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Defined daily doses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917747/quantifying-antimicrobial-exposure-hazards-in-populations-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#1
Graham M Snyder, Christopher McCoy, Erika M C D'Agata
Using a rigorously collected data set of antimicrobial use among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, antimicrobial use was calculated using 3 different methodologies: daily defined dose, days of therapy, and start-stop days. Estimates of antimicrobial use varied by as much as 10-fold, depending on the type of antimicrobial. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-4.
December 5, 2016: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916142/alcohol-sensitivity-alcohol-use-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-older-chinese-men-the-guangzhou-biobank-cohort-study
#2
Shao Jun Xu, Chao Qiang Jiang, Wei Sen Zhang, Kar Keung Cheng, Catherine Mary Schooling, Lin Xu, Bin Liu, Ya Li Jin, Kin Bong Hubert Lam, Tai Hing Lam
Compared to other ethnic groups Asians are more likely to be sensitive to alcohol, due to polymorphisms of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes. Although previous studies have found positive association between regular alcohol use and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (HsCRP), whether this association is modified by alcohol sensitivity has not been clarified. We therefore sought to examined this potential effect modification in a cross-sectional community sample with high prevalence of alcohol sensitivity, using data from 2903 men aged ≥50years recruited during phase 1 of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study...
December 2016: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909874/is-daily-low-dose-aspirin-safe-to-take-following-laparoscopic-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-for-obesity-surgery
#3
Xian Kang, Dennis Hong, Mehran Anvari, Maria Tiboni, Nalin Amin, Scott Gmora
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery is a safe and effective procedure for patients with severe obesity. One potential complication of LRYGB is the development of marginal ulcers (MUs). Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to significantly increase the likelihood of developing marginal ulcers after surgery. However, the risk associated with low-dose aspirin consumption is not well defined. We examined the impact of daily low-dose aspirin (81 mg) on the development of marginal ulcers following LRYGB...
December 1, 2016: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901449/incidence-of-sterile-hemorrhagic-cystitis-in-tumor-bearing-dogs-concurrently-treated-with-oral-metronomic-cyclophosphamide-chemotherapy-and-furosemide-55-cases-2009-2015
#4
Catherine M Chan, Angela E Frimberger, Antony S Moore
OBJECTIVE To determine the incidence of sterile hemorrhagic cystitis (SHC) in tumor-bearing dogs concurrently treated with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy and furosemide. DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 55 dogs. PROCEDURES Record databases of 2 specialty practices were searched to identify dogs treated with oral metronomic cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in conjunction with furosemide for a minimum of 28 days between January 2009 and December 2015. Information extracted from the records included signalment, tumor diagnosis, cyclophosphamide and furosemide dosages, and concurrent medications...
December 15, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897185/effect-of-imidafenacin-on-the-urodynamic-parameters-of-patients-with-indwelling-bladder-catheters-due-to-spinal-cord-injury
#5
H Sugiyama, O Uemura, T Mori, N Okisio, K Unai, M Liu
STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of imidafenacin on the urodynamic parameters of patients with indwelling bladder catheters due to spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Spinal center (Tokyo, Japan). METHODS: Imidafenacin was prescribed to 34 patients with SCI who had a low cystometric volume and/or detrusor compliance according to a urodynamic study. A low cystometric volume and detrusor compliance were defined as <200 ml and <20 ml cm(-1) H2O, respectively...
November 29, 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893820/azithromycin-vs-placebo-for-the-clinical-outcome-in-campylobacter-concisus-diarrhoea-in-adults-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#6
Hans Linde Nielsen, Karina Frahm Kirk, Jacob Bodilsen, Tove Ejlertsen, Henrik Nielsen
: Campylobacter concisus has been associated with prolonged mild diarrhoea, but investigations regarding the efficacy of antimicrobial treatment have not been reported previously. We initiated a phase 3, single-centre, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study comparing the efficacy of 500 mg once-daily dose of azithromycin with a 500 mg once-daily dose of placebo for three days, for the treatment of C. concisus diarrhoea in adult patients with a follow-up period of ten days...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888416/lesion-remyelinating-activity-of-gsk239512-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-a-randomised-single-blind-phase-ii-study
#7
Caryl J Schwartzbach, Richard A Grove, Robert Brown, Debra Tompson, Florian Then Bergh, Douglas L Arnold
Histamine H3 receptor blockade may enhance lesion remyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS). The efficacy (using a magnetic resonance imaging marker of myelination, magnetisation transfer ratio [MTR]), safety and pharmacokinetics of GSK239512, a potent and brain penetrant H3 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist on lesion remyelination in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) were assessed. This was a phase II, randomised, parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind (sponsor-unblinded), international, multicentre study (NCT01772199)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887595/antimicrobial-stewardship-of-chinese-ministry-of-health-reduces-multidrug-resistant-organism-isolates-in-critically-ill-patients-a-pre-post-study-from-a-single-center
#8
Xudong Ma, Jianfeng Xie, Yi Yang, Fengmei Guo, Zhiwei Gao, Hua Shao, Yingzi Huang, Congshan Yang, Haibo Qiu
BACKGROUND: China's Ministry of Health (MOH) has established a policy about the antimicrobial stewardship. To date, the effects of this policy on multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) in critically ill patients are unknown. METHODS: A pre-post study was conducted on intensive care unit (ICU) patients from June 2010 to May 2011 and from June 2012 to May 2013. Bacterial cultures were conducted at ICU admission and discharge. In June 2011, our hospital started to administer the antimicrobial stewardship program of Chinese MOH...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886038/surveillance-of-antibiotic-use-in-the-private-sector-in-namibia-using-sales-and-claims-data
#9
Dawn Dineo Pereko, Martie S Lubbe, Sabiha Y Essack
INTRODUCTION: Antibiotics are among the most commonly used therapeutic agents for humans globally, and their use has been associated with the development of resistance. The objective of this study was to identify sources for quantifying antibiotic usage patterns and to assess such use in ambulatory patients in the private health sector of Namibia. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of prescription claims data and sales data for the period 2008 to 2011 was conducted...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878673/reforming-the-swedish-pharmaceuticals-market-consequences-for-costs-per-defined-daily-dose
#10
Mats A Bergman, David Granlund, Niklas Rudholm
In 2009 and 2010, the Swedish pharmaceuticals market was reformed. One of the stated policy goals was to achieve low costs for pharmaceutical products dispensed in Sweden. We use price and sales data for off-patent brand-name and generic pharmaceuticals to estimate a log-linear regression model, allowing us to assess how the policy changes affected the cost per defined daily dose. The estimated effect is an 18 % cost reduction per defined daily dose at the retail level and a 34 % reduction in the prices at the wholesale level (pharmacies' purchase prices)...
September 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878559/impact-of-drug-manipulation-on-seizure-freedom-in-adults-with-uncontrolled-epilepsy-a-prospective-controlled-study-in-rural-china
#11
Xiaoting Hao, Ziyi Chen, Bo Yan, Patrick Kwan, Dong Zhou
INTRODUCTION: It has been suggested that uncontrolled epilepsy might not necessarily equate to drug resistance when antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are used at relatively low doses, a practice frequently observed in rural areas of China. OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical benefits of further drug manipulation in this situation, we prospectively followed up the outcomes of patients with uncontrolled epilepsy while taking relatively low doses of AEDs. METHODS: The study included patients aged 16 years and older with uncontrolled epilepsy and who were receiving at least one AED at a dosage below 50% of the World Health Organization (WHO) defined daily dose (DDD) (50% DDD) (Group 1)...
November 22, 2016: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878317/-what-is-currently-available-for-sport-medicine-therapy
#12
U Tegtbur
After 30 years of age physical capacity decreases with increasing age by 5-20% per decade. High physical activity in daily life as well as exercise training of endurance, strength, coordination and mobility can delay the functional and anatomical loss of muscle, bone, cartilage and connective tissue by more than 10 years. In recent years, numerous concepts have scientifically been proven in the exercise therapy of internal diseases; therefore, similar to drug treatment, cellular mechanisms of exercise training adaptation are known in detail...
December 2016: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872953/a-phase-i-study-of-afatinib-combined-with-paclitaxel-and-bevacizumab-in-patients-with-advanced-solid-tumors
#13
James Spicer, Sheeba Irshad, Joo Ern Ang, Deborah Enting, Rebecca Kristeleit, Martina Uttenreuther-Fischer, Karine Pemberton, Katy Pelling, David Schnell, Johann de Bono
PURPOSE: The combination of afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family blocker, with paclitaxel and bevacizumab was assessed in patients with advanced solid tumors. METHODS: This phase I study used a 3 + 3 design to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of afatinib combined with paclitaxel and bevacizumab. Safety, pharmacokinetics, and anti-tumor activity were also assessed. The starting dose was oral afatinib 40 mg once daily plus intravenous paclitaxel (fixed dose 80 mg/m(2), Days 1, 8, and 15 of a 4-week cycle) and intravenous bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks...
November 21, 2016: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871957/tramadol-abuse-and-sexual-function
#14
REVIEW
Ibrahim A Abdel-Hamid, Karl-Erik Andersson, Marcel D Waldinger, Tarek H Anis
INTRODUCTION: Tramadol exhibits an effect profile similar to that of opioid agonists, and tramadol abuse seems to be a problem for a number of countries. The relationship between tramadol and sexual function appears to be controversial. Men with premature ejaculation (PE) may benefit from taking tramadol off label; however, these patients live "on a knife's edge" and are exquisitely sensitive to develop other sexual dysfunctions. AIM: To review the literature regarding the problem of tramadol abuse and its relationship with sexual function...
July 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867290/ranolazine-is-an-effective-and-safe-treatment-of-adults-with-symptomatic-premature-ventricular-contractions-due-to-triggered-ectopy
#15
Gary L Murray
Early and delayed afterdepolarizations (EAD/DAD) cause triggered ventricular ectopy. Because ranolazine (RAN) suppresses EAD/DAD, we postulated that RAN might be effective in reducing premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). To assess the effect of RAN in patients with symptomatic PVCs due to triggered ectopy and its safety and tolerability. A total of 59 patients with symptomatic PVCs were identified from full-disclosure Holters. Doses of 500 and 1,000 mg offlabel RAN, daily, were given to 34 and 66% patients, respectively, and repeat Holters were performed prospectively during mean followup of 3...
December 2016: International Journal of Angiology: Official Publication of the International College of Angiology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865491/prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-or-ampc-producing-escherichia-coli-in-organic-dairy-herds-in-the-netherlands
#16
I M G A Santman-Berends, M A Gonggrijp, J J Hage, A E Heuvelink, A Velthuis, T J G M Lam, G van Schaik
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase and AmpC-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC) are an emerging problem and are hypothesized to be associated with antimicrobial use (AMU), and more specifically with the use of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins. Whether ESBL/AmpC also occur in organic dairy herds, which have restricted AMU, is not known. Additionally, it is unknown whether, in addition to restricted AMU, other factors in organic herd management are associated with ESBL/AmpC herd status. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC in organic dairy herds in the Netherlands...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864013/factors-predictive-of-response-disease-progression-and-overall-survival-after-dabrafenib-and-trametinib-combination-treatment-a-pooled-analysis-of-individual-patient-data-from-randomised-trials
#17
Georgina V Long, Jean-Jacques Grob, Paul Nathan, Antoni Ribas, Caroline Robert, Dirk Schadendorf, Stephen R Lane, Carmen Mak, Philippe Legenne, Keith T Flaherty, Michael A Davies
BACKGROUND: Dabrafenib plus trametinib treatment provides significant benefits over BRAF-inhibitor monotherapy in patients with BRAF(V600E)-mutant or BRAF(V600K)-mutant advanced melanoma; however, in many patients the disease progresses, leading to death. With many treatment options available, understanding clinical factors that predict long-term response and survival for treatments is important for optimisation of patient management. We aimed to identify clinical factors associated with long-term response and survival using pooled data from randomised trials of dabrafenib plus trametinib in patients with metastatic BRAF-mutant melanoma...
November 15, 2016: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863522/cardiometabolic-health-prescribed-antipsychotics-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-people-with-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders-a-cross-sectional-study
#18
Daniel Bressington, Jolene Mui, Mei Ling Tse, Richard Gray, Eric F C Cheung, Wai Tong Chien
BACKGROUND: People with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (SSD) often have high levels of obesity and poor cardiometabolic health. Certain types of antipsychotics have been shown to contribute towards weight gain and there is some equivocal evidence that obesity is related to poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in people with SSD. It is also still uncertain if antipsychotic polypharmacy/higher doses of antipsychotics are linked with HRQoL and/or increased risk of obesity/Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)...
November 18, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862414/epidemiology-and-cost-implications-of-candidemia-a-6-year-analysis-from-a-developing-country
#19
Aysegul Ulu Kilic, Emine Alp, Fatma Cevahir, Zeynep Ture, Nuran Yozgat
Surveillance of candidemia is essential to monitor trends in species distribution and change in the incidence and antifungal resistance. In this study, we aimed to investigate prevalence, resistance rates, antifungal utilization and costs. A 6-year retrospective analysis of the data belonging to patients with candidemia hospitalized between 2010 and 2016 was performed. The annual usage of fluconazole and caspofungin and the usage of these antifungals in different units were described in defined daily doses (DDD) per 1000 patient days...
November 9, 2016: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861855/effect-of-statin-on-hepatocellular-carcinoma-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-nationwide-nested-case-control-study
#20
Gyuri Kim, Suk-Yong Jang, Eugene Han, Yong-Ho Lee, Se-Young Park, Chung Mo Nam, Eun Seok Kang
Relationship on new statin use and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), who might be at the risk of developing HCC, is uncertained. A nationwide population-based nested case-control study was conducted within the National Health Insurance Service National Sample Cohort 2002-2013 in Korea. Newly prescribed statin after newly diagnosed T2DM was defined as statin use. Controls were matched to case patients on age, sex, follow-up time, and the date of diabetes diagnosis at a five-to-one ratio...
November 7, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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