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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419665/lettuce-produced-hepatitis-c-virus-e1e2-heterodimer-triggers-immune-responses-in-mice-and-antibody-production-after-oral-vaccination
#1
Jihong Liu Clarke, Lisa Paruch, Mihaela-Olivia Dobrica, Iuliana Caras, Catalin Tucureanu, Adrian Onu, Sonya Ciulean, Crina Stavaru, Andre Eerde, Yanliang Wang, Hege Steen, Sissel Haugslien, Catalina Petrareanu, Catalin Lazar, Ioan Popescu, Ralph Bock, Jean Dubuisson, Norica Branza-Nichita
The hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major etiologic agent for severe liver diseases (e.g., cirrhosis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma). Approximately 140 million people have chronic HCV infections and about 500,000 die yearly from HCV-related liver pathologies. To date, there is no licenced vaccine available to prevent HCV infection and production of an HCV vaccine remains a major challenge. Here we report the successful production of the HCV E1E2 heterodimer, an important vaccine candidate, in an edible crop (lettuce, Lactuca sativa) using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression technology...
April 17, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411231/angiotensin-1-7-attenuates-angiotensin-ii-induced-cardiac-hypertrophy-via-a-sirt3-dependent-mechanism
#2
Lirong Guo, Ankang Yin, Qi Zhang, Tiecheng Zhong, Stephen T O'Rourke, Chengwen Sun
The objectives of the current study were to investigate the effect of Ang-(1-7) on the development of cardiac hypertrophy, and to identify the intracellular mechanism underlying this action of Ang-(1-7). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded using radiotelemetry before and after chronic subcutaneous infusion of control (PBS), Ang II, Ang-(1-7), or Ang II+Ang-(1-7) for 4 weeks in normotensive rats. Chronic administration of Ang-(1-7) did not affect either basal blood pressure or the Ang II-induced elevation in blood pressure...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408790/hbv-viral-load-and-liver-enzyme-levels-may-be-associated-with-the-wild-mbl2-aa-genotype
#3
Tuane Carolina Ferreira Moura, Ednelza da Silva Graça Amoras, Mauro Sérgio Araújo, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Simone Regina Souza da Silva Conde, Sâmia Demachki, Rosimar Neris Martins-Feitosa, Luiz Fernando Almeida Machado, Izaura Maria Vieira Cayres-Vallinoto, Ricardo Ishak, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto
The present study investigated the frequencies of rs1800450 (MBL (⁎)B, G>A), rs1800451 (MBL (⁎)C, G>A), and rs5030737 (MBL (⁎)D, C>T) polymorphisms in exon 1 of the MBL2 gene among patients with chronic viral hepatitis. Blood samples from patients infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV; n = 65), hepatitis C virus (HCV; n = 92), and a noninfected control group (n = 300) were investigated. The presence of polymorphisms was detected using a real-time polymerase chain reaction to correlate with liver disease pathogenesis and fibrosis staging according to the Metavir classification...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405324/25-oh-vitamin-d-level-has-no-impact-on-the-efficacy-of-antiviral-therapy-in-na%C3%A3-ve-genotype-1-hcv-infected-patients
#4
Arthur Belle, Emmanuel Gizard, Guillaume Conroy, Anthony Lopez, Magali Bouvier-Alias, Stéphanie Rouanet, Laurent Peyrin-Biroulet, Jean-Michel Pawlotsky, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki
BACKGROUND AND AIM: The impact of 25-OH vitamin D on sustained viral response (SVR) to antiviral therapy and on fibrosis progression in hepatitis C is debated. We assessed the impact of 25-OH vitamin D concentration on the efficacy of antiviral therapy in naïve genotype 1 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. METHODS: The study population consisted of treatment-naïve genotype 1 patients enrolled in a randomised controlled trial. A total of 516 patients received peginterferon α-2a 180 µg/week plus ribavirin 800 mg/day for 24 weeks...
February 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400116/the-role-of-infection-in-interstitial-lung-diseases-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Natalya Azadeh, Andrew H Limper, Eva M Carmona, Jay H Ryu
Interstitial lung diseases (ILD) comprise an array of heterogeneous parenchymal lung diseases that are associated with a spectrum of pathologic, radiologic and clinical manifestations. There are ILDs with known etiologies and those that are idiopathic, making treatment strategies challenging. Prognosis can vary according to the type of ILD but many exhibit gradual progression with an unpredictable clinical course in individual patients as seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and the phenomenon of "acute exacerbation"(AE)...
April 8, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398960/prevalence-and-risk-factors-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-hiv-monoinfection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
James B Maurice, Amee Patel, Alasdair J Scott, Krish Patel, Mark Thursz, Maud Lemoine
OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and risk factors of NAFLD, NASH and fibrosis in HIV-monoinfected patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Medline and Embase and included studies that enrolled HIV-monoinfected patients with NAFLD defined by imaging and/or liver histology. Data on prevalence and risk factors for NAFLD, NASH and fibrosis were collected for meta-analysis using random effects models. RESULTS: Ten studies were included from USA (n = 4), Canada (n = 1), France (n = 2), Italy (n = 1), Japan (n = 1) and China (n = 1)...
April 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397696/hepatitis-c-virus-prevalence-and-level-of-intervention-required-to-achieve-the-who-targets-for-elimination-in-the-european-union-by-2030-a-modelling-study
#7
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading cause of liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the European Union (EU), treatment and cure of HCV with direct-acting antiviral therapies began in 2014. WHO targets are to achieve a 65% reduction in liver-related deaths, a 90% reduction of new viral hepatitis infections, and 90% of patients with viral hepatitis infections being diagnosed by 2030. This study assessed the prevalence of HCV in the EU and the level of intervention required to achieve WHO targets for HCV elimination...
May 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390872/the-role-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-egfr-signaling-in-sars-coronavirus-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
REVIEW
Thiagarajan Venkataraman, Matthew B Frieman
Many survivors of the 2003 outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) developed residual pulmonary fibrosis with increased severity seen in older patients. Autopsies of patients that died from SARS also showed fibrosis to varying extents. Pulmonary fibrosis can be occasionally seen as a consequence to several respiratory viral infections but is much more common after a SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) infection. Given the threat of future outbreaks of severe coronavirus disease, including Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), it is important to understand the mechanisms responsible for pulmonary fibrosis, so as to support the development of therapeutic countermeasures and mitigate sequelae of infection...
April 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389143/identification-of-treatment-experienced-hepatitis-c-patients-with-poor-cost-effectiveness-of-pegylated-interferon-plus-ribavirin-from-a-real-world-cohort
#9
Ta-Wei Liu, Pei-Chien Tsai, Ching-I Huang, Yi-Shan Tsai, Shu-Chi Wang, Yu-Min Ko, Ching-Chih Lin, Kuan-Yu Chen, Po-Cheng Liang, Yi-Hung Lin, Ming-Yen Hsieh, Nai-Jen Hou, Chung-Feng Huang, Ming-Lun Yeh, Zu-Yau Lin, Shinn-Cherng Chen, Chia-Yen Dai, Wan-Long Chuang, Jee-Fu Huang, Ming-Lung Yu
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pegylated interferon (PegIFN) plus ribavirin (RBV) combination therapy has been the standard of care since 2002. Although a better viral response has been achieved among chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients in Taiwan, approximately 25% of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 (G1) patients and 15% of G2 patients failed to achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) at the first therapy. The actual cost-effectiveness of the retreatment remains elusive. The present study conducted a real-world cost-effectiveness analysis of a large cohort among different pre-specified subgroups of treatment-experienced CHC patients...
April 4, 2017: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377145/lung-cancer-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#10
REVIEW
Theodoros Karampitsakos, Vasilios Tzilas, Rodoula Tringidou, Paschalis Steiropoulos, Vasilis Aidinis, Spyros A Papiris, Demosthenes Bouros, Argyris Tzouvelekis
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown etiology. With a gradually increasing worldwide prevalence and a mortality rate exceeding that of many cancers, IPF diagnosis and management are critically important and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach. This approach also involves assessment of comorbid conditions, such as lung cancer, that exerts a dramatic impact on disease survival. Emerging evidence suggests that progressive lung scarring in the context of IPF represents a risk factor for lung carcinogenesis...
April 1, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376032/chronic-hepatitis-e-viral-infection-after-liver-transplantation-a-regression-of-fibrosis-following-antiviral-therapy
#11
Alessandra Mazzola, Margherita Tran Minh, Frédéric Charlotte, Aisha Hdjii, Denis Bernard, Dominique Wendum, Yvon Calmus, Filomena Conti
BACKGROUND: hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is increasingly being reported in immunocompromised patients, and particularly organ transplant recipients. In this context, HEV infection frequently evolves to chronic infection with a rapid progression of fibrosis to cirrhosis. Ribavirin monotherapy and a minimisation of immunosuppression represent the treatment of choice, with a good response rate. However, no data are available on whether treatment can achieve a regression of liver fibrosis in chronic HEV patients...
April 4, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374814/improvement-of-liver-fibrosis-after-long-term-antiviral-therapy-assessed-by-fibroscan-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-patients-with-advanced-fibrosis
#12
Young Eun Chon, Jun Yong Park, Sung-Min Myoung, Kyu Sik Jung, Beom Kyung Kim, Seung Up Kim, Do Young Kim, Sang Hoon Ahn, Kwang-Hyub Han
OBJECTIVES: Performing repeated liver biopsies to assess the improvement of liver fibrosis is impractical. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess the improvement of liver fibrosis during antiviral treatment by serial liver stiffness (LS) measurement using Fibroscan in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with advanced fibrosis. METHODS: Nucleos(t)ide analog-naive CHB patients with advanced fibrosis in histological findings (stage ≥F3), high viral load (hepatitis B virus DNA ≥2,000 IU/ml), and normal liver enzyme levels (<2 × upper normal limit) before starting antiviral treatment were included in this study...
April 4, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373874/immunoregulatory-role-of-nk-cells-in-tissue-inflammation-and-regeneration
#13
REVIEW
Annie Tosello-Trampont, Fionna A Surette, Sarah E Ewald, Young S Hahn
NK cells represent an important first line of defense against viral infection and cancer and are also involved in tissue homeostasis. Studies of NK cell activation in the last decade have revealed that they are able to respond to the inflammatory stimuli evoked by tissue damage and contribute to both progression and resolution of diseases. Exacerbation of the inflammatory response through interactions between immune effector cells facilitates the progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) into steatosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370772/evaluation-of-splenic-perfusion-and-spleen-size-using-dynamic-ct-usefulness-in-assessing-degree-of-liver-fibrosis
#14
Takeshi Suzuki, Akira Yamada, Daisuke Komatsu, Masahiro Kurozumi, Yasunari Fujinaga, Kazuhiko Ueda, Shinichi Miyagawa, Masumi Kadoya
AIM: To enhance the usefulness of splenic perfusion evaluated by means of dynamic computed tomography (CT) and of spleen size in assessing the degree of liver fibrosis. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 133 patients who had undergone dynamic CT before hepatectomy. Fibrosis was histologically established in all. First we calculated splenic perfusion parameters K1 (inflow rate constant), 1/k2 (Mean Transit Time: MTT), and K1 /k2 (distribution volume: Vd ), using compartment model analysis...
April 1, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367737/circulating-levels-of-collagen-iii-and-mmp-1-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-co-infected-with-hepatitis-b-virus
#15
Abdelfattah M Attallah, Mohamed El-Far, Mohamed F Ghaly, Mohamed M Omran, Mohamed S Albannan, Ahmed A Attallah, Tarek M Shoghey, Mohamed M Atrees, Mohamed S Elbendary, Khaled Farid
BACKGROUND: There is controversial data in the literature about the characteristics and features of dual hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection. This work is concerned with estimating the extent to which HBV could influence circulating levels of hepatitis C viral nonstructural-4 (HCV-NS4) in addition to some direct fibrosis markers in chronic hepatitis C. METHODS: Thirty-eight HCV mono-infected and 87 HCV/HBV co-infected patients constituted this study. Western-blot and ELISA were used for identifying HCV-NS4, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), collagen III and matrixmetalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in patients' sera...
April 2017: British Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362065/alcohol-use-viral-hepatitis-and-liver-fibrosis-among-hiv-positive-persons-in-west-africa-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Antoine Jaquet, Gilles Wandeler, Marcellin Nouaman, Didier K Ekouevi, Judicaël Tine, Akouda Patassi, Patrick A Coffie, Aristophane Tanon, Moussa Seydi, Alain Attia, François Dabis
INTRODUCTION: Liver fibrosis is often the first stage of liver disease in people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in industrialized countries. However, little is known about liver fibrosis and its correlates among PLWHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The study was undertaken in three HIV referral clinics in Côte d'Ivoire, Senegal and Togo. Enrolled PLWHIV underwent a non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis combining liver stiffness measure (LSM) with transient elastography and the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI)...
February 17, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352641/cardiac-function-remains-impaired-despite-reversible-cardiac-remodeling-after-acute-experimental-viral-myocarditis
#17
Peter Moritz Becher, Frauke Gotzhein, Karin Klingel, Felicitas Escher, Stefan Blankenberg, Dirk Westermann, Diana Lindner
Background. Infection with Coxsackievirus B3 induces myocarditis. We aimed to compare the acute and chronic phases of viral myocarditis to identify the immediate effects of cardiac inflammation as well as the long-term effects after resolved inflammation on cardiac fibrosis and consequently on cardiac function. Material and Methods. We infected C57BL/6J mice with Coxsackievirus B3 and determined the hemodynamic function 7 as well as 28 days after infection. Subsequently, we analyzed viral burden and viral replication in the cardiac tissue as well as the expression of cytokines and matrix proteins...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348774/latent-infection-of-human-bocavirus-accompanied-by-flare-of-chronic-cough-fatigue-and-episodes-of-viral-replication-in-an-immunocompetent-adult-patient-cologne-germany
#18
Wolfram Windisch, Monika Pieper, Inga Ziemele, Jürgen Rockstroh, Michael Brockmann, Oliver Schildgen, Verena Schildgen
INTRODUCTION: The human bocavirus (HBoV) is a parvovirus and is associated with mild to life-threatening acute or persisting respiratory infections, frequently accompanied by further pathogens. So far, there is limited knowledge on the mechanisms of persistence, and no reports on chronic infections or latency have been published so far. CASE PRESENTATION: An immunocompetent male patient suffers from a chronic HBoV1 infection, i.e. viral DNA was detected in both serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for >5 months without co-infections and with respiratory symptoms resolved spontaneously while receiving symptomatic treatment with montelukast and corticosteroids...
August 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340310/viruses-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-airways
#19
Lisa Billard, Rozenn Le Berre, Léa Pilorgé, Christopher Payan, Geneviève Héry-Arnaud, Sophie Vallet
Although bacteria have historically been considered to play a major role in cystic fibrosis (CF) airway damage, a strong impact of respiratory viral infections (RVI) is also now recognized. Emerging evidence confirms that respiratory viruses are associated with deterioration of pulmonary function and exacerbation and facilitation of bacterial colonization in CF patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current knowledge on respiratory viruses in CF airways, to discuss the resulting inflammation and RVI response, to determine how to detect the viruses, and to assess their clinical consequences, prevalence, and interactions with bacteria...
March 24, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339063/viral-and-host-factors-associated-with-outcomes-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-review
#20
Zehui Yan, Yuming Wang
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major health issue globally. Owing to the progress made in host genetics and HCV molecular virology, emerging data have suggested that the natural course and treatment response in patients with HCV infection are largely determined by complex host‑viral interactions. HCV genotype is the most important viral factor predicting the response to pegylated interferon‑α plus ribavirin therapy. The subtype of HCV genotype 1 is the key viral factor that predicts the efficacy of direct‑acting antiviral therapy...
March 22, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
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