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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423751/oviposition-like-central-pattern-generators-in-pregenital-segments-of-male-and-female-grasshoppers
#1
Karen J Thompson
Grasshoppers produce an extraordinary oviposition behavior that is associated with multiple specializations of the skeletal and neuromuscular systems in the posterior abdomen, including a central pattern generator (CPG) in the female's terminal abdominal ganglion. Two pairs of shovel-shaped appendages, the ovipositor valves on the abdomen tip, excavate the soil for deposition of eggs. By contrast, the sexually monomorphic pregenital region of the abdomen is without appendages. Morphological homologues of ovipositor muscles and efferent neurons in the eighth abdominal segment are nevertheless present in pregenital segments of males and females...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423726/prevalence-and-sex-specific-distribution-of-cardiovascular-risk-factors-in-university-students-in-an-urban-rural-environment-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#2
Fiston Ikwa Ndol Mbutiwi, François Bompeka Lepira, Taty Latelabwe Mbutiwi, Donat Kenge Kumakuma, Gloria Kikumbi Kumbukama, Marie-Pierre Sylvestre
A recent qualitative study on health promotion in non-communicable diseases in Sub-Saharan University students suggested sex differences in knowledge and beliefs concerning a healthy lifestyle. However, the extent to which this is reflected in sex-specific distribution of cardiovascular risk factors among Sub-Saharan African students have not been fully evaluated. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and the sex-specific distribution of some modifiable cardiovascular risk factors among students at University of Kikwit in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422404/new-challenges-for-a-core-procedure-development-of-a-faculty-workshop-for-skills-maintenance-for-abdominal-hysterectomy
#3
Lori R Berkowitz, Kaitlyn James, Emil Petrusa, Carey York-Best, Anjali J Kaimal
OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of a low-cost educational module for OB/GYN faculty skills maintenance for total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH), a low frequency core procedure in obstetrics and gynecology. DESIGN: After review of existing educational tools and utilization of a modified Delphi method to establish consensus regarding key procedural components for skills maintenance, a 2-hour workshop was developed to review knowledge and participate in a simulation focused on the critical steps in performing TAH...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417077/ciprofloxacin-use-in-hospitalized-children-approved-or-off-label
#4
Toktam Faghihi, Leila Yavari Tekmehdash, Mania Radfar, Kheirollah Gholami
Objective: Fluoroquinolones are not routinely used as the first-line antimicrobial therapy in pediatrics. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved fluoroquinolones on certain indications in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate to what extent and how ciprofloxacin is used on approved indication or as off-label. Besides, dose adequacy and treatment duration were assessed. Methods: In a 10-month observational study, all children receiving systemic ciprofloxacin were assessed...
October 2017: Journal of Research in Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415060/precision-of-mri-based-body-composition-measurements-of-postmenopausal-women
#5
Janne West, Thobias Romu, Sofia Thorell, Hanna Lindblom, Emilia Berin, Anna-Clara Spetz Holm, Lotta Lindh Åstrand, Anette Karlsson, Magnus Borga, Mats Hammar, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard
OBJECTIVES: To determine precision of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based fat and muscle quantification in a group of postmenopausal women. Furthermore, to extend the method to individual muscles relevant to upper-body exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a sub-study to a randomized control trial investigating effects of resistance training to decrease hot flushes in postmenopausal women. Thirty-six women were included, mean age 56 ± 6 years. Each subject was scanned twice with a 3...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406417/is-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-an-effective-anabolic-agent-to-improve-outcome-in-older-diseased-populations
#6
Mariëlle P K J Engelen, Nicolaas E P Deutz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: β-Hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been used for many years in athletes for muscle buildup and strength, and endurance enhancement. In recent years, its interest quickly expanded in older (diseased) populations and during (exercise) rehabilitation and recovery from hospitalization and surgery. We will discuss recent literature about HMB metabolism, its pharmacokinetics compared with the frequently used metabolite leucine, effectiveness of HMB to improve outcome in older diseased adults, and novel approaches for HMB use...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404329/enhanced-recovery-after-vascular-surgery
#7
REVIEW
Milena D Stojanovic, Danica Z Markovic, Anita Z Vukovic, Vesna D Dinic, Aleksandar N Nikolic, Tijana G Maricic, Radmilo J Janković
The beginnings of the enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) program were first developed for patients in colorectal surgery, and after it was established as the standard of care in this surgical field, it began to be applied in many others surgical areas. This is multimodal, evidence-based approach program and includes simultaneous optimization of preoperative status of patients, adequate selection of surgical procedure and postoperative management. The aim of this program is to reduce complications, the length of hospital stay and to improve the patients outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398871/application-value-of-enhanced-recovery-after-surgery-for-total-laparoscopic-uncut-roux-en-y-gastrojejunostomy-after-distal-gastrectomy
#8
Yi-Feng Zang, Feng-Zhou Li, Zhi-Peng Ji, Yin-Lu Ding
AIM: To evaluate the safety and feasibility of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) for total laparoscopic uncut Roux-en-Y gastrojejunostomy after distal gastrectomy. METHODS: The clinical data of 42 patients who were divided into an ERAS group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 22) were collected. The observed indicators included operation conditions, postoperative clinical indexes, and postoperative serum stress indexes. Measurement data following a normal distribution are presented as mean ± SD and were analyzed by t-test...
January 28, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398635/association-of-vitamin-d-status-with-metabolic-syndrome-and-its-components-a-cross-sectional-study-in-a-population-of-high-educated-iranian-adults
#9
Masoume Mansouri, Roshanak Abasi, Morteza Nasiri, Farshad Sharifi, Sedyghe Vesaly, Omid Sadeghi, Nayere Rahimi, Nasrin Akbary Sharif
AIM: We aimed to assess the association of vitamin D status with metabolic syndrome and its components among high educated Iranian adults. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, 352 faculty members with age of 35 years or more, belong to Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran, were recruited during 2016 and 2017. Fasting blood samples were obtained to quantify serum 25(OH)D concentrations, glycemic indicators and lipid profile. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the guidelines of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III)...
February 1, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393063/development-of-real-time-abdominal-compression-force-monitoring-and-visual-biofeedback-system
#10
Tae-Ho Kim, Siyong Kim, Dong-Su Kim, Seong-Hee Kang, Min-Seok Cho, Kyeong-Hyun Kim, Dong-Seok Shin, Tae-Suk Suh
In this study, we developed and evaluated a system that could monitor abdominal compression force (ACF) in real time and provide a surrogating signal, even under abdominal compression. The system could also provide visual-biofeedback (VBF). The real-time ACF monitoring system developed consists of an abdominal compression device, an ACF monitoring unit and a control system including an in-house ACF management program. We anticipated that ACF variation information caused by respiratory abdominal motion could be used as a respiratory surrogate signal...
February 2, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391101/comparative-analysis-of-laparoscopic-and-open-approaches-in-emergency-abdominal-surgery
#11
Anaar Siletz, Jonathan Grotts, Catherine Lewis, Areti Tillou, Henry Magill Cryer, Ali Cheaito
The objective of this study was to evaluate usage and outcomes of emergency laparoscopic versus open surgery at a single tertiary academic center. Over a three-year period 165 patients were identified retrospectively using National Surgical Quality Improvement Program results. Appendectomies and cholecystectomies were excluded. Open and laparoscopic approaches were compared regarding preoperative and operative characteristics, the development of postoperative complications, 30-day mortality, and length of hospital stay...
October 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383078/anything-but-shadowing-early-clinical-reasoning-in-emergency-department-improves-clinical-skills
#12
Regina Royan, Christine Wu, Nik Theyyunni, Sacha Montas, James A Cranford, Joseph B House, Michael P Lukela, Sally A Santen
Introduction: Transitioning from the pre-clinical environment to clerkships poses a challenge to students and educators alike. Students along with faculty developed the Clinical Reasoning Elective (CRE) to provide pre-clinical students exposure to patients in the emergency department and the opportunity to build illness scripts and practice clinical skills with longitudinal mentorship in a low-stakes environment before entering clerkships. It is a voluntary program. Each year, the CRE has received overwhelming positive feedback from students...
January 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382499/-the-jibarization-of-logos-how-medical-reductionism-can-kill
#13
Juan Emilio Sala
In recent decades, a disciplinary and subdisciplinary proliferation has triggered both in the medical fields and science in general. This trend may be partially explained by two diachronic, dialectically interconnected facts: the deepening of technical, social and international division of labor in the globalized capitalist world, and the triumph of the reductionist program, mainly developed by the logical empiricism of the Vienna Circle. This paper aims to deepen the debate on the intricate links between medicine, biology, philosophy, reductionism and complex thought, by using two examples: a case report of current medicine and the situation experienced by a famous American scientist, Stephen Jay Gould, about his first cancer, an abdominal mesothelioma...
March 2017: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380044/effects-of-daily-walking-on-intermuscular-adipose-tissue-accumulation-with-age-a-5-year-follow-up-of-participants-in-a-lifestyle-based-daily-walking-program
#14
Eunji Bang, Kai Tanabe, Noriko Yokoyama, Shoko Chijiki, Takuya Tsuruzono, Shinya Kuno
PURPOSE: Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) accumulates with age. However, there has been no long-term intervention study examining whether daily walking prevents or decreases the age-related IMAT accumulation. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of a long-term lifestyle-based daily walking program on age-related IMAT accumulation after a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: Using a pedometer, daily step count was evaluated for 5 years in 24 middle-aged and elderly male and female participants...
January 29, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370060/trauma-transitional-care-coordination-a-mature-system-at-work
#15
Rebecca Tyrrell, Karen Doyle, Thomas M Scalea, Deborah M Stein
BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated effectiveness of a Trauma Transitional Care Coordination Program (TTCC) in reducing 30-day readmission rates for trauma patients most at risk. With program maturation, we achieved improved readmission rates for specific patient populations. METHODS: TTCC is a nursing driven program that supports patients at high risk for 30-day readmission. TTCC interventions include calls to patients within 72 hours of discharge, complete medication reconciliation, coordination of medical appointments, and individualized problem solving...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368676/physical-performance-following-acute-high-risk-abdominal-surgery-a-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Line Rokkedal Jønsson, Lina Holm Ingelsrud, Line Toft Tengberg, Thomas Bandholm, Nicolai Bang Foss, Morten Tange Kristensen
BACKGROUND: Acute high-risk abdominal (AHA) surgery is associated with high mortality, multiple postoperative complications and prolonged hospital stay. Further development of strategies for enhanced recovery programs following AHA surgery is needed. The aim of this study was to describe physical performance and barriers to independent mobilization among patients who received AHA surgery (postoperative days [POD] 1-7). METHODS: Patients undergoing AHA surgery were consecutively enrolled from a university hospital in Denmark...
February 2018: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368267/-prophylactic-use-of-tranexamic-acid-in-noncardiac-surgery-update-2017
#17
REVIEW
J Waskowski, J C Schefold, F Stueber
BACKGROUND: Minimising perioperative bleeding is a key goal of "patient blood management" programs. One component of respective strategies includes preventive inhibition of fibrinolysis using protease inhibitors, such as tranexamic acid (TXA). TXA inhibits plasminogen activation and plasmin-induced fibrin degradation. OBJECTIVES: The present article provides an overview of the existing literature and TXA applications in the prophylaxis of perioperative bleeding...
January 24, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361508/building-a-simulator-with-life-like-realism-for-teaching-abdominal-operations
#18
James M McGreevy, Jennie M O'Shea
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this communication is to provide an evolutionary description of an attempt to replicate the success of the Rampahl Cardiac Simulator using perfused abdominal organ blocks the way that the Rampahl Simulator uses ex vivo porcine hearts. DESIGN: This descriptive paper makes no attempt to prove the effectiveness of the described educational tool, but rather, outlines the successes and failures in development. The proven value of a perfused organ teaching tool, as the Rampahl Simulator, suggests that others can build upon the work described in this paper so that, in the future, perfused abdominal organs will be available to students of general surgery as a routine part of their pre-operative preparation...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351646/effect-of-a-postpartum-training-program-on-prevalence-of-diastasis-recti-abdominis-in-postpartum-primiparous-women-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Sandra L Gluppe, Gunvor Hilde, Merete K Tennfjord, Marie E Engh, Kari Bø
Background: Diastasis recti abdominis affects a significant number of women during the prenatal and postnatal period. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effect of a postpartum training program on prevalence of diastasis recti abdominis. Design: The design was a secondary analysis of an assessor-masked randomized controlled trial. Methods: One hundred and seventy-five primiparous women (mean age 29.8±4.1) were randomized to an exercise or control group...
January 17, 2018: Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350771/recombinant-relaxin-protects-liver-transplants-from-ischemia-damage-via-hepatocyte-glucocorticoid-receptor-from-bench-to-bedside
#20
Shoichi Kageyama, Kojiro Nakamura, Takehiro Fujii, Bibo Ke, Rebecca A Sosa, Elaine F Reed, Nakul Datta, Ali Zarrinpar, Ronald W Busuttil, Jerzy W Kupiec-Weglinski
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) represents a major risk factor of early graft dysfunction and acute/chronic rejection as well as a key obstacle to expanding the donor pool in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). Although glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling may enhance cytoprotective programs, clinical use of glucocorticoid is limited due to adverse effects, while clinical relevance of GR-facilitated cytoprotection in OLT remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the significance of hepatic GR in clinical OLT and verify the impact of recombinant human relaxin (rhRLX), which may function as GR agonist in tissue/disease-specific manner...
January 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
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