were determined. Among the six genes in FmoPV; N, P/V/C, M, F, H and L, the P gene showed the highest polymorphism in the nucleotide and putative amino acid sequences among the FmoPV strains. There was no geographical association in terms of the FmoPV phylogeny; however, from extensive phylogenetic and recombination analyses, we found that one Japanese FmoPV strain, MiJP003, was a probable recombinant between two virus strains in the independent lineages found in Japan and Hong Kong, respectively...
November 2014: Virology
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