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Olive oil

Marina Aparicio-Soto, Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo, Ma Ángeles Rosillo, Ma Luisa Castejón, Catalina Alarcón-de-la-Lastra
Nowadays, it is clear that an unhealthy diet is one of the prime factors that contributes to the rise of inflammatory diseases and autoimmunity in the populations of both developed and developing countries. The Mediterranean diet has been associated with a reduced incidence of certain pathologies related to chronic inflammation and the immune system. Olive oil, the principal source of dietary lipids of the Mediterranean diet, possesses a high nutritional quality and a particular composition, which is especially relevant in the case of Extra Virgin Olive Oil (EVOO)...
October 26, 2016: Food & Function
Min-Ju Seo, Woo-Ri Kang, Kyung-Chul Shin, Deok-Kun Oh
The reaction conditions for the production of 7S,8S-dihydroxy-9,12(Z,Z)-octadecadienoic acid from linoleic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli expressing 7,8-linoleate diol synthase from Glomerella cingulata were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimal reaction conditions were pH 7.0, 18.6 °C, 10.8% (v/v) dimethyl sulfoxide, 44.9 g/L cells, and 14.3 g/L linoleic acid, with agitation at 256 rpm. Under these conditions, recombinant cells produced 7,8-dihydroxy unsaturated fatty acids in the range of 7...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Irsa Tahir, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Naseer Ali Shah, Maryam Aftab
BACKGROUND: In the present study the antioxidant potential of a methanol extract of Phyllanthus emblica leaves (PELE) was determined by in vitro methods as well as by an in vivo animal model, along with HPLC-DAD screening for phyto-constituents. METHODS: The in vitro antioxidant potential of PELE was assessed by scavenging of DPPH, nitric oxide and anti-lipid peroxidation assays. For in vivo evaluation, a 60-day experimental plan was followed in which Sprague Dawley rats were administered with 1 mL/kg of CCl4 (CCl4 : DMSO + Olive oil; 30 % v/v) alone or with different doses of PELE (200, 400 mg/kg p...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Tahira Younis, Muhammad Rashid Khan, Moniba Sajid
BACKGROUND: Leaves and root bark of Fraxinus xanthoxyloides Wall. (Oleaceae) are used locally for the treatment of jaundice, malaria and pneumonia. Decoction of stem, twigs and bark is used in pain, internal injuries, rheumatism and in bone fracture. In this investigation we have evaluated the methanol extract of leaves for its hepatoprotective potential against CCl4 induced hepatic injuries in rat. METHODS: Powder of F. xanthoxyloides leaves was extracted with methanol (FXM) and subjected for the determination of polyphenolics through HPLC-DAD analysis...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
A Michalsen, O Eddin, A Salama
The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a specific composition of a traditional herbal preparation (DurrDerma) in adult patients with moderate to severe skin psoriasis. The preparation is a newly developed topical combination containing plant-based extracts traditionally used in skin disease as black cumin, olive oil, tea tree oil, cocoa butter completed by vitamin A and vitamin B12. We documented the effectiveness of the preparation in a first case series. A total of 12 patients (8 males and 4 females, 21-86 y) with manifest and treatment-resistant psoriasis were included and treated for 12 weeks...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
Sara Biel, Maria-Dolores Mesa, Rafael de la Torre, Juan-Antonio Espejo, Jose-Ramón Fernández-Navarro, Montserrat Fitó, Estefanía Sánchez-Rodriguez, Carmen Rosa, Rosa Marchal, Juan de Dios Alche, Manuela Expósito, Manuel Brenes, Beatriz Gandul, Miguel Angel Calleja, María-Isabel Covas
BACKGROUND: Virgin olive oil, a recognized healthy food, cannot be consumed in great quantities. We aim to assess in humans whether an optimized virgin olive oil with high phenolic content (OVOO, 429 mg/Kg) and a functional one (FOO), both rich in phenolic compounds (429 mg/Kg) and triterpenic acids (389 mg/kg), could provide health benefits additional to those supplied a by a standard virgin olive oil (VOO). METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled study will be conducted...
October 22, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Lijuan Sun, Kevin Wei Jie Tan, Joseph Zhien Lim, Faidon Magkos, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
PURPOSE: The magnitude of postprandial lipemia is influenced not only by the amount but also the type of fat and carbohydrate consumed. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in postprandial glucose and lipid responses after a mixed meal containing low- or high-glycemic-index (GI) carbohydrate and three different types of fat varying in the degree of saturation in healthy subjects. METHODS: A randomized, controlled, single-blinded crossover study was conducted in 20 healthy Chinese men...
October 21, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
M Antonietta Baldo, Paolo Oliveri, Remo Simonetti, Salvatore Daniele
In this paper, a novel voltammetric/amperometric approach for the direct determination of free acidity (FFA, expressed as mass percentage of free oleic acid) in olive oil samples is presented. The method is based on the reduction processes occurring at a platinum microdisk electrode involving the free fatty acids present in the matrices. To overcome problems related to the low conductivity of the samples investigated, olive oils were mixed with suitable amounts of the room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL), tri-hexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([P14,6,6,6](+)[NTf2](-)), which acted as a supporting electrolyte...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Regina Aroca-Santos, John C Cancilla, Enrique S Pariente, José S Torrecilla
The identification and quantification of binary blends of refined olive oil with four different extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varietals (Picual, Cornicabra, Hojiblanca and Arbequina) was carried out with a simple method based on combining visible spectroscopy and non-linear artificial neural networks (ANNs). The data obtained from the spectroscopic analysis was treated and prepared to be used as independent variables for a multilayer perceptron (MLP) model. The model was able to perfectly classify the EVOO varietal (100% identification rate), whereas the error for the quantification of EVOO in the mixtures containing between 0% and 20% of refined olive oil, in terms of the mean prediction error (MPE), was 2...
December 1, 2016: Talanta
Fátima Rubio-Senent, Juan Fernández-Bolaños, Aránzazu García-Borrego, Antonio Lama-Muñoz, Guillermo Rodríguez-Gutiérrez
The application of a novel industrial process based on the hydrothermal treatment of olive oil waste (alperujo) led to a final liquid phase that contained a high concentration of simple phenolic compounds. In this study the effect of pH on phenol extraction with ethyl acetate from the aqueous phase of hydrothermally treated alperujo at 160°C/60min (without modification, pH 4.5, and adjusted to pH 2.5) was evaluated, beside the increase of hydroxytyrosol during the storage. The variation of the concentration of phenolic compounds in each extract was analyzed by HPLC...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Maria Gabriella Di Serio, Lucia Giansante, Giuseppina Di Loreto, Angelo Faberi, Lorenzo Ricchetti, Luciana Di Giacinto
The quality and genuineness of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) were assessed following the methods and parameters of EU Commission Regulation N° 2568/91/EEC and subsequent modifications, which also set specific limits for fatty-acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study included a subset of EVOOs from among 399 samples analysed as part of a monitoring study for FAEEs in EVOOs. The subset was subjected to statistical evaluation to quantify the relationships between FAEE content and sensory defects associated with fermentation: fusty/muddy sediment, musty/humid/earthy, and winey/vinegary...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Lorenzo Cecchi, Marzia Innocenti, Fabrizio Melani, Marzia Migliorini, Lanfranco Conte, Nadia Mulinacci
Herein we describe the influence of olive oil refining processes on the lignan profile. The detection of new isobaric lignans is suggested to reveal frauds in commercial extra-Virgin Olive Oils. We analyzed five commercial olive oils by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS to evaluate their lignan content and detected, for the first time, some isobaric forms of natural (+)-pinoresinol and (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol. Then we analyzed partially and fully-refined oils from Italy, Tunisia and Spain. The isobaric forms occur only during the bleaching step of the refining process and remain unaltered after the final deodorizing step...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Giulio Binetti, Laura Del Coco, Rosa Ragone, Samanta Zelasco, Enzo Perri, Cinzia Montemurro, Raffaele Valentini, David Naso, Francesco Paolo Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo Schena
The development of an efficient and accurate method for extra-virgin olive oils cultivar and origin authentication is complicated by the broad range of variables (e.g., multiplicity of varieties, pedo-climatic aspects, production and storage conditions) influencing their properties. In this study, artificial neural networks (ANNs) were applied on several analytical datasets, namely standard merceological parameters, near-infra red data and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fingerprints, obtained on mono-cultivar olive oils of four representative Apulian varieties (Coratina, Ogliarola, Cima di Mola, Peranzana)...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
F Mashayekhi, Z Salehi
In the central nervous system (CNS) the main proteins of myelin are proteolipid protein (PLP), myelin basic protein (MBP), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) and CNPase. Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein is a minor component of the myelin sheath, but is an important autoantigen linked to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). CNPase is expressed exclusively by oligodendrocytes in the CNS, and the appearance of CNPase seems to be one of the earliest events of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Reyna Del C Lara-Severino, Miguel A Camacho-López, Edgar Casanova-González, Leobardo M Gómez-Oliván, Ángel H Sandoval-Trujillo, Keila Isaac-Olivé, Ninfa Ramírez-Durán
The use of native strains of microorganisms from soils is an excellent option for bioremediation. To our knowledge, until now there has been no other group working on the isolation of Actinobacteria from contaminated soils in Mexico. In this study, samples of soils close to areas with oil activity in the State of Veracruz, Mexico, were inoculated for the isolation of Actinobacteria. The strains isolated were characterized morphologically, and the concentrations of NaCl and pH were determined for optimal growth...
March 2016: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Fiorella Casamenti, Massimo Stefani
Clinical trials and population studies indicate the healthy virtues of the Mediterranean diet and its main lipid component, extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). Olive leaves and EVOO contain many phenolics effective against several aging and lifestyle-related diseases, including neurodegeneration, both in animal models and in humans. Recent research has shown that such protection stems from several effects, including (i.) the interference with the aggregation of peptides/proteins found in amyloid diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases; (ii...
October 20, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Noelle Merchak, Virginie Silvestre, Denis Loquet, Toufic Rizk, Serge Akoka, Joseph Bejjani
Triacylglycerols, which are quasi-universal components of food matrices, consist of complex mixtures of molecules. Their site-specific (13)C content, their fatty acid profile, and their position on the glycerol moiety may significantly vary with the geographical, botanical, or animal origin of the sample. Such variables are valuable tracers for food authentication issues. The main objective of this work was to develop a new method based on a rapid and precise (13)C-NMR spectroscopy (using a polarization transfer technique) coupled with multivariate linear regression analyses in order to quantify the whole set of individual fatty acids within triacylglycerols...
October 19, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Babak Nakhostin-Roohi, Faegheh Khoshkhahesh, Shahab Bohlooli
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31), piroxicam (n=31) or base gel phonophoresis (n=31) groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions...
September 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Sibghatullah Muhammad Ali Sangi
BACKGROUND: Since long high fat diet (HFD) is being blamed for causing fatty degeneration of liver and formation of atheromatous plaques. At present, no proper pharmacotherapy is available for both the conditions. In this study, different substances containing monounsaturated fatty acids were used to observe their protective effects in the HFD induced damage to liver and coronary vessels. OBJECTIVES: To discover effective therapeutic agents for HFD induced fatty degeneration of liver and atheromatous plaques...
July 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Oliver R Wearn, Chris Carbone, J Marcus Rowcliffe, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers
Diversity responses to land-use change are poorly understood at local scales, hindering our ability to make forecasts and management recommendations at scales which are of practical relevance. A key barrier in this has been the underappreciation of grain-dependent diversity responses and the role that β-diversity (variation in community composition across space) plays in this. Decisions about the most effective spatial arrangement of conservation set-aside, for example high conservation value areas, have also neglected β-diversity, despite its role in determining the complementarity of sites...
July 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
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