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Defined daily doses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677309/vitamin-d-calcium-or-combined-supplementation-for-the-primary-prevention-of-fractures-in-community-dwelling-adults-us-preventive-services-task-force-recommendation-statement
#1
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Because of the aging population, osteoporotic fractures are an increasingly important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Approximately 2 million osteoporotic fractures occurred in the United States in 2005, and annual incidence is projected to increase to more than 3 million fractures by 2025. Within 1 year of experiencing a hip fracture, many patients are unable to walk independently, more than half require assistance with activities of daily living, and 20% to 30% of patients will die...
April 17, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676523/characterization-of-low-abundance-species-in-the-active-pharmaceutical-ingredient-of-cigb-300-a-clinical-grade-anticancer-synthetic-peptide
#2
Hilda Garay, Luis Ariel Espinosa, Yasser Perera, Aniel Sánchez, David Diago, Silvio E Perea, Vladimir Besada, Osvaldo Reyes, Luis Javier González
CIGB-300 is a first-in-class synthetic peptide-based drug of 25 amino acids currently undergoing clinical trials in cancer patients. It contains an amidated disulfide cyclic undecapeptide fused to the TAT cell-penetrating peptide through a beta-alanine spacer. CIGB-300 inhibits the CK2-mediated phosphorylation leading to apoptosis of tumor cells in vitro, and in vivo in cancer patients. Despite the clinical development of CIGB-300, the characterization of peptide-related impurities present in the active pharmaceutical ingredient has not been reported earlier...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Peptide Science: An Official Publication of the European Peptide Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673142/meeting-vitamin-d-requirements-in-white-caucasians-at-uk-latitudes-providing-a-choice
#3
Ann R Webb, Andreas Kazantzidis, Richard C Kift, Mark D Farrar, Jack Wilkinson, Lesley E Rhodes
The body gains vitamin D through both oral intake (diet/supplementation) and synthesis in skin upon exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Sun exposure is the major source for most people even though sun exposure is complex and limited by climate and culture. We aimed to quantify the sun exposure required to meet vitamin D targets year-round and determine whether this can be safely achieved in a simply defined manner in the UK as an alternative to increasing vitamin D oral intake. Data from observation (sun exposure, diet, and vitamin D status) and UVR intervention studies performed with white Caucasian adults were combined with modeled all-weather UVR climatology...
April 17, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671346/insulin-resistance-is-associated-with-larger-thyroid-volume-in-adults-with-type-1-diabetes-independently-from-presence-of-thyroid-autoimmunity
#4
Anita Rogowicz-Frontczak, Stanislaw Pilacinski, Anna Teresa Chwialkowska, Dariusz Naskret, Dorota Zozulinska-Ziolkiewicz
To investigate the effect of insulin resistance (IR) on thyroid function, thyroid autoimmunity (AIT) and thyroid volume in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). 100 consecutive patients with T1DM aged 29 (±6) years with diabetes duration 13 (±6) years were included. Exclusion criteria were: history of thyroid disease, current treatment with L-thyroxin or anti-thyroid drugs. Evaluation of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroid hormones and anti-thyroid antibodies was performed. Thyroid volume was measured by ultrasonography...
April 19, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671132/effects-of-county-public-hospital-reform-on-procurement-costs-and-volume-of-antibiotics-a-quasi-natural-experiment-in-hubei-province-china
#5
Yuqing Tang, Chaojie Liu, Junjie Liu, Xinping Zhang, Keyuan Zuo
BACKGROUND: The overuse of antibiotics has become a major public health challenge worldwide, especially in low- and middle-income countries, including China. In 2009, the Chinese government launched a series of measures to de-incentivise over-prescription in public health facilities, including decoupling the link between facility income and the sale of medicines. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of these measures on procurement costs and the volume of antibiotics in county public hospitals...
April 18, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669805/glucocorticoid-induced-diabetes-in-patients-with-metastatic-spinal-cord-compression
#6
Helga Holm Schultz, Svend Aage Engelholm, Eva Harder Brix, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Peter Lommer Kristensen
BACKGROUND: The risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM) during treatment with high dose glucocorticoids is unknown and monitoring of glucose is random in many settings. OBJECTIVE: To determine incidence of and risk factors for induction of DM during high dose glucocorticoid therapy of metastatic spinal cord compression in patients referred to radiotherapy. Furthermore, to describe the time course of development of DM. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: 140 patients were recruited (131 were included in the analysis) with metastatic spinal cord compression receiving high dose glucocorticoid, ≥100 mg prednisolone per day were included in a prospective, observational cohort study...
April 18, 2018: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669701/crizotinib-in-patients-with-advanced-inoperable-inflammatory-myofibroblastic-tumours-with-and-without-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-gene-alterations-european-organisation-for-research-and-treatment-of-cancer-90101-create-a-multicentre-single-drug-prospective-non
#7
Patrick Schöffski, Jozef Sufliarsky, Hans Gelderblom, Jean-Yves Blay, Sandra J Strauss, Silvia Stacchiotti, Piotr Rutkowski, Lars H Lindner, Michael G Leahy, Antoine Italiano, Nicolas Isambert, Maria Debiec-Rychter, Raf Sciot, Thomas Van Cann, Sandrine Marréaud, Axelle Nzokirantevye, Sandra Collette, Agnieszka Wozniak
BACKGROUND: An inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm characterised by anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements. We assessed the activity and safety of crizotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, targeting ALK in patients with advanced IMFT either with or without ALK alterations. METHODS: We did a multicentre, biomarker-driven, single-drug, non-randomised, open-label, two-stage phase 2 trial (European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer 90101 CREATE) at 13 study sites (five university hospitals and eight specialty clinics) in eight European countries (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Poland, Slovakia, and the UK)...
April 12, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669521/evaluation-of-candida-bloodstream-infection-and-antifungal-utilization-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#8
Tatiana Aporta Marins, Alexandre R Marra, Michael B Edmond, Marines Dalla Valle Martino, Paula Kiyomi Onaga Yokota, Ana Carolina Cintra Nunes Mafra, Marcelino Souza Durão Junior
BACKGROUND: Candida bloodstream infections carry a significant mortality risk, justifying the importance of adequate antifungal therapy. This study describes trends in antifungal consumption using the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) and Days of Therapy (DOT) metrics, identifies the microbiological profile, the time to initiation of empirical therapy, the adjustment after positive blood culture results for Candida, and the impact on in-hospital mortality rate in patients with candidemia. METHODS: An analysis of antifungal consumption from 2008 to 2016, and of candidemia cases from 2012 to 2016 was carried out in a private tertiary hospital...
April 18, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664896/a-randomized-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial-of-prazosin-for-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder
#9
Claire E Wilcox, J Scott Tonigan, Michael P Bogenschutz, Joshua Clifford, Rose Bigelow, Tracy Simpson
OBJECTIVES: The noradrenergic system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Medications in this class may reduce drinking. Our aims were to investigate this in a unique sample of individuals with AUD. METHODS: Thirty-six individuals with AUD were randomized to treatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 noradrenergic antagonist, or placebo, for 6 weeks (target daily dose 16 mg). Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the effect of treatment group on rate of change in primary (drinks per week [DPW]) and several secondary outcome measures...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663464/uninterrupted-administration-of-edoxaban-vs-vitamin-k-antagonists-in-patients-undergoing-atrial-fibrillation-catheter-ablation-rationale-and-design-of-the-eliminate-af-study
#10
Stefan H Hohnloser, John Camm, Riccardo Cappato, Hans-Christoph Diener, Hein Heidbuchel, Hans-Joachim Lanz, Lluís Mont, Carlos A Morillo, Rüdiger Smolnik, Ophelia Q P Yin, Josef Kautzner
Patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are at an approximately 0.5% to 3% increased risk of thromboembolism during and immediately after catheter ablation. Treatment guidelines recommend periprocedural oral anticoagulation plus unfractionated heparin during ablation. Rivaroxaban and dabigatran are the only non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants for which there are randomized controlled trials assessing uninterrupted anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation of AF. Edoxaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, is noninferior vs warfarin for the prevention of stroke or systemic embolism with less major bleeding in patients with nonvalvular AF...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661158/effect-of-an-intervention-targeting-inappropriate-continued-empirical-parenteral-vancomycin-use-a-quasi-experimental-study-in-a-region-of-high-mrsa-prevalence
#11
Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Hei Lim Koo, Doran Yoon, Ji Yun Bae, Eunyoung Lee, Joo-Hee Hwang, Kyoung-Ho Song, Wan Beom Park, Ji Hwan Bang, Eu Suk Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Sang Won Park, Myoung-Don Oh, Nam Joong Kim
BACKGROUND: Despite vancomycin use is a major risk factor for the emergence of vancomycin resistance, it is frequently inappropriately prescribed, especially as empirical treatment. We evaluated the effect of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention targeting for inappropriate continued empirical vancomycin use. METHODS: This was a quasi-experimental study comparing vancomycin use in a 6-month pre-intervention and 6-month intervention period. If empirical vancomycin was continued for more than 96 h without documentation of beta-lactam-resistant gram-positive microorganisms, it was considered inappropriate continued empirical vancomycin use...
April 16, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661029/antimicrobial-stewardship-program-in-a-greek-hospital-implementing-a-mandatory-prescription-form-and-prospective-audits
#12
Vassiliki Pitiriga, Petros Kanellopoulos, Elsa Kampos, George Panagiotakopoulos, Athanasios Tsakris, George Saroglou
AIM: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are urgently needed for Greek hospitals in order to improve antibiotic usage. PATIENTS & METHODS: An ASP was implemented to a Greek hospital since February 2014. A mandatory order form was introduced for five antimicrobials; colistin, tigecycline, daptomycin, doripenem and linezolid. Prospective audits allowed for feedback to the prescribers without direct prescribing restriction. RESULTS: Antimicrobials' consumption at the baseline year and the 3 years of ASP implementation was 93...
April 17, 2018: Future Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660754/antidepressant-prescription-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-a-nationwide-case-control-study
#13
Chia-Jui Tsai, Wei-Che Chiu, Chia-Ju Chen, Pau-Chung Chen, Roger S McIntyre, Vincent Chin-Hung Chen
INTRODUCTION: In recent decades, concern about safety of antidepressants has been raised but the risk between antidepressants and lung cancer has not yet been established. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted by using a nationwide database in Taiwan. The case groups were new onset lung cancer diagnosis during 1999-2008 and age- and gender-matched controls were selected among those without any cancer. The cumulative exposure dose before the lung cancer diagnosis was added and risks were calculated according to the levels of defined daily dose and classes of antidepressants...
April 16, 2018: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659206/effects-of-antipsychotics-on-secular-mortality-trends-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
René Ernst Nielsen, Jan B Valentin, Annette Lolk, Kjeld Andersen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate secular changes in mortality rates between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the general population as well as changes in antipsychotic drug treatment and the association between drug treatment and mortality in patients with AD in Denmark during a 12-year study period. METHODS: This nationwide, retrospective cohort study identified all-cause mortality in all Danish patients with incident ICD-10-defined AD from 2000 through 2011...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658620/impact-of-economic-sanctions-on-access-to-noncommunicable-diseases-medicines-in-the-islamic-republic-of-iran
#15
Mehrnaz Kheirandish, Vida Varahrami, Abbas Kebriaeezade, Abdol Majid Cheraghali
Background: It has been argued that economic sanctions and the economic crisis have adversely affected access to drugs. Aim: To assess the impact of economic sanctions on the Iranian banking system in 2011 and Central Bank in 2012 on access to and use of drugs for noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Methods: An interrupted time series study assessed the effects of sanctions on drugs for diabetes (5 drug groups), asthma (5 drug groups), cancer (14 drugs) and multiple sclerosis (2 drugs)...
April 5, 2018: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, la Revue de Santé de la Méditerranée Orientale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651413/are-there-striking-differences-in-outpatient-use-of-antibiotics-between-south-backa-district-serbia-and-some-scandinavian-countries
#16
Olga Horvat, Vesna Mijatović, Boris Milijasević, Ana Tomas, Milica Paut Kusturica, Zdenko Tomić, Ana Sabo
There is little published information about antibiotic utilization in outpatients in Serbia. The objective of this study was to determine the amount and structure of outpatient antibiotic use in South Backa District (SBD) in Serbia, to assess prescibing quality of antibiotics and to compare with results from Scandinavian countries. Data on the antibiotic use were collected from all private and state-owned pharmacies from January through March 2008 in SBD. Results were expressed as the number of defined daily doses/1,000 inhabitants/day...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649197/metronidazole-stewardship-initiative-at-christchurch-hospitals-achievable-with-immediate-benefits
#17
Sharon J Gardiner, Sarah Cl Metcalf, Paul Kl Chin, Matthew P Doogue, Simon C Dalton, Stephen T Chambers
AIMS: To evaluate an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) initiative to change hospital prescribing practice for metronidazole. METHODS: In October 2015, the Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) AMS committee changed advice for metronidazole to promote two times daily dosing for most indications, prioritisation of the oral route and avoidance of double anaerobic cover. Adoption of the initiative was facilitated via change in prescribing guidelines, education and ongoing pharmacy support...
April 13, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627689/slower-nicotine-metabolism-among-postmenopausal-polish-smokers
#18
Leon Kosmider, Marcin Delijewski, Bartosz Koszowski, Andrzej Sobczak, Neal L Benowitz, Maciej L Goniewicz
BACKGROUND: A non-invasive phenotypic indicator of the rate of nicotine metabolism is nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) defined as a ratio of two major metabolites of nicotine - trans-3'-hydroxycotinine/cotinine. The rate of nicotine metabolism has important clinical implications for the likelihood of successful quitting with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT). We conducted a study to measure NMR among Polish smokers. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study of 180 daily cigarette smokers (42% men; average age 34...
November 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623039/simvastatin-therapy-for-drug-repositioning-to-reduce-the-risk-of-prostate-cancer-mortality-in-patients-with-hyperlipidemia
#19
Yu-An Chen, Ying-Ju Lin, Cheng-Li Lin, Hwai-Jeng Lin, Hua-Shan Wu, Hui-Ying Hsu, Yu-Chen Sun, Hui-Yu Wu, Chih-Ho Lai, Chia-Hung Kao
Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the western world, and the mortality rate from PCa in Asia has been increasing recently. Statins are potent inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and are commonly used for treating hyperlipidemia, with beneficial effects for cardiovascular disease and they also exhibit anti-cancer activity. However, the protective effects of statins against PCa are controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of two types of statins (simvastatin and lovastatin) and the mortality rate of PCa patients by using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619760/effect-of-statin-intensity-on-the-risk-of-epilepsy-after-ischaemic-stroke-real-world-evidence-from-population-based-health-claims
#20
Fang-Ju Lin, Hung-Wei Lin, Yunn-Fang Ho
BACKGROUND: Statins possess neuroprotective effects. However, real-world evidence supporting their utility in post-stroke epilepsy (PSE) prevention is limited. OBJECTIVE: The association between statin use, including timing of prescribing (pre-stroke vs post-stroke), type (lipophilicity, intensity of therapy) and dose intensity, and risk of developing PSE were investigated by studying Taiwanese health claims (2003-2013). METHODS: Patients with new-onset ischaemic stroke were identified...
April 4, 2018: CNS Drugs
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