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Telomere d

Irina D Strazhesko, Olga N Tkacheva, Dariga U Akasheva, Ekaterina N Dudinskaya, Ekaterina V Plokhova, Valentina S Pykhtina, Anna S Kruglikova, Natalia V Kokshagina, Natalia V Sharashkina, Mikhail V Agaltsov, Daria A Kashtanova, Vladimir A Vygodin, Irina N Ozerova, Dmitry A Skvortsov, Daria Vasilkova, Sergey A Boytsov
Background: Telomerase activity (TA) is considered as the biomarker for cardiovascular aging and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Recent studies suggest a link between statins and telomere biology that may be explained by anti-inflammatory actions of statins and their positive effect on TA. Until now, this effect has not been investigated in prospective randomized studies. We hypothesized that 12 months of atorvastatin therapy increased TA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Methods: In a randomized, placebo-controlled study 100 hypercholesterolemic patients, aged 35-75 years, free of known CVDs and diabetes mellitus type 2 received 20 mg of atorvastatin daily or placebo for 12 months...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Séverine Massenet, Edouard Bertrand, Céline Verheggen
Box C/D and box H/ACA snoRNAs are abundant non-coding RNAs that localize in the nucleolus and mostly function as guides for nucleotide modifications. While a large pool of snoRNAs modifies ribosomal RNAs, an increasing number of snoRNAs could also potentially target mRNAs. ScaRNAs belong to a family of specific RNAs that localize in Cajal bodies and that are structurally similar to snoRNAs. Most scaRNAs are involved in snRNA modification, while telomerase RNA, which contains H/ACA motifs, functions in telomeric DNA synthesis...
October 7, 2016: RNA Biology
R C R Noronha, L M R Barros, R E F Araújo, D F Marques, C Y Nagamachi, C Martins, J C Pieczarka
BACKGROUND: Cytogenetic studies were conducted in the Brazilian Amazon turtles, Podocnemis expansa Schweigger, 1912 (PEX) and Podocnemis unifilis Troschel, 1848 (PUN) to understand their karyoevolution. Their chromosomal complements were compared using banding techniques (C, G-, Ag-NOR and Chromomycin A3) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and efforts were made to establish evolutionary chromosomal relationships within the Podocnemidae family. RESULTS: Our results revealed that both species have a chromosome complement of 2n = 28...
2016: Molecular Cytogenetics
S Ribero, M Sanna, A Visconti, A Navarini, A Aviv, D Glass, T D Spector, C Smith, M Simpson, J Barker, M Mangino, M Falchi, V Bataille
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
El-Mokadem Ismail, Kidd Thomas, Pratt Norman, Fleming Stewart, Nabi Ghulam
BACKGROUND: Genetic alterations on chromosome 9p, including inactivation of the tumour suppressor gene, CDKN2A, result in cellular proliferation and growth of tumours. Our aim was to use microsatellite analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterise the architecture of this region. RESULTS: Seventy-five out of 77 clear cell renal cell cancers (tumour/normal pairs) were interpretable for LOH analysis on chromosome 9p (two tumours were excluded, as all five primers were uninformative)...
September 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Susanne P Pfeifer, Jeffrey D Jensen
Levels of nucleotide diversity vary greatly across the genomes of most species owing to multiple factors. These include variation in the underlying mutation rates, as well as the effects of both direct and linked selection. Fundamental to interpreting the relative importance of these forces is the common observation of a strong positive correlation between nucleotide diversity and recombination rate. While indeed observed in humans, the interpretation of this pattern has been difficult in the absence of high quality polymorphism data and recombination maps in closely related species...
September 27, 2016: Genome Biology and Evolution
D McLennan, J D Armstrong, D C Stewart, S Mckelvey, W Boner, P Monaghan, N B Metcalfe
A larger body size confers many benefits, such as increased reproductive success, ability to evade predators and increased competitive ability and social status. However, individuals rarely maximize their growth rates, suggesting that this carries costs. One such cost could be faster attrition of the telomeres that cap the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes and play an important role in chromosome protection. A relatively short telomere length is indicative of poor biological state, including poorer tissue and organ performance, reduced potential longevity and increased disease susceptibility...
September 23, 2016: Molecular Ecology
Hyun-Jin Kang, Yunxi Cui, Holly Yin, Amy Scheid, William P D Hendricks, Jessica Schmidt, Aleksandar Sekulic, Deming Kong, Jeffrey M Trent, Vijay Gokhale, Hanbin Mao, Laurence H Hurley
Activation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is necessary for limitless replication in tumorigenesis. Whereas hTERT is transcriptionally silenced in normal cells, most tumor cells reactivate hTERT expression by alleviating transcriptional repression through diverse genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Transcription-activating hTERT promoter mutations have been found to occur at high frequencies in multiple cancer types. These mutations have been shown to form new transcription factor binding sites that drive hTERT expression, but this model cannot fully account for differences in wild-type (WT) and mutant promoter activation and has not yet enabled a selective therapeutic strategy...
October 5, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jacob E Schmidt, Aubrey E Sirman, Jeffrey D Kittilson, Mark E Clark, Wendy L Reed, Britt J Heidinger
Telomere dynamics in blood cells have been linked to aging in a variety of organisms. However, whether blood telomeres are correlated with telomeres in other parts of the body is not well known, especially during early life when telomere loss is expected to be most rapid. We investigated this question in Franklin's gulls (Leucophaeus pipixcan) by measuring telomere lengths in blood and several other tissues including: heart, liver, and skeletal muscle at the end of embryonic (n=31) and post-natal development (n=20)...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
Luke Maishman, Samson O Obado, Sam Alsford, Jean-Mathieu Bart, Wei-Ming Chen, Alexander V Ratushny, Miguel Navarro, David Horn, John D Aitchison, Brian T Chait, Michael P Rout, Mark C Field
The nuclear lamina is a filamentous structure subtending the nuclear envelope and required for chromatin organization, transcriptional regulation and maintaining nuclear structure. The trypanosomatid coiled-coil NUP-1 protein is a lamina component functionally analogous to lamins, the major lamina proteins of metazoa. There is little evidence for shared ancestry, suggesting the presence of a distinct lamina system in trypanosomes. To find additional trypanosomatid lamina components we identified NUP-1 interacting proteins by affinity capture and mass-spectrometry...
September 12, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Adel Sepsi, James D Higgins, J S Pat Heslop-Harrison, Trude Schwarzacher
During meiosis, centromeres in some species undergo a series of associations, but the processes and progression to homologous pairing is still a matter of debate. Here, we aimed to correlate meiotic centromere dynamics and early telomere behaviour to the progression of synapotonemal complex (SC) construction in hexaploid wheat (2n=42) by triple immunolabelling of CENH3 protein marking functional centromeres, and SC proteins ASY1 (unpaired lateral elements) and ZYP1 (central elements in synapsed chromosomes)...
September 14, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Kumar Padmapriya, Ritu Barthwal
Stabilization of G-quadruplex DNA structures in human telomeric and proto-oncogenic promoter regions upon ligand binding has evolved as a viable anti-cancer strategy. We have studied interaction of coralyne, a human telomerase inhibiting protoberberine alkaloid, with parallel stranded tetrameric G-quadruplex DNA [d(T2G4T)]4 using Circular Dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Appearance of induced CD band and the Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) experiments confirm the formation of well defined coralyne-DNA complex...
October 15, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yuling Zhou, David Simmons, Brett D Hambly, Craig S McLachlan
Mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) can affect oxidative stress levels. UCP2 polymorphisms are associated with leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in Type 2 Diabetes, which also induces considerable background oxidative stress. The effects of UCP2 polymorphisms on LTL in populations without diabetes have not been well described. Our aims are to evaluate the interaction between LTL and UCP2 polymorphisms in 950 subjects without diabetes. The monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR method was used to measure relative LTL...
2016: Scientific Reports
Anirban Kar, Smaranda Willcox, Jack D Griffith
The formation of DNA loops at chromosome ends (t-loops) and the transcription of telomeres producing G-rich RNA (TERRA) represent two central features of telomeres. To explore a possible link between them we employed artificial human telomeres containing long arrays of TTAGGG repeats flanked by the T7 or T3 promoters. Transcription of these DNAs generates a high frequency of t-loops within individual molecules and homologous recombination events between different DNAs at their telomeric sequences. T-loop formation does not require a single strand overhang, arguing that both terminal strands insert into the preceding duplex...
September 7, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Jeremy D Henson, Loretta M Lau, Sylvia Koch, Nancy Martin La Rotta, Rebecca A Dagg, Roger R Reddel
The C-Circle Assay has satisfied the need for a rapid, robust and quantitative ALT assay that responds quickly to changes in ALT activity. The C-Circle Assay involves (i) extraction or simple preparation (Quick C-Circle Preparation) of the cell's DNA, which includes C-Circles (ii) amplification of the self-primed C-Circles with a rolling circle amplification reaction and (iii) sequence specific detection of the amplification products by native telomeric DNA dot blot or telomeric qPCR. Here we detail the protocols and considerations required to perform the C-Circle Assay and its controls, which include exonuclease removal of linear telomeric DNA, production of the synthetic C-Circle C96 and modulation of ALT activity by γ-irradiation...
September 2, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Baris Boyraz, Courtney M Bellomo, Mark D Fleming, Corey S Cutler, Suneet Agarwal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2016: Blood
Jane L Tarry-Adkins, Denise S Fernandez-Twinn, Jian Hua Chen, Iain P Hargreaves, Viruna Neergheen, Catherine E Aiken, Susan E Ozanne
'Developmental programming', which occurs as a consequence of suboptimal in utero and early environments, can be associated with metabolic dysfunction in later life, including an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, and predisposition of older men to sarcopenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underpinning these associations are poorly understood. Many conditions associated with developmental programming are also known to be associated with the aging process. We therefore utilized our well-established rat model of low birth weight and accelerated postnatal catch-up growth (termed 'recuperated') in this study to establish the effects of suboptimal maternal nutrition on age-associated factors in skeletal muscle...
October 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Armita Bahrami, Seungjae Lee, Inga-Marie Schaefer, Jennifer M Boland, Kurt T Patton, Stanley Pounds, Christopher D Fletcher
Solitary fibrous tumor is a mesenchymal neoplasm exhibiting a broad spectrum of biological behavior and harboring the NAB2-STAT6 fusion. Clinicopathologic parameters are currently used in risk-prediction models for solitary fibrous tumor, but the molecular determinants of malignancy in solitary fibrous tumors remain unknown. We proposed that the activation of telomere maintenance pathways confers a perpetual malignant phenotype to these tumors. Therefore, we investigated telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) reactivation induced by promoter mutations as a potential molecular mechanism for aggressive clinical behavior in solitary fibrous tumor...
August 26, 2016: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
Natalia D M Carvalho, Edson Carmo, Rogerio O Neves, Carlos Henrique Schneider, Maria Claudia Gross
Differences in heterochromatin distribution patterns and its composition were observed in Amazonian teiid species. Studies have shown repetitive DNA harbors heterochromatic blocks which are located in centromeric and telomeric regions in Ameiva ameiva (Linnaeus, 1758), Kentropyx calcarata (Spix, 1825), Kentropyx pelviceps (Cope, 1868), and Tupinambis teguixin (Linnaeus, 1758). In Cnemidophorus sp.1, repetitive DNA has multiple signals along all chromosomes. The aim of this study was to characterize moderately and highly repetitive DNA sequences by C ot1-DNA from Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus sp...
2016: Comparative Cytogenetics
A Baragetti, J Palmen, K Garlaschelli, L Grigore, S E Humphries, P J Talmud, A L Catapano, G D Norata
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
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