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Acid-basis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184595/hyperosmosis-and-its-combination-with-nutrient-limitation-are-novel-environmental-stressors-for-induction-of-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-cells-of-chlorella-kessleri
#1
Kazuho Hirai, Taihei Hayashi, Yuri Hasegawa, Atsushi Sato, Mikio Tsuzuki, Norihiro Sato
Triacylglycerols of oleaginous algae are promising for production of food oils and biodiesel fuel. Air-drying of cells induces triacylglycerol accumulation in a freshwater green alga, Chlorella kessleri, therefore, it seems that dehydration, i.e., intracellular hyperosmosis, and/or nutrient-limitation are key stressors. We explored this possibility in liquid-culturing C. kessleri cells. Strong hyperosmosis with 0.9 M sorbitol or 0.45 M NaCl for two days caused cells to increase the triacylglycerol content in total lipids from 1...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26954211/performance-of-broiler-chickens-fed-low-protein-limiting-amino-acid-supplemented-diets-formulated-either-on-total-or-standardized-ileal-digestible-amino-acid-basis
#2
Basavanta Kumar C, Gideon Gloridoss R, Chandrapal Singh K, Prabhu T M, Suresh B N
The aim of present experiment was to investigate the effect of protein reduction in commercial broiler chicken rations with incorporation of de-oiled rice bran (DORB) and supplementation of limiting amino acids (valine, isoleucine and/or tryptophan) with ration formulation either on total amino acid (TAA) or standardized ileal digestible amino acids (SIDAA). The experimental design consisted of T1-TAA control; T2 & T3-0.75% and 1.5% protein reduction by 3% and 6% DORB incorporation, respectively by replacing soybean meal with supplemental limiting amino acids to meet TAA requirement; T4-SIDAA control, T5 & T6-0...
January 29, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25973864/learning-sequence-determinants-of-protein-protein-interaction-specificity-with-sparse-graphical-models
#3
Hetunandan Kamisetty, Bornika Ghosh, Christopher James Langmead, Chris Bailey-Kellogg
In studying the strength and specificity of interaction between members of two protein families, key questions center on which pairs of possible partners actually interact, how well they interact, and why they interact while others do not. The advent of large-scale experimental studies of interactions between members of a target family and a diverse set of possible interaction partners offers the opportunity to address these questions. We develop here a method, DgSpi (data-driven graphical models of specificity in protein:protein interactions), for learning and using graphical models that explicitly represent the amino acid basis for interaction specificity (why) and extend earlier classification-oriented approaches (which) to predict the ΔG of binding (how well)...
June 2015: Journal of Computational Biology: a Journal of Computational Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25834247/the-response-of-meat-ducks-from-15-to-35-d-of-age-to-gossypol-from-cottonseed-meal
#4
Q F Zeng, P Bai, J P Wang, X M Ding, Y H Luo, S P Bai, Y Xuan, Z W Su, S Q Lin, L J Zhao, K Y Zhang
The objective of this study was to investigate the responses of meat ducks of 15 to 35 d of age to free gossypol (FG) from cottonseed meal (CSM) and to establish the maximum limits of dietary FG concentration based on growth performance, blood parameters, and tissue residues of gossypol. Nine hundred 15-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 10 cages/treatment and 18 ducks/cage on the basis of BW. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis to produce diets in which 0% (without FG), 25% (36 mg FG/kg), 50% (75 mg FG/kg), 75% (111 mg FG/kg), and 100% (153 mg FG/kg) of protein from soybean meal were replaced by that from CSM...
June 2015: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25414914/learning-sequence-determinants-of-protein-protein-interaction-specificity-with-sparse-graphical-models
#5
Hetunandan Kamisetty, Bornika Ghosh, Christopher James Langmead, Chris Bailey-Kellogg
In studying the strength and specificity of interaction between members of two protein families, key questions center on which pairs of possible partners actually interact, how well they interact, and why they interact while others do not. The advent of large-scale experimental studies of interactions between members of a target family and a diverse set of possible interaction partners offers the opportunity to address these questions. We develop here a method, DgSpi (Data-driven Graphical models of Specificity in Protein:protein Interactions), for learning and using graphical models that explicitly represent the amino acid basis for interaction specificity (why) and extend earlier classification-oriented approaches (which) to predict the ΔG of binding (how well)...
2014: Research in Computational Molecular Biology: ... Annual International Conference, RECOMB ...: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24902707/effects-of-dietary-gossypol-concentration-on-growth-performance-blood-profiles-and-hepatic-histopathology-in-meat-ducks
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Q F Zeng, G L Yang, G N Liu, J P Wang, S P Bai, X M Ding, Y H Luo, K Y Zhang
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of gossypol from cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth performance, blood biochemical profiles, and liver histopathology of ducks. A total of 900 1-d-old ducks were randomly allocated to 5 treatments with 12 pens/treatment and 15 ducks/pen. The 5 experimental diets were formulated in such a way that 0% (a corn-soybean meal basal diet, diet 1), 25% (diet 2), 50% (diet 3), 75% (diet 4), and 100% (diet 5) of protein from soybean meal were replaced with that from CSM...
August 2014: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24426002/development-of-omega-3-rich-energy-bar-with-flaxseed
#7
D Mridula, K K Singh, P Barnwal
Energy bar sample were prepared with different levels of flaxseed (0-20%) in addition to cereals and pulses with varying levels of sweeteners (45, 50, and 55%) to deliver a nutritious food to the consumer. The developed bars were evaluated for textural, colour, nutritional quality, sensory attributes and total microbial load. Different levels of flaxseed and sweeteners significantly affected the hue and chroma values of the energy bar. In general the level of flaxseed in energy bar did not affect the hardness but it was decreased with increasing level of sweeteners except in control sample...
October 2013: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24337111/detailed-identification-of-fatty-acid-isomers-sheds-light-on-the-probable-precursors-of-triacylglycerol-accumulation-in-photoautotrophically-grown-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#8
Kenta Sakurai, Takashi Moriyama, Naoki Sato
Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a model alga for studying triacylglycerol (TAG) accumulation in the photosynthetic production of biofuel. Previous studies were conducted under photoheterotrophic growth conditions in medium supplemented with acetate and/or ammonium. We wanted to demonstrate TAG accumulation under truly photoautotrophic conditions without reduced elements. We first reidentified all lipid components and fatty acids by mass spectrometry, because the currently used identification knowledge relies on data obtained in the 1980s...
February 2014: Eukaryotic Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21929469/the-application-of-the-ozonation-electrocoagulation-treatment-process-of-the-boat-pressure-washing-wastewater
#9
Visnja Orescanin, Robert Kollar, Karlo Nad
This paper provides the information on the optimum conditions of the treatment process of the boat pressure washing wastewater (BPWW) by the combination of the ozonation and electrochemical (EC) methods developed on the laboratory and pilot plant scale. The initial effluent was highly enriched in heavy metals and elevated levels of organic contaminants. The concentrations of V, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, TOC, and COD exceeded the upper permissible limits of 22, 20, 6, 112, 17, 4, and 2 times, respectively. The main mechanisms of the organic matter destruction were the ozone oxidation and the indirect oxidation with chlorine/hypochlorite formed by the anodic oxidation of chloride already present in the wastewater...
2011: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21798701/effects-of-intracellular-acidosis-on-endothelial-function-an-overview
#10
REVIEW
Ettore Crimi, Fabio Silvio Taccone, Teresa Infante, Sabino Scolletta, Valeria Crudele, Claudio Napoli
The endothelium represents the largest functional organ in the human body playing an active role in vasoregulation, coagulation, inflammation, and microvascular permeability. Endothelium contributes to maintain vascular integrity, intravascular volume, and tissue oxygenation promoting inflammatory network response for local defense and repair. Acid-basis homeostasis is an important physiologic parameter that controls cell function, and changes in pH can influence vascular tone by regulating endothelium and vascular smooth muscle cells...
April 2012: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21753211/factors-affecting-endogenous-amino-acid-flow-in-chickens-and-the-need-for-consistency-in-methodology
#11
REVIEW
S A Adedokun, O Adeola, C M Parsons, M S Lilburn, T J Applegate
Accurate estimation of ileal endogenous amino acid (EAA) losses is important when formulating diets on a standardized ileal digestible amino acid basis. In addition to the undigested and unabsorbed amino acids of dietary origin, amino acids of endogenous origin, which can be basal or diet specific, are found in digesta. The improvement in the techniques used in amino acid analysis as well as a shift from sampling excreta to ileal digesta has resulted in more accurate amino acid digestibility coefficients. Despite this, however, it is important to determine the amino acids in the digesta that are of endogenous origin...
August 2011: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19086597/effect-of-energy-levels-of-diets-formulated-on-total-and-digestible-amino-acid-basis-on-performance-of-female-broiler
#12
Marziyeh Ghafari, M Shivazad, M Zaghari
In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of energy and method for formulation of Amino Acid (AA) requirements of diets, this experiment was conducted using 294 female broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out using a complete block design with a 7x2 factorial arrangement. Factors were included different levels of energy (7 energy levels) and formulation methods of diets AA requirements (total and digestible). Results showed that feed consumption decreased by increasing level of energy. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were promoted by increasing level of energy...
December 1, 2007: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18495639/identification-and-characterization-of-a-plastid-localized-arabidopsis-glyoxylate-reductase-isoform-comparison-with-a-cytosolic-isoform-and-implications-for-cellular-redox-homeostasis-and-aldehyde-detoxification
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Jeffrey P Simpson, Rosa Di Leo, Preetinder K Dhanoa, Wendy L Allan, Amina Makhmoudova, Shawn M Clark, Gordon J Hoover, Robert T Mullen, Barry J Shelp
Enzymes that reduce the aldehyde chemical grouping (i.e. H-C=O) to its corresponding alcohol could be crucial in maintaining plant health. Recently, recombinant expression of a cytosolic enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh (designated as glyoxylate reductase 1 or AtGR1) revealed that it effectively catalyses the in vitro reduction of both glyoxylate and succinic semialdehyde (SSA). In this paper, web-based bioinformatics tools revealed a second putative GR cDNA (GenBank Accession No. AAP42747; designated herein as AtGR2) that is 57% identical on an amino acid basis to GR1...
2008: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18226881/cation-exchange-resins-as-pharmaceutical-carriers-for-methylene-blue-binding-and-release
#14
Felix Gut, Wolfgang Schiek, Walter E Haefeli, Ingeborg Walter-Sack, Jürgen Burhenne
Methylene blue is a competitive inhibitor of the glutathione reductase of Plasmodium falciparum and is used in combination with other antimalarial drugs leading to a renaissance of methylene blue in malaria therapy. Its bitter flavour and tissue colouring property impair compliance, especially in children. These problems may be solved by binding the cationic methylene blue to cation exchange materials as pharmaceutical carriers in order to mask the undesirable properties. However, such carriers are only useful if the antimalarial is released under physiological conditions...
June 2008: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17626818/effects-of-dietary-fiber-and-reduced-crude-protein-on-nitrogen-balance-and-egg-production-in-laying-hens
#15
S A Roberts, H Xin, B J Kerr, J R Russell, K Bregendahl
Ammonia emission is a major concern for the poultry industry and can be lowered by dietary inclusion of fibrous ingredients and by lowering the dietary CP content. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of dietary fiber and reduced-CP diets, which may lower NH(3) emission, on egg production and N balance in laying hens. A total of 256 Hy-Line W-36 hens were fed diets with 2 contents of CP (normal and reduced) and 4 fiber treatments in a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement from 23 to 58 wk of age...
August 2007: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17626814/comparison-of-ileal-endogenous-amino-acid-flows-in-broiler-chicks-and-turkey-poults
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
S A Adedokun, C M Parsons, M S Lilburn, O Adeola, T J Applegate
Ileal endogenous amino acid (IEAA) and total amino acid (TAA) flow (mg/kg of DM intake) in turkey poults and broiler chicks at 3 ages (5, 15, and 21 d) were compared by feeding a N-free diet (NFD) or graded levels of casein (highly digestible protein, HDP). The semipurified diets contained 0 (NFD), 50, 100, or 150 g of casein/kg of diet as the only source of amino acids. Each diet was fed to 6 replicate cages containing 30 (5 d), 10 (15 d), or 8 (21 d) birds per cage for 5 d prior to the collection of ileal digesta...
August 2007: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15839435/a-goose-sourced-paramyxovirus-isolated-from-southern-china
#17
Chen Jinding, Liao Ming, Ren Tao, Xin Chaoan
We report the isolation and characterization of a paramyxovirus from geese in South China during 1997. The isolate, designated as goose paramyxovirus/QingYuan 1997-1 (GPMV/QY97-1), showed pathogenicity to geese and could agglutinate chicken erythrocytes. Its hemagglutinating activity was inhibited by antiavian paramyxovirus serotype 1 (APMV-1) serum. The F gene of isolate was amplified by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and sequence analysis proved that its sequence conformed to that reported in the literature, encoding an F0 protein of 553 amino acids with 13 cysteine residues and 6 potential glycosylation sites...
March 2005: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/15006368/dual-surface-selection-methodology-for-the-identification-of-thrombin-binding-epitopes-from-hotspot-biased-phage-display-libraries
#18
Srivats Rajagopal, Roberto Meza-Romero, Indraneel Ghosh
Protein libraries biased towards amino-acid residues found at so-called 'hotspots' were incorporated into the beta-sheet region of the thermostable variant (HTB1) of the B1 domain of the immunoglobulin (IgG) binding protein G and expressed as gene 3 fusions on M13 bacteriophage. The HTB1 library (2.2 x 10(9)) variants with a minimal 12 amino acid basis set were selected for binding IgG, to ensure structural conservation, and subsequently to thrombin to evolve a thrombin-binding function. We believe that this dual surface selection strategy will have great utility in evolving new bi-functional proteins without compromising structure...
March 22, 2004: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12637002/novel-protease-produced-by-a-pasteurella-trehalosi-serotype-10-isolate-from-a-pneumonic-bighorn-sheep-characteristics-and-potential-relevance-to-protection
#19
Heather J McNeil, Patricia E Shewen, Reggie Y C Lo, Jennifer A Conlon, Michael W Miller
A strain of Pasteurella trehalosi serotype 10, E(CO)-100, isolated from a bighorn sheep that had succumbed to pneumonic pasteurellosis during an epizootic, was compared to well-characterized strains of P. trehalosi serotype 10 and Mannheimia haemolytica serotype 1. The gene for leukotoxin A (lktA) from E(CO)-100 was sequenced and found to be identical on an amino acid basis to a published sequence for lktA from P. trehalosi serotype 10. However, the toxic activity in culture supernatant measured over time for E(CO)-100 was quite different from reference strains...
May 19, 2003: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12211384/dietary-lysine-and-threonine-requirements-of-the-pregnant-sow-estimated-by-nitrogen-balance
#20
J Y Dourmad, M Etienne
Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine and threonine requirements of gestating sows. In the first experiment, four levels of lysine (0.34,0.42,0.48, and 0.56% crude lysine, and 0.24,0.31, 0.38, and 0.45% standardized ileal digestible lysine) were compared in eight multiparous Large White sows. Each sow received successively the four diets according to a Latin-square experimental design. Nitrogen balance was measured over 11 d after a 10-d period of adaptation to the experimental diet. In the second experiment, four threonine/lysine ratios (0...
August 2002: Journal of Animal Science
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