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Feline evolution

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140289/cats-and-carbohydrates-the-carnivore-fantasy
#1
REVIEW
Adronie Verbrugghe, Myriam Hesta
The domestic cat's wild ancestors are obligate carnivores that consume prey containing only minimal amounts of carbohydrates. Evolutionary events adapted the cat's metabolism and physiology to this diet strictly composed of animal tissues and led to unique digestive and metabolic peculiarities of carbohydrate metabolism. The domestic cat still closely resembles its wild ancestor. Although the carnivore connection of domestic cats is well recognised, little is known about the precise nutrient profile to which the digestive physiology and metabolism of the cat have adapted throughout evolution...
November 15, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987024/urban-landscapes-can-change-virus-gene-flow-and-evolution-in-a-fragmentation-sensitive-carnivore
#2
Nicholas M Fountain-Jones, Meggan E Craft, W Chris Funk, Chris Kozakiewicz, Daryl Trumbo, Erin E Boydston, Lisa M Lyren, Kevin Crooks, Justin S Lee, Sue VandeWoude, Scott Carver
Urban expansion has widespread impacts on wildlife species globally, including the transmission and emergence of infectious diseases. However, there is almost no information about how urban landscapes shape transmission dynamics in wildlife. Using an innovative phylodynamic approach combining host and pathogen molecular data with landscape characteristics and host traits, we untangle the complex factors that drive transmission networks of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) in bobcats (Lynx rufus). We found that the urban landscape played a significant role in shaping FIV transmission...
October 7, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768854/presence-of-a-shared-5-leader-sequence-in-ancestral-human-and-mammalian-retroviruses-and-its-transduction-into-feline-leukemia-virus
#3
Junna Kawasaki, Maki Kawamura, Yoshiharu Ohsato, Jumpei Ito, Kazuo Nishigaki
Recombination events induce significant genetic changes, and this process can result in virus genetic diversity or in the generation of novel pathogenicity. We discovered a new recombinant feline leukemia virus (FeLV) gag gene harboring an unrelated insertion, termed the X region, which was derived from Felis catus endogenous gammaretrovirus 4 (FcERV-gamma4). The identified FcERV-gamma4 proviruses have lost their coding capabilities, but some can express their viral RNA in feline tissues. Although the X-region-carrying recombinant FeLVs appeared to be replication-defective viruses, they were detected in 6...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688978/molecular-characterization-of-complete-genomic-segment-2-of-picobirnavirus-strains-detected-in-a-cat-and-a-dog
#4
Ryan Navarro, Chan Yibin, Rajeev Nair, Andrea Peda, Meiji Soe Aung, Jennifer Ketzis, Yashpal S Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi, Souvik Ghosh
We report here molecular characterization of complete genomic segment-2 of picobirnavirus (PBV) strains PBV/Cat/KNA/K40/2014 and PBV/Dog/KNA/RVC7/2015 detected in a cat (Felis catus) and a dog (Canis lupus familiaris), respectively, on the Caribbean island of St. Kitts. To obtain the full-length nucleotide (nt) sequence of gene segment-2 of the canine and feline PBV strains, the 5'- and 3'- portions of gene segment-2 containing an overlapping region were amplified using a non-specific primer-based amplification method with modifications...
July 5, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625542/analysis-of-the-codon-usage-of-the-orf2-gene-of-feline-calicivirus
#5
Minghui Zang, Wanting He, Fanshu Du, Gongjian Wu, Bohao Wu, Zhenlei Zhou
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a highly prevalent pathogen of the domestic cat that causes acute infections of the oral and upper respiratory tract. The E region of the ORF2 protein is responsible for the induction of virus-neutralizing antibodies, thus it is important to understand the codon usage of this gene. Here, analysed 90 coding sequences of ORF2 and show that it undergoes a low codon usage bias. In addition, although mutational bias is one of the factors shaping the codon usage bias of this gene, natural selection plays a more significant role...
June 16, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603036/canine-parvovirus-type-2-cpv-2-and-feline-panleukopenia-virus-fpv-codon-bias-analysis-reveals-a-progressive-adaptation-to-the-new-niche-after-the-host-jump
#6
Giovanni Franzo, Claudia Maria Tucciarone, Mattia Cecchinato, Michele Drigo
Based on virus dependence from host cell machinery, their codon usage is expected to show a strong relation with the host one. Even if this association has been stated, especially for bacteria viruses, the linkage is considered to be less consistent for more complex organisms and a codon bias adaptation after host jump has never been proven. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was selected as a model because it represents a well characterized case of host jump, originating from Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV)...
June 8, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331087/feline-immunodeficiency-virus-evolutionarily-acquires-two-proteins-vif-and-protease-capable-of-antagonizing-feline-apobec3
#7
Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Junko S Takeuchi, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Naoko Misawa, Yuichi Kimura, Fengrong Ren, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
The interplay between viral and host proteins has been well studied to elucidate virus-host interactions and their relevance to virulence. Mammalian genes encode apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins, which act as intrinsic restriction factors against lentiviruses. To overcome APOBEC3-mediated antiviral actions, lentiviruses have evolutionarily acquired an accessory protein, viral infectivity factor (Vif), and Vif degrades host APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059480/polarization-microscopy-as-a-tool-for-quantitative-evaluation-of-collagen-using-picrosirius-red-in-different-stages-of-ckd-in-cats
#8
G B Morais, D A Viana, F M O Silva, F A F Xavier Júnior, K M Farias, C D'Ó Pessoa, J A M Silveira, A P N N Alves, M R L Mota, F D O Silva, C M S Sampaio, J M G Verdugo, J S A M Evangelista
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a relevant disease in feline clinic. The tubulointerstitial damage, with collagen deposition and fibrosis, is an important result of this process. The aim of this study was to quantify and correlate the deposition of collagen and severity of interstitial fibrosis (IF) in the kidney from cats in different stages of CKD. Kidney fragments from 10 adult cats with CKD were analyzed and stained by Masson's trichrome (MT) and Picrosirius red (PSR) for circular polarized microscopy. Random quantitative analysis was performed on MT sections to classify the degree of IF, per field area, with and without circular polarization...
January 6, 2017: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956908/analysis-of-feline-and-canine-allergen-components-in-patients-sensitized-to-pets
#9
Natalia Ukleja-Sokołowska, Ewa Gawrońska-Ukleja, Magdalena Żbikowska-Gotz, Ewa Socha, Kinga Lis, Łukasz Sokołowski, Andrzej Kuźmiński, Zbigniew Bartuzi
BACKGROUND: Component resolved allergen diagnosis allows for a precise evaluation of the sensitization profiles of patients sensitized to felines and canines. An accurate interpretation of these results allows better insight into the evolution of a given patients sensitizations, and allows for a more precise evaluation of their prognoses. METHODS: 70 patients (42 women and 28 men, aged 18-65, with the average of 35.5) with a positive feline or canine allergy diagnosis were included in the research group...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902382/genetic-diversity-and-phenotypic-associations-of-feline-caliciviruses-from-cats-in-switzerland
#10
Andrea M Spiri, Julien Thézé, Marina L Meli, Valentino Cattori, Alice Berger, Adolf Steinrigl, Oliver G Pybus, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann, Barbara Willi
Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common viral pathogen in domestic cats worldwide. The variable regions of the capsid (VP1) gene of FCV have one of the highest recorded rates of molecular evolution. Understanding the genetic diversity and phylogeny of FCV is a prerequisite to exploring the epidemiology and pathogenesis of this virus and to the development of efficacious vaccine strategies. In this study, we undertook a nationwide molecular characterization of FCV using for the first time nearly complete capsid (VP1) gene sequences...
December 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871815/identification-and-genomic-characterization-of-a-novel-rat-bocavirus-from-brown-rats-in-china
#11
Susanna K P Lau, Hazel C Yeung, Kenneth S M Li, Carol S F Lam, Jian-Piao Cai, Ming-Chi Yuen, Ming Wang, Bo-Jian Zheng, Patrick C Y Woo, Kwok-Yung Yuen
Despite recent discoveries of novel animal bocaparvoviruses, current understandings on the diversity and evolution of bocaparvoviruses are still limited. We report the identification and genome characterization of a novel bocaparvovirus, rat bocaparvovirus (RBoV), in brown rats (Rattus norvegicus) in China. RBoV was detected in 11.5%, 2.4%, 16.2% and 0.3% of alimentary, respiratory, spleen and kidney samples respectively, of 636 brown rats by PCR, but not in samples of other rodent species, suggesting that brown rats are the primary reservoir of RBoV...
January 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502089/molecular-characterisation-of-parvoviruses-from-domestic-cats-reveals-emergence-of-newer-variants-in-india
#12
Hirak K Mukhopadhyay, Mangadevi Nookala, Nobal Rk Thangamani, Amsaveni Sivaprakasam, Prabhakar X Antony, Jacob Thanislass, Mouttou V Srinivas, Raghavan M Pillai
Objectives The present study was undertaken to characterise the viral polypeptide 2 (VP2) gene of parvovirus from domestic cats in India. Methods The faecal samples from diarrhoeic/healthy domestic cats were collected from different geographical regions of India for screening by PCR assay followed by sequence analysis of the VP2 gene. Results Canine parvovirus (CPV)/feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) infections were found in 12 (11.3%) of 106 faecal samples tested. Two new CPV-2a (297Ala and Asn426) and three FPV strains were identified by VP2 gene analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27368163/determinants-of-fiv-and-hiv-vif-sensitivity-of-feline-apobec3-restriction-factors
#13
Zeli Zhang, Qinyong Gu, Ananda Ayyappan Jaguva Vasudevan, Anika Hain, Björn-Philipp Kloke, Sascha Hasheminasab, Daniel Mulnaes, Kei Sato, Klaus Cichutek, Dieter Häussinger, Ignacio G Bravo, Sander H J Smits, Holger Gohlke, Carsten Münk
BACKGROUND: Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a global pathogen of Felidae species and a model system for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced AIDS. In felids such as the domestic cat (Felis catus), APOBEC3 (A3) genes encode for single-domain A3Z2s, A3Z3 and double-domain A3Z2Z3 anti-viral cytidine deaminases. The feline A3Z2Z3 is expressed following read-through transcription and alternative splicing, introducing a previously untranslated exon in frame, encoding a domain insertion called linker...
July 1, 2016: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27016753/chondroitinase-ac-a-host-associated-genetic-feature-of-helicobacter-bizzozeronii
#14
Ramesh Babu Namburi, Olivier Berteau, Dorothe Spillmann, Mirko Rossi
Investigating mechanisms involved in host adaptation is crucial to understand pathogen evolution. Helicobacter species appear to have a host species-specific tropism, coevolving with their natural hosts, and to develop several strategies allowing the colonization of the stomach throughout lifetime of their hosts. However, little is known about genetic features associated with the adaptation to a specific animal host. In this study we discovered a polysaccharide lyase that is expressed by the canine-associated species H...
April 15, 2016: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689419/retroviral-dna-the-silent-winner-blood-transfusion-containing-latent-feline-leukemia-provirus-causes-infection-and-disease-in-na%C3%A3-ve-recipient-cats
#15
Stefanie Nesina, A Katrin Helfer-Hungerbuehler, Barbara Riond, Felicitas S Boretti, Barbara Willi, Marina L Meli, Paula Grest, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
BACKGROUND: The feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a gamma-retrovirus of domestic cats that was discovered half a century ago. Cats that are infected with FeLV may develop a progressive infection resulting in persistent viremia, immunodeficiency, tumors, anemia and death. A significant number of cats mount a protective immune response that suppresses viremia; these cats develop a regressive infection characterized by the absence of viral replication and the presence of low levels of proviral DNA...
December 21, 2015: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26655039/ability-of-vaccine-strain-induced-antibodies-to-neutralize-field-isolates-of-caliciviruses-from-swedish-cats
#16
Jonas Johansson Wensman, Ayman Samman, Anna Lindhe, Jean-Christophe Thibault, Louise Treiberg Berndtsson, Margaret J Hosie
BACKGROUND: Feline calicivirus (FCV) is a common cause of upper respiratory tract disease in cats worldwide. Its characteristically high mutation rate leads to escape from the humoral immune response induced by natural infection and/or vaccination and consequently vaccines are not always effective against field isolates. Thus, there is a need to continuously investigate the ability of FCV vaccine strain-induced antibodies to neutralize field isolates. METHODS: Seventy-eight field isolates of FCV isolated during the years 2008-2012 from Swedish cats displaying clinical signs of upper respiratory tract disease were examined in this study...
December 12, 2015: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26581999/ancestral-mutations-acquired-in-refrex-1-a-restriction-factor-against-feline-retroviruses-during-its-cooption-and-domestication
#17
Jumpei Ito, Takuya Baba, Junna Kawasaki, Kazuo Nishigaki
UNLABELLED: Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are remnants of ancestral retroviral infections of germ cells. Retroviral endogenization is an adaptation process for the host genome, and ERVs are gradually attenuated or inactivated by mutation. However, some ERVs that have been "domesticated" by their hosts eventually gain physiological functions, such as placentation or viral resistance. We previously reported the discovery of Refrex-1, a soluble antiretroviral factor in domestic cats that specifically inhibits infection by feline leukemia virus subgroup D (FeLV-D), a chimeric virus of FeLV, and a feline ERV, ERV-DC...
February 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26491161/a-naturally-occurring-domestic-cat-apobec3-variant-confers-resistance-to-feline-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#18
Rokusuke Yoshikawa, Taisuke Izumi, Eri Yamada, Yusuke Nakano, Naoko Misawa, Fengrong Ren, Michael A Carpenter, Terumasa Ikeda, Carsten Münk, Reuben S Harris, Takayuki Miyazawa, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
UNLABELLED: Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3; A3) DNA cytosine deaminases can be incorporated into progeny virions and inhibit lentiviral replication. On the other hand, viral infectivity factor (Vif) of lentiviruses antagonizes A3-mediated antiviral activities by degrading A3 proteins. It is known that domestic cat (Felis catus) APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), the ortholog of human APOBEC3H, potently suppresses the infectivity of vif-defective feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV)...
October 21, 2015: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26412533/anatomopathological-staging-of-feline-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-through-quantitative-evaluation-based-on-morphometric-and-histopathological-data
#19
I Biasato, L Francescone, G La Rosa, M Tursi
Diagnosis of feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is both clinical and anatomopathological. Since standardized echocardiographic parameters have previously been established for its diagnosis and classification, the aim of the present study is to provide an original, complete and repeatable quantitative anatomopathological evaluation of this myocardial disease. Since ES-HCM is a clearly defined clinicopathological entity of feline HCM, the present study also aims to investigate its temporal evolution. The hearts of 21 cats with previous diagnosis or suspicion of HCM and 6 control animals were submitted for morphometric and histopathological investigations...
October 2015: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26241945/evolution-of-animal-models-in-cancer-vaccine-development
#20
REVIEW
Wei-Zen Wei, Richard F Jones, Csaba Juhasz, Heather Gibson, Jesse Veenstra
Advances in cancer vaccine development are facilitated by animal models reflecting key features of human cancer and its interface with host immunity. Several series of transplantable preneoplastic and neoplastic mouse mammary lesions have been used to delineate mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. Mimicking immune tolerance to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) such as HER2/neu, transgenic mice developing spontaneous mammary tumors are strong model systems for pre-clinical vaccine testing. In these models, HER2 DNA vaccines are easily administered, well-tolerated, and induce both humoral and cellular immunity...
December 16, 2015: Vaccine
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