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Viral and fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340310/viruses-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-airways
#1
Lisa Billard, Rozenn Le Berre, Léa Pilorgé, Christopher Payan, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud, Sophie Vallet
Although bacteria have historically been considered to play a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway damage, a strong impact of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is also now recognized. Emerging evidence confirms that respiratory viruses are associated with deterioration of pulmonary function and exacerbation and facilitation of bacterial colonization in CF patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on respiratory viruses in CF airways, to discuss the resulting inflammation and RVI response, to determine how to detect the viruses, and to assess their clinical consequences, prevalence, and interactions with bacteria...
March 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339063/viral-and-host-factors-associated-with-outcomes-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-review
#2
Zehui Yan, Yuming Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health issue globally. Owing to the progress made in host genetics and HCV molecular virology, emerging data have suggested that the natural course and treatment response in patients with HCV infection are largely determined by complex host‑viral interactions. HCV genotype is the most important viral factor predicting the response to pegylated interferon‑α plus ribavirin therapy. The subtype of HCV genotype 1 is the key viral factor that predicts the efficacy of direct‑acting antiviral therapy...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338458/hepatitis-b-in-solid-organ-transplant-procedures-other-than-liver
#3
Dina Halegoua-De Marzio, Jonathan M Fenkel, Cataldo Doria
Transplant is often the best treatment available for patients with end-stage organ failure. Hepatitis B virus infection in transplant procedures other than liver is a major concern because it can be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after transplant. Due to the increased risk of hepatic complications, such as fibrosing cholestatic hepatitis or histologic deterioration after transplant, systematic use of nucleoside or nucleotide analogues shortly before or at the time of transplant is recommended (tenofovir or entecavir are preferable to lamivudine) in all patients, whatever the baseline histologic evaluation...
April 2017: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335783/svr-rates-of-hcv-infected-population-under-peg-ifn-%C3%AE-r-treatment-in-northwest-china
#4
Yanhua Li, Jiuping Wang, Juan Wang, Yunfeng Xiao, Bin Xu, Hongwei Li, Liu Yang, Xiaoke Hao, Yueyun Ma
BACKGROUND: Chronic HCV Patients taking PEG-IFN-α/R from different ethnic groups have different probabilities of reaching a sustained viral response (SVR). There are many influence factors, such as HCV genotype, IL-28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), Fibrosis 4 index (FIB-4), and aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) score. But the baseline factors in relation to treatment outcome was still not much clear. METHODS: We evaluated data from 231 chronic HCV patients with or without liver fibrosis and their antiviral efficacy after treatment with pegylated interferon plus ribavirin (PEG-IFN-α/R) for 24-48 weeks...
March 23, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331563/%C3%A2-evaluation-of-serum-hbv-viral-load-transaminases-and-histological-features-in-chronic-hbeag-negative-hepatitis-b-patients
#5
Abbas Esmaeelzadeh, Hassan Saadatnia, Bahram Memar, Elham Mokhtari Amirmajdi, Azita Ganji, Ladan Goshayeshi, Zahra Meshkat, Alireza Pasdar, Hassan Vosoughinia, Mohammadreza Farzanehfar, Shahrzad Tehranian, Kamran Ghaffarzadehgan, Farnood Rajabzadeh, Mitra Ahadi
AIM: To evaluate the association between biochemical, virologic and histologic features in patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B (CHB). BACKGROUND: Hepatitis-B e-antigen (HBeAg)-negative is common in Iran, is progressive with poor prognosis. Therefore, it seems necessary to perform a comprehensive evaluation of different spectrum of laboratory measurements accompanying histological findings. METHODS: HBeAg- negative CHB patients referring to two university hospitals during two years were enrolled...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329304/cystic-fibrosis-pulmonary-exacerbations-attributable-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-and-influenza-a-population-based-study
#6
Ranjani Somayaji, Christopher H Goss, Umer Khan, Moni Neradilek, Kathleen M Neuzil, Justin R Ortiz
Background: Characterization of the role of respiratory viral pathogens on cystic fibrosis (CF) pulmonary disease is needed. We aimed to determine the association of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity with risk of pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) in persons with CF in the United States. Methods: We conducted a cohort study from January 2003 - March 2009 using the CF Foundation Patient Registry merged with CDC respiratory virus surveillance data...
March 9, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328941/cynomolgus-monkeys-are-successfully-and-persistently-infected-with-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-hev-3-after-long-term-immunosuppressive-therapy
#7
Noemi Rovaris Gardinali, Juliana Rodrigues Guimarães, Juliana Gil Melgaço, Yohan Britto Kevorkian, Fernanda de Oliveira Bottino, Yasmine Rangel Vieira, Aline Campos de Azevedo da Silva, Douglas Pereira Pinto, Laís Bastos da Fonseca, Leandro Schiavo Vilhena, Edilson Uiechi, Maria Cristina Carlan da Silva, Julio Moran, Renato Sérgio Marchevsky, Oswaldo Gonçalves Cruz, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano Otonel, Amauri Alcindo Alfieri, Jaqueline Mendes de Oliveira, Ana Maria Coimbra Gaspar, Marcelo Alves Pinto
Epidemiological studies found that hepatitis E virus genotype 3 (HEV-3) infection was associated with chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis in immunocompromised patients. Our study aimed to investigate the relationship between the host immunosuppressive status and the occurrence of HEV-related chronic hepatitis. Here we describe a successful experimental study, using cynomolgus monkeys previously treated with tacrolimus, a potent calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressant, and infected with a Brazilian HEV-3 strain isolated from naturally infected pigs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328794/hcv-drives-increased-type-i-ifn-associated-impairments-associated-to-fibrosis-severity-in-art-treated-hiv-1-hcv-coinfected-individuals
#8
Morgane Griesbeck, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Karine Lacombe, Assia Samri-Hassimi, Julie Bottero, Catherine Blanc, Zineb Sbihi, Rima Zoorob, Christine Katlama, Marguerite Guiguet, Marcus Altfeld, Brigitte Autran
BACKGROUND: Viral coinfections might contribute to the increased immune activation and inflammation that persist in ART-treated HIV-1 patients. We investigated whether the HCV co-infection contributes to such alterations by impairing the pDC IFNα/TLR7 pathway in a highly homogeneous group of ART-treated HIV-1-HCV co-infected patients. METHODS: Twenty nine HIV-1-infected patients with fully suppressive ART were included, fifteen of whom being HCV co-infected with mild to moderate fibrosis and matched for their HIV-1 disease, and thirteen control healthy donors...
March 21, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325183/antiherpetic-drugs-in-equine-medicine
#9
REVIEW
Lara K Maxwell
Since vaccination may not prevent disease, antiherpetic drugs have been investigated for the therapy of several equine herpesviruses. Drug efficacy has been assessed in horses with disease, but most evidence is in vitro, in other species, or empirical. Oral valacyclovir is most often administered in the therapy of equine herpesvirus type-1 (EHV-1) to protect adult horses from equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy, while oral acyclovir is frequently administered for EHV-5 infection in the therapy of equine multinodular pulmonary fibrosis...
April 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323868/-waiting-for-daas-a-retrospective-chart-review-of-patients-with-untreated-hepatitis-c-in-rwanda
#10
Neil Gupta, Jules Kabahizi, Constance Mukabatsinda, Timothy David Walker, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Athanase Kiromera, Jennifer Ilo Van Nuil, Kevin Steiner, Joia Mukherjee, Sabin Nsanzimana, Aimable Mbituyumuremyi
BACKGROUND: Access to treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in sub-Saharan Africa is extremely limited. With the advent of direct acting antivirals (DAAs), highly effective and easy-to-deliver oral regimens are now available on the global market. This study was conducted to understand the background and characteristics of a national cohort of patients with HCV infection enrolled in care and awaiting therapy with DAAs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of all adult patients with confirmed HCV infection who were currently enrolled in care and treatment at the four existing hepatitis referral centers in Rwanda...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322865/palmitic-acid-elicits-hepatic-stellate-cell-activation-through-inflammasomes-and-hedgehog-signaling
#11
Na-Na Duan, Xue-Jing Liu, Jian Wu
AIMS: Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) plays a pivotal role at the center of the fibrogenic progression in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, it is poorly understood that how various molecules interact within HSCs during the progression of NASH to fibrosis. The aim of the present study is to delineate how inflammasome molecules, hedgehog signaling and autophagy provoke HSC activation using palmitic acid (PA) as a major insult. MAIN METHODS: Inflammasome activation, hedgehog signaling activity and autophagy in PA-exposed HSCs were determined to investigate their role in activation of human and rodent HSC lines or primary HSCs...
March 17, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293634/secs-sinusoidal-endothelial-cells-liver-microenvironment-and-fibrosis
#12
REVIEW
Vaishaali Natarajan, Edward N Harris, Srivatsan Kidambi
Liver fibrosis is a wound-healing response to chronic liver injury such as alcoholic/nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and viral hepatitis with no FDA-approved treatments. Liver fibrosis results in a continual accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and paves the way for replacement of parenchyma with nonfunctional scar tissue. The fibrotic condition results in drastic changes in the local mechanical, chemical, and biological microenvironment of the tissue. Liver parenchyma is supported by an efficient network of vasculature lined by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293078/hepatitis-c-infected-patients-need-vitamin-d3-supplementation-in-the-era-of-direct-acting-antivirals-treatment
#13
EDITORIAL
Yasuteru Kondo
It has been reported that the serum level of vitamin D3 (VitD3) could affect the natural course of chronic hepatitis C (CH-C) and the response to treatment with pegylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin. Although several mechanisms for the favorable effects of VitD3 supplementation were reported, the total effect of VitD3 supplementation remains unclear. Previously, we reported that supplementation with 1(OH)VitD3 could enhance the Th1 response inducing not only a favorable immune response for viral eradication but also HCC control...
February 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291245/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-bibf1120-ameliorates-inflammation-angiogenesis-and-fibrosis-in-ccl4-induced-liver-fibrogenesis-mouse-model
#14
Büsra Öztürk Akcora, Gert Storm, Jai Prakash, Ruchi Bansal
Hepatic fibrosis, a progressive chronic disease mainly caused by hepatitis viral infections, alcohol abuse or metabolic syndrome leading to liver dysfunction and is the growing cause of mortality worldwide. Tyrosine kinase inhibitor BIBF1120 (Nintedanib) has been evaluated in clinical trials for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and advanced Hepatocellular carcinoma, but has not been explored for liver fibrosis yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanism of BIBF1120 in liver fibrogenesis...
March 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289975/high-association-of-t1858-g1896-precore-mutations-with-impaired-base-pairing-and-high-hepatitis-b-virus-dna-levels-in-hbeag-negative-chronically-infected-patients
#15
Sandrine Castelain, Véronique Descamps, Etienne Brochot, François Helle, Gilles Duverlie, Eric Nguyen-Khac, Catherine François
The progression of liver disease in hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is fostered by active virus replication. Mutations in the basal core promoter (BCP) and precore (PC) regions of the HBV genome are known to have an impact on viral replication. The aim of the present study was to assess the correlation of mutation profiles in the BCP and PC regions with the viral load in HBeAg-negative chronically infected patients. The HBV genotype, BCP/PC mutations, serum HBV DNA levels, and associated serological markers were analyzed in 92 HBeAg-negative chronically infected patients...
March 13, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288626/hepatitis-c-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-the-era-of-new-generation-antivirals
#16
REVIEW
Thomas F Baumert, Frank Jühling, Atsushi Ono, Yujin Hoshida
Hepatitis C virus infection is a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma worldwide. Interferon has been the major antiviral treatment, yielding viral clearance in approximately half of patients. New direct-acting antivirals substantially improved the cure rate to above 90%. However, access to therapies remains limited due to the high costs and under-diagnosis of infection in specific subpopulations, e.g., baby boomers, inmates, and injection drug users, and therefore, hepatocellular carcinoma incidence is predicted to increase in the next decades even in high-resource countries...
March 14, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273410/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-treatment-of-patients-with-absence-or-mild-fibrosis-compared-to-patients-with-advanced-fibrosis
#17
M Buti, R Domínguez-Hernández, I Oyagüez, M A Casado, R Esteban
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of Ledipasvir/Sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) in treatment-naïve patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) genotype 1 (GT1) in the absence or mild fibrosis (F0-F1) versus advanced fibrosis (F2-F4), from the perspective of the Spanish Health System. METHODS: A Markov model was developed to simulate disease progression, estimating costs and outcomes [life years gained, (LYG), and quality adjusted life years, (QALY)] derived from starting with LDV/SOF in patients with F0-F1 compared with F2-F4...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273006/viral-interference-and-the-live-attenuated-intranasal-influenza-vaccine-results-from-a-pediatric-cohort-with-cystic-fibrosis
#18
Constantina Boikos, Jesse Papenburg, Christine Martineau, Lawrence Joseph, David Scheifele, Mark Chilvers, Larry C Lands, Gaston De Serres, Caroline Quach
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to explore the effects of viral co-detection in individuals recently vaccinated with the live-attenuated intranasal influenza virus vaccine (LAIV) on the detection of influenza RNA. METHODS: Before the 2013-2014 influenza season, nasal swabs were obtained from 59 pediatric participants with cystic fibrosis (CF) and 17 of their healthy siblings immediately before vaccination and 4 times during the week of follow-up. Real-time RT-PCR assays were used to detect influenza RNA...
March 8, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272302/a-new-oleanolic-acid-derivative-against-ccl%C3%A2-induced-hepatic-fibrosis-in-rats
#19
Hongjun Xiang, Yaotian Han, Yuzhong Zhang, Wenqiang Yan, Bing Xu, Fuhao Chu, Tianxin Xie, Menglu Jia, Mengmeng Yan, Rui Zhao, Penglong Wang, Haimin Lei
A novel hepatoprotective oleanolic acid derivative, 3-oxours-oleana-9(11), 12-dien-28-oic acid (Oxy-Di-OA), has been reported. In previous studies, we found that Oxy-Di-OA presented the anti-HBV (Hepatitis B Virus) activity (IC50 = 3.13 µg/mL). Remarkably, it is superior to lamivudine in the inhibition of the rebound of the viral replication rate. Furthermore, Oxy-Di-OA showed good performance of anti-HBV activity in vivo. Some studies showed that liver fibrosis may affiliate with HBV gene mutations. In addition, the anti-hepatic fibrosis activity of Oxy-Di-OA has not been studied...
March 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270882/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-deficiency-and-cirrhosis-establishment
#20
REVIEW
Rocio G de la Garza, Luis Alonso Morales-Garza, Irene Martin-Estal, Inma Castilla-Cortazar
Cirrhosis represents the final stage of chronic liver damage, which can be due to different factors such as alcohol, metabolic syndrome with liver steatosis, autoimmune diseases, drugs, toxins, and viral infection, among others. Nowadays, cirrhosis is an important health problem and it is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality, being the 14th most common cause of death worldwide. The physiopathological pathways that lead to fibrosis and finally cirrhosis partly depend on the etiology. Nevertheless, some common features are shared in this complex mechanism...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
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