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Defined daily doses

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226863/associations-between-use-of-specific-analgesics-and-concentrations-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-42-or-phospho-tau-in-regions-of-human-cerebral-cortex
#1
Margaret E Flanagan, Eric B Larson, Rod L Walker, C Dirk Keene, Nadia Postupna, Brenna Cholerton, Joshua A Sonnen, Sascha Dublin, Paul K Crane, Thomas J Montine
Analgesics are commonly used by older adults, raising the question of whether their use might contribute to dementia risk and neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) study is a population-based study of brain aging and incident dementia among people 65 years or older who are community dwelling and not demented at entry. Amyloid-β (Aβ)42 and phospho-tau were quantified using Histelide in regions of cerebral cortex from 420 brain autopsies. Total standard daily doses of prescription opioid and non-aspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exposure during a defined 10-year exposure window were identified using automated pharmacy dispensing data and used to classify people as having no/low, intermediate, or high exposure...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221894/efficacy-of-an-inactivated-mycoplasma-hyorhinis-vaccine-in-pigs
#2
Brian Martinson, Whitney Zoghby, Kenneth Barrett, Lawrence Bryson, Rodney Christmas, F C Minion, Jeremy Kroll
Lameness and polyserositis in pigs caused by Mycoplasma hyorhinis are generally treated with antibiotics and may require multiple doses. The costs of these antibiotics combined with economic losses from culling and reduced feed conversion due to lameness are hardships to the swine producer. In this study we have demonstrated efficacy of an inactivated M. hyorhinis vaccine administered to three-week old caesarian-derived colostrum-deprived piglets. Three doses of vaccine (high, medium, and low) were evaluated and compared to a placebo control...
December 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221876/conventional-versus-hypofractionated-radiation-therapy-for-localized-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-noninferiority-trials
#3
REVIEW
Trevor Joseph Royce, Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Nitipong Permpalung, Calvin J Chiew, Sherise Epstein, Kristen M Pluchino, Anthony V D'Amico
CONTEXT: Whether hypofractionated radiation therapy (RT) compared with conventionally fractionated RT provides comparable or possibly improved cancer control without increased toxicity in localized prostate cancer (PC) remains unknown. OBJECTIVE: Realizing from the CHHiP trial that outcomes are highly sensitive to the dose fractionation schedule and number of treatments, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis selecting only the randomized noninferiority trials, because the randomized arms closely approximated one another in terms of the dose fractionation schedule, and compared cancer control and toxicity of hypofractionated RT with conventionally fractionated RT for localized PC...
November 4, 2017: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220525/impact-of-opioid-dose-reduction-and-risk-mitigation-initiatives-on-chronic-opioid-therapy-patients-at-higher-risk-for-opioid-related-adverse-outcomes
#4
Manu Thakral, Rod L Walker, Kathleen Saunders, Susan M Shortreed, Sascha Dublin, Michael Parchman, Ryan N Hansen, Evette Ludman, Karen J Sherman, Michael Von Korff
Objective: We aimed to determine if opioid risk reduction initiatives including dose reduction and risk mitigation strategies for chronic noncancer pain patients receiving chronic opioid therapy (COT) had a differential impact on average daily opioid doses of COT patients at higher risk for opioid-related adverse outcomes compared with lower-risk patients. Design: Interrupted time series. Setting: Group Health Cooperative (GH), a health care delivery system and insurance within Washington State, between 2006 and 2014...
December 6, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216396/short-term-efficacy-and-safety-of-rituximab-therapy-in-refractory-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-results-from-the-british-isles-lupus-assessment-group-biologics-register
#5
Eoghan M McCarthy, Emily Sutton, Stephanie Nesbit, James White, Ben Parker, David Jayne, Bridget Griffiths, David A Isenberg, Anisur Rahman, Caroline Gordon, David P D'Cruz, Benjamin Rhodes, Peter Lanyon, Edward M Vital, Chee-Seng Yee, Christopher J Edwards, Lee-Suan Teh, Mohammed Akil, Neil J McHugh, Asad Zoma, Ian N Bruce
Objectives: To describe the baseline characteristics of SLE patients requiring biologic therapy in the UK and to explore short term efficacy and infection rates associated with rituximab (RTX) use. Methods: Patients commencing biologic therapy for refractory SLE and who consented to join BILAG-BR were analysed. Baseline characteristics, disease activity (BILAG 2004/SLEDAI-2K) and rates of infection over follow-up were analysed. Response was defined as loss of all A and B BILAG scores to ⩽ 1 B score with no new A/B scores in other organ systems at 6 months...
December 5, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216279/emerging-hazard-effects-of-proton-pump-inhibitor-on-the-risk-of-colorectal-cancer-in-low-risk-populations-a-korean-nationwide-prospective-cohort-study
#6
In Cheol Hwang, Jooyoung Chang, Sang Min Park
PURPOSE: Despite plausible mechanisms, the clinical significance of long-term proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use to colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between PPI use and CRC development. METHODS: We conducted a population-based prospective cohort study using the Korean nationwide claims database merged with national health examination data. The study cohort included a total of 451,284 participants who were tracked to identify cases of CRC since 2007...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215335/previous-antibiotic-exposure-and-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-of-acinetobacter-spp-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolated-from-patients-with-nosocomial-infections
#7
Zorana M Djordjevic, Marko M Folic, Slobodan M Jankovic
BACKGROUND: The alarming spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing healthcare-associated infections has been extensively reported in recent medical literature. AIMS: To compare trends in antimicrobial consumption and development of resistance among isolates of Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa that cause hospital infections. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: A study was conducted in a tertiary healthcare institution in central Serbia, during the 7-year period between January 2009 and December 2015...
December 1, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212985/bone-formation-parameters-of-the-biopsied-ilium-differ-between-subtrochanteric-and-diaphyseal-atypical-femoral-fractures-in-bisphosphonate-treated-patients
#8
Naoki Kondo, Tomomi Fukuhara, Yo Watanabe, Dai Miyasaka, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hiroe Sato, Yoko Wada, Takeshi Nakatsue, Junichi Fujisawa, Mayumi Sakuma, Norio Imai, Takuya Yoda, Ichiei Narita, Naoto Endo
Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are defined as atraumatic or low-trauma fractures located in the subtrochanteric or diaphyseal sites. Long-term bisphosphonates (BPs) are administered to prevent fragility fractures in patients with primary osteoporosis or collagen diseases who are already taking glucocorticoids (GCs). Long-term BP use is one of the most important risk factors for AFFs. Its pathogenesis is characterized by severely suppressed bone turnover (SSBT), but whether the characteristics of patients are different regarding to location of fracture site remains unknown...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212628/mobile-health-intervention-to-increase-oral-cancer-therapy-adherence-in-patients-with-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-the-remind-system-clinical-feasibility-and-acceptability-assessment
#9
Amanda Pereira-Salgado, Jennifer A Westwood, Lahiru Russell, Anna Ugalde, Bronwen Ortlepp, John F Seymour, Phyllis Butow, Lawrence Cavedon, Kevin Ong, Sanchia Aranda, Sibilah Breen, Suzanne Kirsa, Andrew Dunlevie, Penelope Schofield
BACKGROUND: Optimal dosing of oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy is critical to treatment success and survival of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Drug intolerance secondary to toxicities and nonadherence are significant factors in treatment failure. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and pilot-test the clinical feasibility and acceptability of a mobile health system (REMIND) to increase oral drug adherence and patient symptom self-management among people with CML (chronic phase)...
December 6, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211509/pharmacist-based-antihypertensive-medication-review-and-assignment-of-morning-versus-evening-dosing-of-once-daily-antihypertensive-medications-a-pilot-study-to-assess-feasibility-and-efficacy-in-chronic-kidney-disease-patients
#10
Julia R Smith, Lisa Hillman, Paul E Drawz
Evening dosing of antihypertensive medications lowers nighttime blood pressure, and in one large randomized trial, it reduced the risk for cardiovascular outcomes. However, the feasibility of nighttime dosing in routine clinical practice is unknown. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effect of a brief pharmacist intervention to assign patients to take antihypertensive medications at specific times of the day. In this pilot, randomized controlled trial, 79 patients with moderate to severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) taking one or more antihypertensive medications once daily were randomized to take one once-daily antihypertensive either in the morning or in the evening...
December 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210625/evaluation-of-oral-serum-derived-bovine-immunoglobulins-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-chronic-idiopathic-diarrhea
#11
David M Asmuth, John E Hinkle, Anthony LaMarca, Carl J Fichtenbaum, Ma Somsouk, Netanya S Utay, Audrey L Shaw, Bryon W Petschow, Christopher J Detzel, Eric M Weaver
Objectives To evaluate serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin/protein isolate (SBI) for safety and impact on gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in HIV patients with chronic idiopathic diarrhea. Methods A multi-center trial comprised of a double-blind, placebo (PBO)-controlled lead-in phase, (participants received PBO or SBI at 2.5 or 5.0 g BID for 4 weeks) followed by a 20-week, PBO-free phase (SBI at either 2.5 or 5.0 g BID). Participants included HIV-infected patients who were virologically suppressed with a history of chronic idiopathic diarrhea, defined as > 3 loose stools per day for ≥ 3 months without an identifiable cause...
November 2017: HIV Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205856/use-and-effectiveness-of-a-fixed-ratio-combination-of-insulin-degludec-liraglutide-ideglira-in-a-real-world-population-with-type-2-diabetes-results-from-a-european-multicentre-retrospective-chart-review-study
#12
Hermione Price, Matthias Blüher, Rudolf Prager, Tra-Mi Phan, Brian Larsen Thorsted, Bernd Schultes
AIMS: EXTRA aimed to describe real-world use and effectiveness of IDegLira, a fixed-ratio combination of the basal insulin degludec, and the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This European, multicentre, retrospective chart review comprised adults (n=611) with type 2 diabetes, who started IDegLira ≥6 months before data collection. Clinical characteristics were assessed at baseline (defined as the most recent recording during the 6 months before the first IDegLira prescription) and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (± 45 days for each time point) after commencing IDegLira, where data available...
December 5, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201318/antibiotic-resistance-status-and-its-costs-in-hematological-patients-a-two-year-analysis
#13
Habip Gedik
Background: Most frequently, empirical antibiotic therapy is immediately administered for patients with febrile neutropenia (FN). In this study, its aim was to assess the antibiotic resistance status and the cost of antibacterial agents in FN patients associated with hematological malignancies. Methods: The cost of antibacterial agents used in FN episodes in patients with hematologic neoplasms followed-up at the Department of Hematology from November 2010 to November 2012 were analyzed retrospectively...
2017: Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200861/statin-therapy-for-preventing-cardiovascular-diseases-in-patients-treated-with-tacrolimus-after-kidney-transplantation
#14
Nayoung Han, Seung Hee Han, Yun-Kyoung Song, Myeong Gyu Kim, Yon Su Kim, In-Wha Kim, Jung Mi Oh
Background: Lipid abnormalities are prevalent in tacrolimus-treated patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the preventive effects of statin therapy on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients treated with tacrolimus-based immunosuppression after kidney transplantation (KT), and to identify the risk factors. Methods: This observational cohort study included adult patients who underwent KT and were treated with tacrolimus. Patients who received any lipid-lowering agents except statins, or had a history of immunosuppressant use before transplantation were excluded...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200247/review-of-utilization-of-cardiovascular-medicines-by-daily-defined-dose-in-the-czech-republic-and-slovak-republic
#15
(no author information available yet)
To the Editor, Drug utilization is an important field of drug policy and an integral part of public health internationally. This area of research attracts increasing interest but the pioneering work was done 50 years ago when the first drug consumption report from six European countries for the period of 1966-1967 showed great differences in drug utilization between population groups (WHO, 1968). These results gave important stimulus for creation of Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification and technical unit of measurement called the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) which is specified as "the assumed average maintenance dose per day for a drug used for its main indication in adults" that dealt with the objections against traditional units of measurement in drug utilization studies (WHO, 2016)...
November 4, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199404/improvement-of-glycosylated-hemoglobin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-under-insulin-treatment-by-reimbursement-for-self-monitoring-of-blood-glucose
#16
Young Shin Song, Bo Kyung Koo, Sang Wan Kim, Ka Hee Yi, Kichul Shin, Min Kyong Moon
BACKGROUND: In Korea, the costs associated with self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) under insulin treatment have been reimbursed since November 2015. We investigated whether this new reimbursement program for SMBG has improved the glycemic control in the beneficiaries of this policy. METHODS: Among all adult T2DM patients with ≥3 months of reimbursement (n=854), subjects without any changes in anti-hyperglycemic agents during the study period were selected...
September 28, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197283/the-dose-makes-the-poison
#17
Liang Chen, John P Giesy, Ping Xie
Some microcystins (MCs) might cause hepatotoxicity in animals and humans. MC-LR is also a tumor promoter and a suspect carcinogen. In 2010, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified MC-LR as a possible human carcinogen (Group 2B). Recently, an article entitled "Long-term, low-dose exposure to microcystin toxin does not increase the risk of liver tumor development or growth in mice" was published in Hepatology Research by Meaghan Labine and Gerald Y. Minuk. However, the experimental design was flawed and the conclusion is misleading...
November 29, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193284/drug-burden-index-to-define-the-burden-of-medicines-in-older-adults-with-intellectual-disabilities-an-observational-cross-sectional-study
#18
J O'Connell, E Burke, N Mulryan, C O'Dwyer, C Donegan, P McCallion, M McCarron, M C Henman, M O'Dwyer
AIMS: The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a dose-related measure of anticholinergic and sedative drug exposure. This cross-sectional study described DBI in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) and the most frequently reported therapeutic classes contributing to DBI and examined associations between higher DBI scores and potential adverse effects as well as physical function. METHODS: This study analysed data from Wave 2 (2013/2014) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA), a representative study on the ageing of people with ID in Ireland...
November 29, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189664/early-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-posaconazole-oral-suspension-in-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#19
Hyeon Jeong Suh, Inho Kim, Joo-Youn Cho, Sang-In Park, Seo Hyun Yoon, Joo-Hee Hwang, Ji Yun Bae, Jeong-Ok Lee, Youngil Koh, Kyoung-Ho Song, Pyoeng Gyun Choe, Kyung-Sang Yu, Eu Suk Kim, Hong Bin Kim, Soo-Mee Bang, Nam Joong Kim, Myoung-Don Oh, Sang Hoon Song, Wan Beom Park
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of posaconazole is usually performed one week after starting the drug because of its long half-life. However, previous studies showed that measuring the posaconazole plasma concentration (PPC) on day 3 is effective for predicting steady-state levels. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of early TDM (day 3) of posaconazole for achieving an optimal PPC. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted from September 2014 to August 2016...
November 16, 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180868/the-efficacy-of-antipsychotics-for-prolonged-delirium-with-renal-dysfunction
#20
Satoko Asano, Yasuto Kunii, Hiroshi Hoshino, Yusuke Osakabe, Tetsuya Shiga, Shuntaro Itagaki, Itaru Miura, Hirooki Yabe
Aim: Delirium is commonly encountered in daily clinical practice. To identify predictors influencing outcomes, we retrospectively examined the characteristics of inpatients with delirium who required psychiatric medication during hospitalization. Methods: We extracted all new inpatients (n=523) consulted for psychiatric symptoms at Fukushima Medical University Hospital between October 2011 and September 2013. We selected 203 inpatients with delirium diagnosed by psychiatrists...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
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