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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777955/perspectives-and-limitations-for-nucleo-t-side-analogs-in-future-hbv-therapies
#1
REVIEW
Massimo Levrero, Miroslava Subic, Francois Villeret, Fabien Zoulim
The latest generation of nucleo(t)side analogs (NAs) provide robust virus suppression with high barrier to resistance. Long term NAs treatment is associated with a partial restoration in HBV-specific T-cell functions, regression of fibrosis, no disease progression and a reduction of HCC risk but rarely lead to cure and life-long treatments is often required. New insights into the hepatitis B viral life cycle and the host immune response have expanded the potential targets for drug therapies with interesting antiviral candidates and novel immunotherapeutic approaches in early stage development...
May 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775038/postinfectious-bronchiolitis-obliterans
#2
(no author information available yet)
La bronquiolitis obliterante es una enfermedad pulmonar crónica infrecuente y grave producto de una lesión del tracto respiratorio inferior. En nuestro país, es más frecuente observarla secundaria a una lesión viral grave, en especial, por adenovirus. La bronquiolitis obliterante se caracteriza por la oclusión parcial o total del lumen de los bronquiolos respiratorios y terminales por tejido inflamatorio y fibrosis, que produce la obstrucción crónica de la vía aérea. Este consenso discute el estado actual del conocimiento en las diferentes áreas de la bronquiolitis obliterante secundaria a una lesión infecciosa...
June 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774454/analysis-of-three-ultrasound-elastography-techniques-for-grading-liver-fibrosis-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#3
Xinping Ren, Shujun Xia, Zhongxin Ni, Weiwei Zhan, Jianqiao Zhou
BACKGROUND: Evaluation of liver fibrosis is important to assess prognosis and guide the treatment for chronic hepatitis B. OBJECTIVE: To analyze and compare transient, point, and two-dimensional (2D) shear wave elastography techniques in grading the liver fibrosis. METHODS: Based on the severity of liver inflammation and fibrosis (Scheuer criteria), 158 patients with chronic hepatitis B were assigned into group 1 (either G or S classification < 2) or group 2 (either G or S classification ≥ 2)...
May 17, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773081/long-term-familial-mediterranean-fever-remission-on-successful-hepatitis-c-virus-treatment-in-a-patient-not-responding-to-colchicine-a-case-report
#4
Manik Gemilyan, Gagik Hakobyan, Susanna Ananyan
BACKGROUND: Familial Mediterranean fever is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by periodic febrile attacks of aseptic serositis and/or arthritis. The main treatment is colchicine which prevents attacks in the majority of patients except for a group of colchicine-resistant cases. Chronic hepatitis C is a viral infection causing chronic inflammation of liver tissue (hepatitis) which ultimately progresses to fibrosis and liver cirrhosis with a high chance of hepatocellular carcinoma...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772420/the-search-for-biomarkers-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-and-the-impact-on-patient-outcome
#5
REVIEW
Alyson P Black, Anand S Mehta
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 5th most common cancer, but the 3rd leading cause of cancer death globally with approximately 700,000 fatalities annually. The severity of this cancer arises from its difficulty to detect and treat. The major etiologies of HCC are liver fibrosis or cirrhosis from chronic viral infections, as well as metabolic conditions. Since most cases arise from prior pathologies, biomarker surveillance in high-risk individuals is an essential approach for early detection and improved patient outcome...
May 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760414/fragment-derived-inhibitors-of-human-n-myristoyltransferase-block-capsid-assembly-and-replication-of-the-common-cold-virus
#6
Aurélie Mousnier, Andrew S Bell, Dawid P Swieboda, Julia Morales-Sanfrutos, Inmaculada Pérez-Dorado, James A Brannigan, Joseph Newman, Markus Ritzefeld, Jennie A Hutton, Anabel Guedán, Amin S Asfor, Sean W Robinson, Iva Hopkins-Navratilova, Anthony J Wilkinson, Sebastian L Johnston, Robin J Leatherbarrow, Tobias J Tuthill, Roberto Solari, Edward W Tate
Rhinoviruses (RVs) are the pathogens most often responsible for the common cold, and are a frequent cause of exacerbations in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Here we report the discovery of IMP-1088, a picomolar dual inhibitor of the human N-myristoyltransferases NMT1 and NMT2, and use it to demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of host-cell N-myristoylation rapidly and completely prevents rhinoviral replication without inducing cytotoxicity. The identification of cooperative binding between weak-binding fragments led to rapid inhibitor optimization through fragment reconstruction, structure-guided fragment linking and conformational control over linker geometry...
May 14, 2018: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743801/acute-exacerbation-to-autoimmune-hepatitis-mimicking-acute-viral-hepatitis-a-case-series-and-review-of-literature
#7
Sunil Taneja, Pramod Kumar, Suvradeep Mitra, Ajay Duseja, Ranjana Minz, Ashim Das, Radha K Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla
Background: Acute exacerbation of Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH) poses a significant challenge for diagnosis as it can mimic acute viral hepatitis especially in absence of autoantibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia. Aim: To determine the clinical, laboratory, histopathological characteristics and response to treatment in AIH patients with acute exacerbation. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 16 patients with acute exacerbation of AIH diagnosed over a period of eight years (2008-2016)...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743790/safety-and-efficacy-of-sofosbuvir-and-daclatasvir-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-patients-with-%C3%AE-thalassemia-major
#8
Rajiv Mehta, Mayank Kabrawala, Subhash Nandwani, Pankaj Desai, Vishwa Bhayani, Sanjay Patel, Viral Parekh
Background and Aims: β-thalassemia major patients are susceptible to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection owing to life-long dependency for blood-transfusion. Moreover, this patient population is at risk of progression of liver fibrosis or development of cirrhosis as a consequence of both iron overload and HCV infection. Hence, this study was carried out to evaluate efficacy and safety of the combination regimen of sofosbuvir and daclatasvir for HCV infection in β-thalassemia major patients...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740327/extracellular-vesicles-as-carriers-of-non-coding-rnas-in-liver-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Junfa Yang, Changyao Li, Lei Zhang, Xiao Wang
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small membranous vesicles secreted from normal, diseased, and transformed cells in vitro and in vivo . EVs have been found to play a critical role in cell-to-cell communication by transferring non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs (miRNAs), long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) and so on. Emerging evidence shows that transferring biological information through EVs to neighboring cells in intercellular communication not only keep physiological functions, but also participate in the pathogenesis of liver diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739341/hbv-and-hiv-viral-load-but-not-microbial-translocation-or-immune-activation-are-associated-with-liver-fibrosis-among-patients-in-south-africa
#10
Tongai Gibson Maponga, Monique I Andersson, Christoffel J van Rensburg, Joop E Arends, Jantjie Taljaard, Wolfgang Preiser, Richard H Glashoff
BACKGROUND: Co-infection with HIV negatively impacts the progression of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, including causing rapid progression to liver fibrosis. Sub-Saharan Africa represents arguably the most important intersection of high endemicity of both chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and HIV infection. METHODS: We recruited 46 HBV/HIV-co-infected; 47 HBV-monoinfected; 39 HIV-monoinfected; and 37 HBV/HIV-uninfected patients from Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa...
May 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722445/review-article-the-prevention-of-hepatitis-b-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
REVIEW
C-L Lin, J-H Kao
BACKGROUND: Ample evidence indicates an aetiological association of persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Several viral, host and external risk factors for the development of HBV-related HCC have been documented. AIMS: To summarise and discuss the risk stratification and the preventive strategies of HBV-related HCC. METHODS: Recent published studies identified from PubMed were comprehensively reviewed...
May 3, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720023/direct-acting-antiviral-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-in-denmark-factors-associated-with-and-barriers-to-treatment-initiation
#12
Christina Sølund, Sofie Hallager, Martin S Pedersen, Ulrik Fahnøe, Anja Ernst, Henrik B Krarup, Birgit T Røge, Peer B Christensen, Alex L Laursen, Jan Gerstoft, Erika Bélard, Lone G Madsen, Kristian Schønning, Anders G Pedersen, Jens Bukh, Nina Weis
OBJECTIVES: We describe factors associated with and barriers to initiation of Direct Acting Antiviral (DAA) treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C, who fulfill national fibrosis treatment guidelines in Denmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this nationwide cohort study, we included patients with chronic hepatitis C from The Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C (DANHEP) who fulfilled fibrosis treatment criteria. Factors associated with treatment initiation and treatment failure were determined by logistic regression analyses...
May 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718546/improvement-of-lsm-arfi-measurements-and-non-invasive-fibrosis-markers-after-daas-for-hcv-g4-recurrence-post-living-donor-liver-transplantation-egyptian-cohort
#13
Shereen Abdel Alem, Mohamed Said, Ismail Anwar, Zeinab Abdellatif, Tamer Elbaz, Rasha Eletreby, Mahmoud AbouElKhair, Magdy El-Serafy, Sherif Mogawer, Mona El-Amir, Mostafa El-Shazly, Adel Hosny, Ayman Yosry
BACKGROUND: Progression of recurrent hepatitis C is accelerated in liver transplant (LT) recipients. Direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have recently emerged as a promising therapeutic regimen for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Rates of sustained virological response (SVR) have drastically improved since introduction of DAAs. AIM: To elucidate the changes in liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by Transient elastography (TE) as well as ARFI elastography and fibrosis scores after DAAs treatment in LT recipients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715359/chronic-hepatitis-b-infection-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Lydia S Y Tang, Emily Covert, Eleanor Wilson, Shyam Kottilil
Importance: More than 240 million individuals worldwide are infected with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). Among individuals with chronic HBV infection who are untreated, 15% to 40% progress to cirrhosis, which may lead to liver failure and liver cancer. Observations: Pegylated interferon and nucleos(t)ide analogues (lamivudine, adefovir, entecavir, tenofovir disoproxil, and tenofovir alafenamide) suppress HBV DNA replication and improve liver inflammation and fibrosis...
May 1, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705030/adherence-to-quality-criteria-improves-concordance-between-transient-elastography-and-elastpq-for-liver-stiffness-assessment-a-multicenter-retrospective-study
#15
Giovanna Ferraioli, Annalisa De Silvestri, Thomas Reiberger, Simon D Taylor-Robinson, Robert J de Knegt, Laura Maiocchi, Ruxandra Mare, Theresa Bucsics, Sebastiana Atzori, Carmine Tinelli, Ioan Sporea
BACKGROUND: Assessment of liver stiffness provides important diagnostic and prognostic information in patients with chronic liver disease. AIMS: To investigate whether the use of quality criteria (i) improves the concordance between transient elastography (TE) and a novel point shear wave elastography technique (ElastPQ® ) and (ii) impacts on the performance of ElastPQ® for liver fibrosis staging using TE as the reference standard. METHODS: In this multicenter retrospective study, data of patients undergoing liver stiffness measurements (LSM) in five European centers were collected...
April 4, 2018: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704455/new-insights-on-the-functional-role-of-urg7-in-the-cellular-response-to-er-stress
#16
Maria Francesca Armentano, Marianna Caterino, Rocchina Miglionico, Angela Ostuni, Maria Carmela Pace, Flora Cozzolino, Maria Monti, Luigi Milella, Monica Carmosino, Piero Pucci, Faustino Bisaccia
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Up-regulated Gene clone 7 (URG7) is an ER resident protein, whose expression is upregulated in the presence of hepatitis B virus X antigen (HBxAg) during HBV infection. In virus-infected hepatocytes, URG7 shows an anti-apoptotic activity due to the PI3K/AKT signaling activation, does not seem to have tumorigenic properties, but it appears to promote the development and progression of fibrosis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying URG7 activity remain largely unknown...
April 28, 2018: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700417/progression-and-regression-of-fibrosis-in-viral-hepatitis-in-the-treatment-era-the-beijing-classification
#17
Neil D Theise, Jidong Jia, Yameng Sun, Aileen Wee, Hong You
In this new era of successful long term suppression of hepatitis B viral replication and consistent eradication of hepatitis C virus the necessity for routine pre-treatment biopsies has often been eliminated. Thus, whether there is utility to perform liver biopsy in chronic viral hepatitis is undergoing re-examination. In response to these changing needs, we have developed a new staging system, the Beijing Classification, for assessment of biopsy specimens from patients with chronic viral hepatitis. The most important novelty of the Beijing Classification is that it includes not only extent (stage) of fibrosis, but the quality of fibrosis, namely if the specimen shows predominantly regressive vs...
April 26, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699061/expression-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-and-%C3%AE-klotho-regulates-hepatic-fibrosis-through-the-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-c-jun-n-terminal-kinase-pathways
#18
Kyong Joo Lee, Yoon Ok Jang, Seung-Kuy Cha, Moon Young Kim, Kyu-Sang Park, Young Woo Eom, Soon Koo Baik
Background/Aims: Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 21 is associated with hepatic inflammation and fibrosis. However, little is known regarding the effects of inflammation and fibrosis on the β-Klotho and FGF21 pathway in the liver. Methods: Enrolled patients had biopsy-confirmed viral or alcoholic hepatitis. FGF19, FGF21 and β-Klotho levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. Furthermore, we explored the underlying mechanisms for this process by evaluating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway involvement in Huh-7 cells...
April 27, 2018: Gut and Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698947/real-time-elastography-noninvasive-diagnostic-tool-in-the-evaluation-of-liver-stiffness-in-patients-with-chronic-viral-hepatitis-correlation-with-histological-examination
#19
Davide Ippolito, Valentina Schiavone, Cammillo Roberto Talei Franzesi, Alessandra Silvia Casiraghi, Silvia Girolama Drago, Luca Riva, Sandro Sironi
PURPOSE: To determine the value of real-time elastography (RTE) in the assessment of liver stiffness in patients with chronic viral hepatitis, correlating RTE data with the extent of fibrosis based on biopsy findings (Ishak score). METHODS: We evaluated 98 patients (45-75 years) with chronic viral hepatitis (51 HCV, 47 HBV) by using ultrasonography (US) study combined with RTE analysis. In the RTE images, relative tissue stiffness is expressed, according to color scale, with soft areas represented in green/red colors and hard areas in blue...
April 26, 2018: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29697415/an-update-on-the-clinicopathologic-features-and-pathologic-diagnosis-of-hepatitis-e-in-liver-specimens
#20
Daniela Lenggenhager, Achim Weber
Infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV) is globally seen a leading cause of hepatitis. Now increasingly recognized also in industrialized countries, hepatitis E constitutes a significant health problem worldwide. The patient's immune status determines the clinical course and histopathology of hepatitis E. In immunocompetent patients, hepatitis E usually follows an asymptomatic or subclinical course, but may also present with acute hepatitis. In contrast, immunocompromised patients may develop chronic hepatitis, and patients with preexisting liver diseases are at risk for liver decompensation with potentially fatal outcome...
April 24, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
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