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Viral and fibrosis

Dingchun Li, Wu Li, Yihui Chen, Lihui Liu, Dehong Ma, Hongtu Wang, Lu Zhang, Shenjun Zhao, Qin Peng
Hepatic fibrosis is resulted from sustained wound-healing responses to various harmful stimuli, including viral infection, drug toxicity, alcohol, and autoimmune hepatopathy, and it has recently attracted the attention of an increasing number of researchers and clinical workers. The aims of this study were to examine the anti-fibrotic effects of extracts of Periplaneta americana (EPA) on CCl4-induced hepatic fibrosis in rats, to preliminary determine the anti-fibrotic efficacy of EPA, and to identify a potential and effective therapeutic agent to attenuate hepatic fibrosis...
March 12, 2018: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
B Handan Özdemir, Şebnem Ayva, Gökçe Özdemir, Alev Ok Atılgan, Eda Akçay, F Nurhan Özdemir, Mehmet Haberal
OBJECTIVES: The interaction between calcium oxalate deposition and urinary tract infection is not well established. We aimed to identify the association between these and to determine the role of calcium oxalate deposition on interstitial fibrosis development. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Renal allograft biopsies of 967 patients were reviewed to identify those with calcium oxalate deposition in the renal allograft, with 27 (2.8%) identified. Follow-up biopsies were conducted to reevaluate for calcium oxalate presence and interstitial fibrosis development...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Vladimir Alexei Morozov, Sylvie Lagaye
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of liver diseases including liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately 3% of the world population is infected with HCV. Thus, HCV infection is considered a public healthy challenge. It is worth mentioning, that the HCV prevalence is dependent on the countries with infection rates around 20% in high endemic countries. The review summarizes recent data on HCV molecular biology, the physiopathology of infection (immune-mediated liver damage, liver fibrosis and lipid metabolism), virus diagnostic and treatment...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Ching-I Huang, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Yi-Hung Lin, Po-Cheng Liang, Shang-Yin Vanson Liu, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Wan-Long Chuang, Chia-Yen Dai, Ming-Lung Yu
Reports of the role of host interleukin 28B (IL-28B) genetic variants in liver disease severity in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) have obtained conflicting results. The impact of IL-28B in Asian patients with different viral genotypes remains elusive.We try to elucidate the effect of IL-28B genetic variants in a large Asian cohort with different viral genotypes.The association between the IL-28B rs8099917 genotype and liver fibrosis was investigated in 1288 patients with biopsy-proven CHC.Patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) infection comprised 59...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
N Y Mapoure, M N Budzi, S A F B Eloumou, A Malongue, C Okalla, H N Luma
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C infection is a major public health concern, with a high burden in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is growing evidence that chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes neurological complications. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence and factors associated with neurological manifestations in chronic hepatitis C patients. METHODS: Through a cross-sectional design, a semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from consecutive chronic HCV infected patients attending the outpatient gastroenterology unit of the Douala General Hospital (DGH)...
2018: PloS One
Yong-Huai Li, Xiang Wei, Shuang Ji, Shu-Yu Gui, Su-Mei Zhang
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat protein (NLRP)1/NLRP3 inflammasome pathways on latent viral infection of the respiratory tract. A total of 55 BALB/c mice were assigned to the control, bleomycin (BLM)‑treated, murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), MCMV+BLM and MCMV+BLM+CD4+ T‑cell groups. The viral loads were detected in the salivary glands, kidney, liver and lung tissues via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The weight, lung coefficient and hydroxyproline (HYP) were detected...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Anand Rattansingh, Hosein Amooshahi, Ravi J Menezes, Florence Wong, Sandra Fischer, Richard Kirsch, Mostafa Atri
OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of shear-wave elastography (SWE) to differentiate low from advanced degrees of liver fibrosis in hepatitis C patients. MATERIAL & METHOD: Consented native/transplant hepatitis C patients underwent SWE using a C1-6 MHz transducer before ultrasound (US)-guided liver biopsy. Five interpretable SWE samples were obtained from the right lobe of the liver immediately before US-guided random biopsy of the right lobe. Average kilopascal (kPa) values were compared to the meta-analysis of histological data in viral hepatitis (METAVIR) fibrosis grading...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Zobair M Younossi, Maria Stepanova, Harry L A Janssen, Kosh Agarwal, Mindie H Nguyen, Ed Gane, Naoky Tsai, Issah Younossi, Andrei Racila
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes liver disease and cirrhosis. It is not clear how treatment of chronic HBV infection affects patient-reported outcomes (PROs). We aimed to assess changes in PROs in patients treated for chronic HBV infection. METHODS: We collected and analyzed PRO data from 242 patients with chronic HBV infection (without advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis) enrolled in 2 international phase 2 blinded controlled clinical trials from 2015 through 2017...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Liansheng Liu, Yaohui Zhu, Michaël Noë, Qian Li, Pankaj Jay Pasricha
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by pancreatic inflammation and fibrosis, associated with increased pancreatic expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGFB). It is not clear how these might contribute to pain. We investigated whether TGFB signaling via SMAD induces sensitization of pancreatic sensory neurons to increase nociception. METHODS: CP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by infusion of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid; some rats were given intrathecal infusions of TGFB1...
March 2, 2018: Gastroenterology
Hiroki Ikeda, Tsunamasa Watanabe, Hirohito Shimizu, Tetsuya Hiraishi, Rena Kaneko, Toshiyuki Baba, Hideaki Takahashi, Kotaro Matsunaga, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Hiroshi Yasuda, Chiaki Okuse, Shogo Iwabuchi, Michihiro Suzuki, Fumio Itoh
AIM: The therapeutic benefit of adding ribavirin (RBV) to 12 weeks of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) for patients who experienced failure of a previous nonstructural protein (NS) 5A inhibitor-containing regimen is unclear. METHODS: A total of 29 genotype 1b HCV patients who had failed prior daclatasvir (DCV) plus asunaprevir (ASV) treatment were retreated for 12 weeks of LDV/SOF, with or without RBV. Antiviral efficacy and predictive factors associating with a sustained virological response at 24 weeks (SVR24) were evaluated retrospectively...
March 5, 2018: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
Mohd Suhail, Sayed Sartaj Sohrab, Abid Qureshi, Mohd Tarique, Hany Abdel-Hafiz, Khalid Al-Ghamdi, Ishtiaq Qadri
Hepatitis C virus plays a significant role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) globally. The pathogenic mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinoma with HCV infection are generally linked with inflammation, cytokines, fibrosis, cellular signaling pathways, and liver cell proliferation modulating pathways. HCV encoded proteins (Core, NS3, NS4, NS5A) interact with a broad range of hepatocytes derived factors to modulate an array of activities such as cell signaling, DNA repair, transcription and translational regulation, cell propagation, apoptosis, membrane topology...
March 1, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Takeshi Saraya, Hirokazu Kimura, Daisuke Kurai, Masaki Tamura, Yukari Ogawa, Sunao Mikura, Mitsuru Sada, Miku Oda, Takayasu Watanabe, Kosuke Ohkuma, Manami Inoue, Kojiro Honda, Masato Watanabe, Takuma Yokoyama, Masachika Fujiwara, Haruyuki Ishii, Hajime Takizawa
BACKGROUND: The impact of viral infections on acute exacerbations in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and/or non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILDs) has been scarcely described. OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the frequency of virus infections in patients with IPF or non-IPF ILDs including idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) or connective tissue disease (CTD)-associated pneumonia, and its influence on their short-term mortality. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled adult patients with acute exacerbation of IPF and non-IPF ILDs who were admitted to the hospital during the last 3 years, and examined the respiratory samples obtained from nasopharyngeal, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
March 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Norio Akuta, Joji Toyota, Yoshiyasu Karino, Fusao Ikeda, Akio Ido, Katsuaki Tanaka, Koichi Takaguchi, Atsushi Naganuma, Eiichi Tomita, Kazuaki Chayama, Shigetoshi Fujiyama, Yukiko Inada, Hitoshi Yoshiji, Hideaki Watanabe, Hiroki Ishikawa, Fiona McPhee, Stephanie Noviello, Hiromitsu Kumada
BACKGROUND: In the UNITY-3 study, 96% sustained virologic response (SVR12) rate was observed in Japanese patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT)-1 infection treated for 12 weeks with fixed-dose daclatasvir, asunaprevir, and beclabuvir (DCV-TRIO). As HCV clearance may improve liver outcomes, we assessed hepatic fibrosis and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), a hepatocellular carcinoma risk marker, pre- and post-treatment in UNITY-3. METHODS: Treatment-naive or interferon-experienced UNITY-3 patients with HCV GT-1 who received twice-daily DCV-TRIO were assessed for fibrosis [FibroTest; FibroScan; fibrosis-4 index (FIB-4), aspartate-aminotransferase-to-platelet-ratio index] and AFP at baseline and Weeks 4 (FIB-4 only), 12 or 24 post-treatment...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology
K Deterding, M P Manns, H Wedemeyer
Treatment of chronic hepatitis C (HCV) has changed dramatically since the approval of the direct-acting antivirals (DAA). Depending on the HCV genotype and the stage of liver disease, sustained HCV clearance can be achieved in more than 95% of patients with a treatment duration of 8-12 weeks in most of the cases. The selection and combination of the drugs depends on previous antivirals therapies, the stage of liver fibrosis, HCV genotype and subtype, viral load at baseline, and renal function. Nowadays, potent antiviral therapy with minimal side effects can be offered to almost every patient...
March 1, 2018: Der Internist
Javed Butler, Andreas P Kalogeropoulos, Kevin J Anstrom, Priscilla Y Hsue, Raymond J Kim, Rebecca Scherzer, Sanjiv J Shah, Svati H Shah, Eric J Velazquez, Adrian F Hernandez, Patrice Desvigne-Nickens, Eugene Braunwald
Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with a shift in the epidemiology of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy from a phenotype of primarily left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction to LV diastolic dysfunction (DD). Patients with HIV receiving ART have higher rates of DD when compared to age-matched controls and develop DD at a younger age. However, little is known about the natural history and pathogenesis of DD in virally suppressed HIV-infected patients. Current evidence suggests that immune processes modulate the risk for cardiac involvement in HIV-infected persons...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Béla Hunyady, Zsuzsanna Gerlei, Judit Gervain, Gábor Horváth, Gabriella Lengyel, Alajos Pár, Zoltán Péter, László Rókusz, Ferenc Schneider, Ferenc Szalay, István Tornai, Klára Werling, Mihály Makara
The treatment of hepatitis C is based on a national consensus guideline updated six-monthly according to local availability and affordability of approved therapies through a transparent allocation system in Hungary. This updated guideline incorporates some special new aspects, including recommendations for screening, diagnostics, use and allocation of novel direct acting antiviral agents. The indication of therapy in patients with no contraindication is based on the demonstration of viral replication with consequent inflammation and/or fibrosis in the liver...
February 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
Pin-Nan Cheng, Yen-Cheng Chiu, Hung-Chih Chiu, Shih-Chieh Chien
BACKGROUND: Control of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) is an increasingly important issue. Enhancing screening coverage is necessary to discover more HCV infected subjects in community. However, a substantial population is unaware of HCV infection that needs more attention. AIM: The aims of this study were to evaluate the status of HCV infected residents in remote villages, to compare characteristics between already known and unaware HCV infection subjects, and to analyze the disease insights...
2018: PloS One
Philippe Lachapelle, Meina Li, Jo Douglass, Alastair Stewart
The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β cytokines play a central role in development and progression of chronic respiratory diseases. TGF-β overexpression in chronic inflammation, remodeling, fibrotic process and susceptibility to viral infection is established in the most prevalent chronic respiratory diseases including asthma, COPD, lung cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Despite the overwhelming burden of respiratory diseases in the world, new pharmacological therapies have been limited in impact...
February 17, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ghada El Sagheer, Elwy Soliman, Asmaa Ahmad, Lamiaa Hamdy
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with altered metabolism, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. These contribute to disease progression and influences the response to therapy. To investigate the relationships of new direct-acting antiviral drugs, simeprevir/sofosbuvir, with lipid profile and insulin resistance (IR). Eighty chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 patients were included; they were divided into four groups according to the severity of fibrosis as detected by fibroscan. Forty healthy persons volunteered as a control group...
December 2018: Libyan Journal of Medicine
Maria Guido, Samantha Sarcognato, Francesco Paolo Russo, Romilda Cardin, Marika Piciocchi, Guido Colloredo, Fabio Farinati
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The histological intrahepatic microvasculature lesions have not been deeply investigated outside the setting of portal hypertension. The aim of this study was to analyze the type and the prevalence of microvasculature abnormalities and their correlation with inflammatory activity, fibrosis stage and tissue markers of fibrogenesis, angiogenesis and oxidative DNA damage in liver biopsies obtained from patients with chronic viral hepatitis. METHODS: Seventy- four liver biopsies from untreated patients affected by hepatitis B (22 cases) and C (52 cases) were included...
February 10, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
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