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Viral and fibrosis

Adam C Labonte, Sun-Sang J Sung, Lucas T Jennelle, Aditya P Dandekar, Young S Hahn
: The liver maintains an immunologically tolerant environment as a result of continuous exposure to food and bacterial constituents from the digestive tract. Hepatotropic pathogens can take advantage of this niche and establish lifelong chronic infections causing hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Macrophages (Mϕ) play a critical role in regulation of immune responses to hepatic infection and regeneration of tissue. However, the factors crucial for Mϕ in limiting hepatic inflammation or resolving liver damage have not been fully understood...
October 22, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Brendon K Luvisa, Tarek I Hassanein
The goal in patients with immune active hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is to significantly suppress viral replication and prevent progression of fibrosis to cirrhosis and liver decompensation and decrease the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. This is achievable by the highly active antivirals, entecavir and tenofovir, which are considered first-line therapy in most patients with immune active hepatitis C virus and after liver transplantation to prevent HBV recurrence. Patients with decompensated cirrhosis should be referred for liver transplantation and treated with first-line antivirals as early as possible, with the goal of achieving complete viral suppression in the shortest time possible...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Don C Rockey
Great strides have been made in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related fibrosis and cirrhosis. Available evidence indicates that HBV viral suppression causes regression of advanced fibrosis and even cirrhosis, and therefore should be attempted in all patients with advanced fibrosis and cirrhosis. The preferred agents in patients with cirrhosis are entecavir and tenofovir, primarily because the risk of breakthrough is low. HBV viral suppression leads to improved clinical outcomes even in patients with cirrhosis and complications...
November 2016: Clinics in Liver Disease
Phunchai Charatcharoenwitthaya, Ananya Pongpaibul, Uayporn Kaosombatwattana, Patommatat Bhanthumkomol, Wimolrak Bandidniyamanon, Nonthalee Pausawasdi, Tawesak Tanwandee
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The clinical significance of steatohepatitis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for steatohepatitis in CHB, and to determine its correlation with liver fibrosis and response to antiviral therapy. METHODS: Liver histopathology of 256 consecutive CHB patients with serum HBV DNA >2,000 IU/ml were analyzed with clinical and laboratory characteristics. Virological and biochemical responses were prospectively assessed in the 112 patients treated with antiviral monotherapy...
October 14, 2016: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Erina Kumagai, Yohei Mano, Sachiyo Yoshio, Hirotaka Shoji, Masaya Sugiyama, Masaaki Korenaga, Tsuyoshi Ishida, Taeang Arai, Norio Itokawa, Masanori Atsukawa, Hideyuki Hyogo, Kazuaki Chayama, Tomohiko Ohashi, Kiyoaki Ito, Masashi Yoneda, Takumi Kawaguchi, Takuji Torimura, Yuichi Nozaki, Sumio Watanabe, Masashi Mizokami, Tatsuya Kanto
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common cause of chronic non-viral liver disease. YKL-40, chitinase-like protein expressed in multiple tissues including liver, is involved in cell proliferation, inflammation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to assess whether serum YKL-40 levels are associated with liver fibrosis in NAFLD patients. Serum YKL-40 levels were quantified in 111 NAFLD patients and 23 HCC patients with NAFLD. To identify the source of YKL-40, immunofluorescence staining of liver specimens from NAFLD patients was performed...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
R Hofman, W J Nusselder, I K Veldhuijzen, J H Richardus
OBJECTIVE: To estimate mortality due to chronic hepatitis B-virus (HBV) and hepatitis C-virus (HCV) infections in the Netherlands from 2002 to 2015. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis based on cause-of-death statistics. METHOD: From Statistics Netherlands we obtained detailed data regarding the number of deaths per year in the following ICD-10 categories: chronic viral hepatitis; malignant neoplasm of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts; fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver; and alcoholic liver disease...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Camelia Sultana, Gabriela Oprişan, Monica Delia Teleman, Sorin Dinu, Cristiana Oprea, Mihai Voiculescu, Simona Ruta
AIM: To determine whether hepatitis C virus (HCV) core substitutions play a role in the response to interferon-based treatment in Caucasian patients. METHODS: One hundred eight HCV chronically infected patients initiating treatment with pegylated IFN plus ribavirin for 48 wk were tested for baseline substitutions at codons 70 and 91 of the viral core protein (BigDye Terminator vers.3.1, Applied Biosystems,) and for genetic polymorphisms in host IL28B gene rs12979860 (Custom TaqMan 5' allelic discrimination assay; Applied Biosystems)...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hye Won Lee, Sang Hoon Ahn
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Applying the same strategies for antiviral therapy and HCC surveillance to all chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients would be a burden worldwide. To properly manage CHB patients, it is necessary to identify and classify the risk for HCC development in such patients. Several HCC risk scores based on risk factors such as cirrhosis, age, male gender, and high viral load have been used, and have negative predictive values of ≥ 95%...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Prashant S Kota, Mostafa R Naguib, Vivekkumar Patel, Todd K Rosengart
The prospect of genetically reprogramming cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes by using cardio-differentiating transcription factors represents a significant advantage over previous strategies involving stem cell implantation or the delivery of angiogenic factors. Remarkably, intramyocardial administration of cardio-differentiating factors consistently results in 20% to 30% improvements in postinfarct ejection fraction and nearly a 50% reduction in myocardial fibrosis in murine models. Despite these encouraging observations, few breakthroughs have been made in the reprogramming of human cells, which have more rigorous epigenetic constraints and gene regulatory networks that oppose reprogramming...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Rajneesh Kumar, Barbara Testoni, Judith Fresquet, Tony Kiat Hon Lim, Ying Hao, Hui Hui Tan, Wan Cheng Chow, Fabien Zoulim
: Hepatitis B is leading cause of liver related morbidity in Asia with predominant genotypes B and C in East-asia. Data on Serum, intrahepatic viral-markers and long-term follow-up of prevalent genotypes (GT) B and C in patients with biopsy proven advanced fibrosis is sparse. AIMS: To compare serum, intrahepatic viral-markers and development of Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC) in GT-B and C in patients with advanced fibrosis (Ishak≥4) METHOD: 63 treatment-naïve patients identified with advanced fibrosis on liver-biopsy performed between 1998-2000 at Singapore-General-Hospital...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Elizabeth M Gordon, Debbie M Figueroa, Amisha V Barochia, Xianglan Yao, Stewart J Levine
Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) mediate reverse cholesterol transport out of cells. Furthermore, HDL has additional protective functions, which include anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and vasoprotective effects. In contrast, HDL can become dysfunctional with a reduction in both cholesterol efflux and anti-inflammatory properties in the setting of disease or the acute phase response. These paradigms are increasingly being recognized to be active in the pulmonary system, where apoA-I and HDL have protective effects in normal lung health, as well as in a variety of disease states, including acute lung injury (ALI), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer, pulmonary arterial hypertension, pulmonary fibrosis, and viral pneumonia...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tomohide Hori, Yasuharu Onishi, Hideya Kamei, Nobuhiko Kurata, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoji Ishizu, Yasuhiro Ogura
Hepatitis C recurrence continues to present a major challenge in liver transplantation (LT). Approximately 10% of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive recipients will develop fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis (FCH) after LT. FCH is clinically characterized as marked jaundice with cholestatic hepatic dysfunction and high titers of viremia. Pathologically, FCH manifests as marked hepatocyte swelling, cholestasis, periportal peritrabecular fibrosis and only mild inflammation. This progressive form usually involves acute liver failure, and rapidly results in graft loss...
October 2016: Annals of Gastroenterology: Quarterly Publication of the Hellenic Society of Gastroenterology
Benjamin Steines, David D Dickey, Jamie Bergen, Katherine J D A Excoffon, John R Weinstein, Xiaopeng Li, Ziying Yan, Mahmoud H Abou Alaiwa, Viral S Shah, Drake C Bouzek, Linda S Powers, Nicholas D Gansemer, Lynda S Ostedgaard, John F Engelhardt, David A Stoltz, Michael J Welsh, Patrick L Sinn, David V Schaffer, Joseph Zabner
The physiological components that contribute to cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease are steadily being elucidated. Gene therapy could potentially correct these defects. CFTR-null pigs provide a relevant model to test gene therapy vectors. Using an in vivo selection strategy that amplifies successful capsids by replicating their genomes with helper adenovirus coinfection, we selected an adeno-associated virus (AAV) with tropism for pig airway epithelia. The evolved capsid, termed AAV2H22, is based on AAV2 with 5 point mutations that result in a 240-fold increased infection efficiency...
September 8, 2016: JCI Insight
Hedyeh Ebrahimi, Mohammadreza Naderian, Amir Ali Sohrabpour
Liver fibrosis is a potentially reversible response to hepatic insults, triggered by different chronic diseases most importantly viral hepatitis, alcoholic, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. In the course of the chronic liver disease, hepatic fibrogenesis may develop, which is attributed to various types of cells, molecules, and pathways. Activated hepatic stellate cell (HSC), the primary source of extracellular matrix (ECM), is fundamental in pathophysiology of fibrogenesis, and thus is the most attractable target for reversing liver fibrosis...
July 2016: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
M J Nielsen, M A Karsdal, K Kazankov, H Grønbaek, A Krag, D J Leeming, D Schuppan, J George
BACKGROUND: While morphological patterns differ, the molecular phenotype of liver fibrosis is considered a stereotypical response to chronic liver injury. However, with different cellular triggers and networks regulating fibrosis, the molecular responses of the injured liver may not be identical. AIM: To investigate whether differences in extracellular matrix (ECM) composition of the liver during fibrogenesis in two seemingly similar types of viral hepatitis could be reflected by differences in ECM turnover...
October 3, 2016: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Charles B Nguyen, Courtney W Houchen, Naushad Ali
Liver diseases are the fourth leading cause of mortality among adults in the United States. Patients with chronic liver diseases such as viral hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis have significantly higher risks of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With a dismal five-year survival rate of 11%, HCC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Regardless of the underlying cause, late presentation and a lack of effective therapy are the major impediments for successful treatment of HCC...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Giovanna Ferraioli, Laura Maiocchi, Raffaella Lissandrin, Carmine Tinelli, Annalisa De Silvestri, Carlo Filice
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Noninvasive assessment of liver stiffness has been increasingly used to evaluate fibrosis instead of liver biopsy, especially in patients with chronic viral hepatitis. The aim of this study was to assess the performance in staging liver fibrosis of the updated ElastPQ® technique (EPIQ7 ultrasound system, Philips Healthcare, Bothell, WA, USA) in the "real life" setting by using the FibroScan as the reference standard and to understand whether the use of the quality criteria improves the performance of the technique...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Ecaterina Constanța Barbu, Cristina Emilia Chiţu-Tișu, Mihai Lazăr, Cristina Mihaela Olariu, Dan Olteanu, Mihai Bojincă, Adrian Octavian Abagiu, Victoria Aramă, Daniela Adriana Ion, Ioana Anca Bădărău
AIMS: We aimed to quantify global and regional body composition changes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, compare them to healthy controls and identify possible association between body composition changes and CHC. To our knowledge, this study is the first one comparing CHC patients to controls with regard to soft tissue body composition changes. METHODS: We assessed 60 CHC patients and 60 healthy controls by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry. Soft tissue and bone body composition parameters were compared between the groups (using the Mann-Whitney test)...
September 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
J Hengst, C S Falk, V Schlaphoff, K Deterding, M P Manns, M Cornberg, H Wedemeyer
BACKGROUND:  Persistent infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) causes profound alterations of the cytokine and chemokine milieu in peripheral blood. However, it is unknown to what extend these alterations affect the progression of liver disease and whether HCV clearance normalizes soluble inflammatory mediators. METHODS:  We performed multianalyte profiling of 50 plasma proteins of 28 patients with persistent HCV infection and advanced stages of liver fibrosis or cirrhosis and 20 controls with fatty liver disease...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
I Carmona, P Cordero, J Ampuero, A Rojas, M Romero-Gómez
Fibrosis progression is common in hepatitis C. Both host and viral factors influence its natural history. Liver fibrosis is a key predictive factor for advanced disease including endpoints such as liver failure, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METAVIR fibrosis stages F3-F4 have been considered as the threshold for antiviral therapy. However, this aspect is controversial after the advent of new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) because they show an excellent efficacy and safety profile. Moreover, in the DAA era, fibrosis stage seems not to be a predictive factor of a sustained virological response (SVR)...
September 24, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
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