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Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346350/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-crohn-s-disease
#1
REVIEW
H Jiang, J Shen, Z Ran
Crohn's disease (CD) is often accompanied by the complications of intestinal strictures and fistulas. These complications remain obstacles in CD treatment. In recent years, the importance of epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the pathogenesis of CD-associated fistulas and intestinal fibrosis has become apparent. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition refers to a dynamic change, wherein epithelial cells lose their polarity and adherence and acquire migratory function and fibroblast features. During formation of CD-associated fistulas, intestinal epithelial cells dislocate from the basement membrane and migrate to the lining of the fistula tracts, where they convert into transitional cells as a compensatory response under the insufficient wound healing condition...
December 20, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345394/viruses-as-key-modulators-of-the-tgf-%C3%AE-pathway-a-double-edged-sword-involved-in-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Habibollah Mirzaei, Ebrahim Faghihloo
Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway is a key network in cell signaling that controls vital processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and migration, thus acting as a double-edged sword in normal development and diseases, in particular organ fibrosis, vascular disorders, and cancer. Early in tumorigenesis, the pathway exerts anti-tumor effects through suppressing cell cycle and inducing apoptosis, while during late stages, it functions as a tumor promoter by enhancing tumor invasiveness and metastasis...
January 18, 2018: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344125/mir-145-5p-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-jnk-signaling-pathway-by-targeting-map3k1-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#3
Yongmei Chang, Wensen Yan, Cong Sun, Qingfeng Liu, Jun Wang, Mingzhi Wang
Lung cancer is one of the most common types of tumors and the leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. Additionally, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for ~80% of all lung cancer cases. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important cell biological process, which is associated with cancer migration, metastasis, asthma and fibrosis in the lung. In the present study, it was revealed that miR-145-5p was able to suppress EMT by inactivating the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway in NSCLC cells...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341864/comparison-of-acute-kidney-injury-of-different-aetiology-reveals-in-common-mechanisms-of-tissue-damage
#4
Michael Hultström, Mediha Becirovic-Agic, Sofia Jönsson
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a syndrome of reduced glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and urine production caused by a number of different diseases. It is associated with renal tissue damage. This tissue damage can cause tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis that leads to nephron loss and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This review describes the in-common mechanisms behind tissue damage in AKI caused by different underlying diseases. Comparing six high-quality microarray studies of renal gene expression after AKI in disease models (gram-negative sepsis, gram-positive sepsis, ischemia-reperfusion, malignant hypertension, rhabdomyolysis and cisplatin toxicity) identified 5254 differentially expressed genes in at least one of the AKI models...
December 20, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337256/microrna-regulatory-networks-reflective-of-polyhexamethylene-guanidine-phosphate-induced-fibrosis-in-a549-human-alveolar-adenocarcinoma-cells
#5
Da Young Shin, Mi Ho Jeong, In Jae Bang, Ha Ryong Kim, Kyu Hyuck Chung
Polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG-phosphate), an active component of humidifier disinfectant, is suspected to be a major cause of pulmonary fibrosis. Fibrosis, induced by recurrent epithelial damage, is significantly affected by epigenetic regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs). The aim of this study was to investigate the fibrogenic mechanisms of PHMG-phosphate through the profiling of miRNAs and their target genes. A549 cells were treated with 0.75 μg/mL PHMG-phosphate for 24 and 48 h and miRNA microarray expression analysis was conducted...
January 11, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336056/ilei-is-an-important-intermediate-participating-in-the-formation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-1-induced-renal-tubular-emt
#6
Xing Zhao, Gang Luo, Yan Fan, Xiaoxue Ma, Jieqing Zhou, Hong Jiang
Renal interstitial fibrosis is the most common process by which chronic kidney diseases progress to end-stage renal failure. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transitions (EMTs) play a crucial role in the progression of renal interstitial fibrosis. A newly identified cytokine, interleukin-like EMT inducer (ILEI), has been linked to EMT in some diseases. However, the effects of ILEI on renal tubular EMT have not yet been well established. Here, we characterize the expression of ILEI in tubular EMT and describe the role and mechanism of ILEI in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1)-induced renal tubular EMT...
January 15, 2018: Cell Biochemistry and Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329595/human-umbilical-cord-mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-attenuates-renal-fibrosis-by-reducing-inflammation-and-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-via-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#7
Bo Liu, Fengxia Ding, Dong Hu, Yu Zhou, Chunlan Long, Lianju Shen, Yuanyuan Zhang, Deying Zhang, Guanghui Wei
BACKGROUND: Renal fibrosis is characterized by infiltration of interstitial inflammatory cells and release of inflammatory mediators, activation and proliferation of fibroblasts, and deposition of excessive extracellular matrix (ECM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hucMSC) conditioned medium (CM) on renal tubulointerstitial inflammation and fibrosis. METHODS: Renal interstitial fibrosis was prepared in vivo using the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)...
January 12, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305973/peroxidasin-is-regulated-by-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-master-transcription-factor-snai1
#8
Boitumelo Nonhlanhla Sitole, Demetra Mavri-Damelin
Peroxidasin (PXDN), an ECM protein with peroxidase activity, is integral to basement membrane consolidation through catalysis of sulfilimine bonds in collagen IV. PXDN is also involved in processes where epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) takes place, namely fibrosis, development and cancer. We therefore investigated whether PXDN is regulated by the EMT-master-regulator, Snai1. During TGF-β1-induced EMT, PXDN expression decreased by up to 47% in two cervical-carcinoma cell lines, with concomitant increases in Snai1 and vimentin, and decrease in E-cadherin...
January 3, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301325/extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy-alters-the-expression-of-fibrosis-related-molecules-in-fibroblast-derived-from-human-hypertrophic-scar
#9
Hui Song Cui, A Ram Hong, June-Bum Kim, Joo Hyang Yu, Yoon Soo Cho, So Young Joo, Cheong Hoon Seo
Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) considerably improves the appearance and symptoms of post-burn hypertrophic scars (HTS). However, the mechanism underlying the observed beneficial effects is not well understood. The objective of this study was to elucidate the mechanism underlying changes in cellular and molecular biology that is induced by ESWT of fibroblasts derived from scar tissue (HTSFs). We cultured primary dermal fibroblasts derived from human HTS and exposed these cells to 1000 impulses of 0...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290941/eucalyptol-ameliorates-snail1-%C3%AE-catenin-dependent-diabetic-disjunction-of-renal-tubular-epithelial-cells-and-tubulointerstitial-fibrosis
#10
Dong Yeon Kim, Min-Kyung Kang, Sin-Hye Park, Eun-Jung Lee, Yun-Ho Kim, Hyeongjoo Oh, Yean-Jung Choi, Young-Hee Kang
Renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis is an important event in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Under pathologic conditions, renal tubular epithelial cells undergo transition characterized by loss of cell-cell adhesion and increased cell migration. This study investigated that eucalyptol inhibited tubular epithelial cell disjunction and tubulointerstitial fibrosis stimulated by glucose. Human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells were incubated for up to 72 h in media containing 27.5 mM mannitol as osmotic controls or 33 mM glucose in the presence of 1-20 μM eucalyptol...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290631/emodin-attenuates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-via-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-oxidative-activities-in-rats
#11
Sheng-Lan Tian, Yang Yang, Xiao-Liu Liu, Qing-Bang Xu
BACKGROUND Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) can severely damage lung function, which may result in death. Emodin is a major ingredient of rhubarb and has been proven to protect against lung disruptions. Our study focused on the potential medicinal effect of emodin against IPF. MATERIAL AND METHODS The experiment subjects were fully-grown male Sprague-Dawley rats with average weight of 180-220 kg. Histological analyses, Western blotting analysis, quantitative real-time PCR, and statistical analysis were used in the study...
January 1, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286071/molecular-regulation-of-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-tumorigenesis-review
#12
Henrieta Škovierová, Terézia Okajčeková, Ján Strnádel, Eva Vidomanová, Erika Halašová
Numerous studies over the past two decades have focused on the epithelial‑to‑mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its role in the development of metastasis. Certain studies highlighted the importance of EMT in the dissemination of tumor cells and metastasis of epithelium‑derived carcinomas. Tumor metastasis is a multistep process during which tumor cells change their morphology, and start to migrate and invade distant sites. The present review discusses the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms contributing to EMT in embryogenesis, fibrosis and tumorigenesis...
December 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285425/active-maintenance-of-endothelial-cells-prevents-kidney-fibrosis
#13
Seung Hee Yang, Yong Chul Kim, Jung Nam An, Jin Hyuk Kim, Juhoh Lee, Hee-Yoon Lee, Joo-Youn Cho, Jin Ho Paik, Yun Kyu Oh, Chun Soo Lim, Yon Su Kim, Jung Pyo Lee
Background: Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) expressed by endothelial cells catalyzes the metabolism of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are vasoactive agents. Methods: We used a unilateral ureteral obstruction mouse model of kidney fibrosis to determine whether inhibition of sEH activity reduces fibrosis, the final common pathway for chronic kidney disease. Results: sEH activity was inhibited by continuous release of the inhibitor 12-(3-adamantan-1-ylureido)-dodecanoic acid (AUDA) for 1 or 2 weeks...
December 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285255/agrin-para-secreted-by-pdgf-activated-human-hepatic-stellate-cells-promotes-hepatocarcinogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#14
Xing Lv, Cheng Fang, Ruozhe Yin, Bowei Qiao, Runze Shang, Jianlin Wang, Wenjie Song, Yong He, Yong Chen
Evaluating the process and mechanism of fibrogenesis is essential in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially in hepatocyte transformation and oncogenic signaling. We evaluated the oncogenic role of agrin secreted by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced hepatic stellate cell (HSC) in HCC. Cells were co-cultured to investigate the effect of activated HSC on hepatocytes. Liquid chromatography and protein profiling analysis were used to search the distinct proteins secreted in HSC supernatant. Sprague Dawley rats with Diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC were used to simulate human liver cancer and sorafenib was administered to investigate its effect on hepatocarcinogenesis...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278701/gentiopicroside-ameliorates-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis-in-mice-via-inhibiting-inflammatory-and-fibrotic-process
#15
Cheng Chen, Yong-Yan Wang, Ying-Xia Wang, Meng-Qun Cheng, Jian-Bing Yin, Xuan Zhang, Zhi-Peng Hong
Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a chronic and ultimately fatal interstitial lung disease of various causes. The advent of nintedanib and pirfenidone provides treatment options for PF patients for the first time. However, the adverse effects of the two drugs such as gastrointestinal disorders and hepatic dysfunction often lead to treatment discontinuation. Gentiopicroside (GPS) is a natural secoiridoid glycoside from gentian species of medicinal plants, and has a variety of pharmacological activities, including hepatoprotective and cholagogic, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, and smooth muscle relaxing activities...
December 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277613/hypoxia-induced-activation-of-twist-mir-214-e-cadherin-axis-promotes-renal-tubular-epithelial-cell-mesenchymal-transition-and-renal-fibrosis
#16
Minna Liu, Limin Liu, Ming Bai, Lei Zhang, Feng Ma, Xiaoxia Yang, Shiren Sun
The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by chronic hypoxia is one of the critical causes of renal fibrosis. Previous work reported that the transcription factors Twist plays an important role in hypoxia-induced EMT and renal fibrosis. Recent evidence indicates that miR-214 was regulated by Twist in many fibrotic diseases, but their role in hypoxia-induced EMT and renal fibrosis remains unknown. Here, we found that hypoxia significantly upregulated the expression of miR-214-3p in HK-2 cells, unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) nephropathy and patients with chronic kidney disease...
December 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258746/nlrp3-inflammasome-inhibition-attenuates-silica-induced-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-emt-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#17
Xiang Li, Xiaopei Yan, Yanli Wang, Jingjing Wang, Fang Zhou, Hong Wang, Weiping Xie, Hui Kong
Silicosis is an incurable and progressive lung disease characterized by chronic inflammation and fibroblasts accumulation. Studies have indicated a vital role for epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in fibroblasts accumulation. NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical mediator of inflammation in response to a wide range of stimuli (including silica particles), and plays an important role in many respiratory diseases. However, whether NLRP3 inflammasome regulates silica-induced EMT remains unknown. Our results showed that silica induced EMT in human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE cells) in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
December 16, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250977/microencapsulated-macrophages-releases-conditioned-medium-able-to-prevent-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#18
Anna Sola, Laura Saenz Del Burgo, Jesús Ciriza, Rosa Maria Hernandez, Gorka Orive, Jorge Martin Cordero, Priscila Calle, Jose Luis Pedraz, Georgina Hotter
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) has emerged as a key process in the development of renal fibrosis. In fact, EMT-derived fibroblasts contribute to the progression of chronic renal disease. In addition, anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages have exhibited a great influence on renal fibrosis. However, because of the high impact that the inputs of different environmental cytokines have on their phenotype, macrophages can easily lose this property. We aim to known if microencapsulated macrophages on M2-inducing alginate matrices could preserve macrophage phenotype and thus release factors able to act on epithelial cells to prevent the epithelial differentiation towards mesenchymal cells...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240250/microrna-139-5p-inhibits-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-fibrosis-in-post-menopausal-women-with-interstitial-cystitis-by-targeting-lpar4-via-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#19
Chen Jiang, Zhen Tong, Wei-Lin Fang, Qi-Bo Fu, Yin-Jun Gu, Ting-Ting Lv, Dong-Ming Liu, Wei Xue, Jian-Wei Lv
The study explores whether miR-139-5p targeting LPAR4 affects epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and fibrosis in post-menopausal women with interstitial cystitis (IC) via the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Bladder tissues of IC and normal bladder tissues were collected. The pathology of bladder tissues was observed by HE, Masson and Picrosirius red staining. LPAR4 positive expression rate were determined by IHC. ELISA was performed to detect the levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α. Rat IC models were randomized into seven different groups...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239766/fam13a-is-a-modifier-gene-of-cystic-fibrosis-lung-phenotype-regulating-rhoa-activity-actin-cytoskeleton-dynamics-and-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#20
Harriet Corvol, Nathalie Rousselet, Kristin E Thompson, Laura Berdah, Guillaume Cottin, Tobias Foussigniere, Elisabeth Longchampt, Laurence Fiette, Edouard Sage, Céline Prunier, Mitchell Drumm, Craig A Hodges, Pierre-Yves Boëlle, Loic Guillot
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease severity is highly variable and dependent on several factors including genetic modifiers. Family with sequence similarity 13 member A (FAM13A) has been previously associated with lung function in the general population as well as in several chronic lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we examined whether FAM13A is a modifier gene of CF lung phenotype. We also studied how FAM13A may contribute to the physiopathological mechanisms associated with CF...
November 24, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
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