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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925687/androgen-excess-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells-and-neurons-predisposes-female-mice-to-type-2-diabetes
#1
Guadalupe Navarro, Camille Allard, Jamie J Morford, Weiwei Xu, Suhuan Liu, Adrien Jr Molinas, Sierra M Butcher, Nicholas Hf Fine, Manuel Blandino-Rosano, Venkata N Sure, Sangho Yu, Rui Zhang, Heike Münzberg, David A Jacobson, Prasad V Katakam, David J Hodson, Ernesto Bernal-Mizrachi, Andrea Zsombok, Franck Mauvais-Jarvis
Androgen excess predisposes women to type 2 diabetes (T2D), but the mechanism of this is poorly understood. We report that female mice fed a Western diet and exposed to chronic androgen excess using dihydrotestosterone (DHT) exhibit hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance associated with secondary pancreatic β cell failure, leading to hyperglycemia. These abnormalities are not observed in mice lacking the androgen receptor (AR) in β cells and partially in neurons of the mediobasal hypothalamus (MBH) as well as in mice lacking AR selectively in neurons...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29924854/food-restriction-promotes-damage-reduction-in-rat-models-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Carlos Vinicius Dalto da Rosa, Jéssica Men de Campos, Anacharis Babeto de Sá Nakanishi, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Paulo Cézar de Freitas Mathias, Maria Montserrat Diaz Pedrosa, Vilma Aparecida Ferreira de Godoi, Maria Raquel Marçal Natali
There are several animal models of type 2 diabetes mellitus induction but the comparison between models is scarce. Food restriction generates benefits, such as reducing oxidative stress, but there are few studies on its effects on diabetes. The objective of this study is to evaluate the differences in physiological and biochemical parameters between diabetes models and their responses to food restriction. For this, 30 male Wistar rats were distributed in 3 groups (n = 10/group): control (C); diabetes with streptozotocin and cafeteria-style diet (DE); and diabetes with streptozotocin and nicotinamide (DN), all treated for two months (pre-food restriction period)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923291/inflammation-of-brown-beige-adipose-tissues-in-obesity-and-metabolic-disease
#3
Francesc Villarroya, Rubén Cereijo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Joan Villarroya, Marta Giralt
Many of the comorbidities of obesity, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are related to the low-grade chronic inflammation of white adipose tissue. Under white adipocyte stress, local infiltration of immune cells and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines together reduce metabolic flexibility and lead to insulin resistance in obesity. Whereas white adipocytes act in energy storage, brown and beige adipocytes specialize in energy expenditure. Brown and beige activity protects against obesity and associated metabolic disorders, such as hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913098/radiofrequency-radiation-emitted-from-wi-fi-2-4-ghz-causes-impaired-insulin-secretion-and-increased-oxidative-stress-in-rat-pancreatic-islets
#4
Ali Masoumi, Narges Karbalaei, S M J Mortazavi, Mohammad Shabani
PURPOSE: There is a great concern regarding the possible adverse effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). This study investigated the effects of EMR induced by Wi-Fi (2.45GHz) on insulin secretion and antioxidant redox systems in the rat pancreas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the weight range of 230 to 260 g were divided into control, sham, Wi-Fi exposed groups. After long term exposure (4 h/day for 45 days) to Wi-Fi electromagnetic radiation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test were measured...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897131/glycogen-at-the-crossroad-of-stress-resistance-energy-maintenance-and-pathophysiology-of-aging
#5
REVIEW
Ivan Gusarov, Evgeny Nudler
Glycogen is synthesized and stored to maintain postprandial blood glucose homeostasis and to ensure an uninterrupted energy supply between meals. Although the regulation of glycogen turnover has been well studied, the effects of glycogen on aging and disease development have been largely unexplored. In Caenorhabditis elegans fed a high sugar diet, glycogen potentiates resistance to oxidants, but paradoxically, shortens lifespan. Depletion of glycogen by oxidants or inhibition of glycogen synthesis extends the lifespan of worms by an AMPK-dependent mechanism...
June 13, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891771/role-of-magnesium-deficiency-in-promoting-atherosclerosis-endothelial-dysfunction-and-arterial-stiffening-as-risk-factors-for-hypertension
#6
REVIEW
Krasimir Kostov, Lyudmila Halacheva
Arterial hypertension is a disease with a complex pathogenesis. Despite considerable knowledge about this socially significant disease, the role of magnesium deficiency (MgD) as a risk factor is not fully understood. Magnesium is a natural calcium antagonist. It potentiates the production of local vasodilator mediators (prostacyclin and nitric oxide) and alters vascular responses to a variety of vasoactive substances (endothelin-1, angiotensin II, and catecholamines). MgD stimulates the production of aldosterone and potentiates vascular inflammatory response, while expression/activity of various antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase) and the levels of important antioxidants (vitamin C, vitamin E, and selenium) are decreased...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891593/human-aldose-reductase-expression-prevents-atherosclerosis-regression-in-diabetic-mice
#7
Chujun Yuan, Jiyuan Hu, Saj Parathath, Lisa Grauer, Courtney Blachford Cassella, Svetlana Bagdasarov, Ira J Goldberg, Ravichandran Ramasamy, Edward A Fisher
Guidelines to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes include aggressive LDL lowering, but benefits are attenuated compared to those in patients without diabetes. Consistent with this, we have reported in mice that hyperglycemia impaired atherosclerosis regression. Aldose reductase (AR) is thought to contribute to clinical complications of diabetes by directing glucose into pathways producing inflammatory metabolites. Mice have low levels of AR, thus, raising them to human levels would be a more clinically relevant model to study changes in diabetes under atherosclerosis regression conditions...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890391/dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-in-a-rat-model-of-long-term-hyperglycemia-preferential-degeneration-of-the-nigrostriatal-motor-pathway
#8
Justine Renaud, Valentina Bassareo, Jimmy Beaulieu, Annalisa Pinna, Michele Schlich, Carole Lavoie, Daniela Murtas, Nicola Simola, Maria-Grazia Martinoli
Epidemiological evidence suggests a correlation between diabetes and age-related neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in vulnerable tissues such as the brain. We recently demonstrated that elevated levels of glucose lead to the death of dopaminergic neurons in culture through oxidative mechanisms. Considering the lack of literature addressing dopaminergic alterations in diabetes with age, the goal of this study was to characterize the state of 2 critical dopaminergic pathways in the nicotinamide-streptozotocin rat model of long-term hyperglycemia, specifically the nigrostriatal motor pathway and the reward-associated mesocorticolimbic pathway...
May 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890158/oral-supplementation-with-melatonin-reduces-oxidative-damage-and-concentrations-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-vegf-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-9-in-the-retina-of-rats-with-streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced-pre-diabetes
#9
Branka Djordjevic, Tatjana Cvetkovic, Tatjana Jevtovic Stoimenov, Milena Despotovic, Slavoljub Zivanovic, Jelena Basic, Andrej Veljkovic, Aleksandra Velickov, Gordana Kocic, Dusica Pavlovic, Dusan Sokolovic
Hyperglycemia mediated oxidative stress and pro-angiogenic molecules such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) are considered important for diabetic retinopathy onset and progression. Melatonin is a pineal hormone that regulates circadian and seasonal rhythms and most likely is involved in regulating glucose metabolism. We aimed to evaluate the potential benefit of melatonin supplementation to the pre-diabetic retina by assessing melatonin effects on lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), protein oxidation (advanced oxidation protein products, AOPP) and concentrations of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), VEGF and MMP9 in the retina of rats with pre-diabetes...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887266/intracellular-organelles-in-health-and-kidney-disease
#10
Fateme Shamekhi Amiri
Subcellular organelles consist of smaller substructures called supramolecular assemblies and these in turn consist of macromolecules. Various subcellular organelles have critical functions that consist of genetic disorders of organelle biogenesis and several metabolic disturbances that occur during non-genetic diseases e.g. infection, intoxication and drug treatments. Mitochondrial damage can cause renal dysfunction as ischemic acute renal injury, chronic kidney disease progression. Moreover, mitochondrial dysfunction is an early event in aldosterone-induced podocyte injury and cardiovascular disease due to oxidative stress in chronic kidney disease...
June 7, 2018: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29885400/biological-interaction-of-newly-synthesized-astaxanthin-s-allyl-cysteine-biconjugate-with-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-mammalian-%C3%AE-glucosidase-in-vitro-kinetics-and-in-silico-docking-analysis
#11
Sakayanathan Penislusshiyan, Loganathan Chitra, Iruthayaraj Ancy, Periyasamy Premkumar, Poomani Kumaradhas, Periasamy Viswanathamurthi, Thayumanavan Palvannan
In humans, alpha-glucosidase activity is present in sucrase-isomaltase (SI) and maltase-glucoamylase (MGAM). α-glucosidase is involved in the hydrolyses of disaccharide into monosaccharides and results in hyperglycemia. Subsequently chronic hyperglycemia induces oxidative stress and ultimately leads to the secondary complications of diabetes. Hence, identifying compounds with dual beneficial activity such as efficient antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibition property has attracted the attention in recent years...
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883668/age-rage-axis-blockade-in-diabetic-nephropathy-current-status-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Davoud Sanajou, Amir Ghorbani Haghjo, Hassan Argani, Somayeh Aslani
Diabetic nephropathy is one of the most frequent micro-vascular complications both in type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients and is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease worldwide. Although disparate mechanisms give rise to the development of diabetic nephropathy, prevailing evidence accentuates that hyperglycemia-associated generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) plays a central role in the disease pathophysiology. Engagement of the receptor for AGE (RAGE) with its ligands provokes oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in renal tissues, ending up with losses in kidney function...
June 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882092/why-ampk-agonists-not-known-to-be-stressors-may-surprisingly-contribute-to-miscarriage-or-hinder-ivf-art
#13
REVIEW
Elizabeth E Puscheck, Alan Bolnick, Awoniyi Awonuga, Yu Yang, Mohammed Abdulhasan, Quanwen Li, Eric Secor, Erica Louden, Maik Hüttemann, Daniel A Rappolee
Here we examine recent evidence suggesting that many drugs and diet supplements (DS), experimental AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonists as well as energy-depleting stress, lead to decreases in anabolism, growth or proliferation, and potency of cultured oocytes, embryos, and stem cells in an AMPK-dependent manner. Surprising data for DS and drugs that have some activity as AMPK agonists in in vitro experiments show possible toxicity. This needs to be balanced against a preponderance of evidence in vivo that these drugs and DS are beneficial for reproduction...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880057/association-of-advanced-glycation-end-products-in-dupuytren-disease
#14
Fumiaki Takase, Yutaka Mifune, Atsuyuki Inui, Yasuhiro Ueda, Takeshi Kataoka, Takeshi Kokubu, Ryosuke Kuroda
BACKGROUND: Advanced glycation end products are associated with aging, hyperglycemia, and oxidative stress. Accumulation of advanced glycation end products can cause various pathological conditions; however, the association of Dupuytren's disease with advanced glycation end products has not been demonstrated yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the association of Dupuytren's disease with advanced glycation end products. METHODS: Normal palmar fascia from five patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (control group) and Dupuytren's cords from five patients (Dupuytren's disease group) were harvested...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877948/inhibition-of-mir-25-aggravates-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#15
Yanzhuo Zhang, Chunyu Song, Jing Liu, Yonghong Bi, Hao Li
The hyperglycemia-induced enhanced oxidative stress is a key factor of diabetic peripheral neuropathy implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy, and microRNA may be involved, playing promotion or protection roles. In this study, we aimed to investigate the function of miR-25 during the development of oxidative/nitrative stress and in subsequent neurological problems. We detected the oxidative stress effects and expression of miR-25 on sciatic nerves from db/db diabetic model mice and analyzed the expression of related genes by qPCR and Western blotting...
June 5, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869772/protective-effects-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-21-against-amyloid-beta-1-42-induced-toxicity-in-sh-sy5y-cells
#16
Mona Amiri, Nady Braidy, Malihe Aminzadeh
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of cholinergic neurons. Amyloid beta is a misfolded protein that represents one of the key pathological hallmarks of AD. Numerous studies have shown that Aβ1-42 induces oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis, leading to cognitive decline in AD. Recently, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been suggested to be a potential regulator of oxidative stress in mammalian cells. FGF21 has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce hyperglycemia, increase adipose tissue glucose uptake and lipolysis, and decrease body fat and weight loss by enhancing energy expenditure...
June 5, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867484/microrna-146a-a-comprehensive-indicator-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-status-induced-in-the-brain-of-chronic-t2dm-rats
#17
Yangmei Xie, Aiqun Chu, Yonghao Feng, Long Chen, Yiye Shao, Qiong Luo, Xiaolin Deng, Men Wu, Xiaohong Shi, Yinghui Chen
Objective: It was demonstrated that inflammation and oxidative stress induced by hyperglycemia were closely associated with alteration of miR-146a. Here, we investigated the role of miR-146a in mediating inflammation and oxidative stress in the brain of chronic T2DM rats. Methods: The chronic T2DM (cT2DM) models were induced by intraperitoneal administration of STZ (35 mg/kg) after being fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet for 6 weeks. H&E staining was conducted to observe the morphological impairment of the rat hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29867137/vascular-endothelial-dysfunction-a-major-mediator-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy
#18
REVIEW
Maura Knapp, Xin Tu, Rongxue Wu
Diabetes mellitus is currently a major public health problem. A common complication of diabetes is cardiac dysfunction, which is recognized as a microvascular disease that leads to morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. While ischemic events are commonly observed in diabetic patients, the risk for developing heart failure is also increased, independent of the severity of coronary artery disease and hypertension. This diabetes-associated clinical entity is considered a distinct disease process referred to as "diabetic cardiomyopathy"...
June 4, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864903/eicosapentaenoic-acid-improves-endothelial-function-and-nitric-oxide-bioavailability-in-a-manner-that-is-enhanced-in-combination-with-a-statin
#19
R Preston Mason, Hazem Dawoud, Robert F Jacob, Samuel C R Sherratt, Tadeusz Malinski
The endothelium exerts many vasoprotective effects that are largely mediated by release of nitric oxide (NO). Endothelial dysfunction represents an early but reversible step in atherosclerosis and is characterized by a reduction in the bioavailability of NO. Previous studies have shown that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid (O3FA), and statins individually improve endothelial cell function, but their effects in combination have not been tested. Through a series of in vitro experiments, this study evaluated the effects of a combined treatment of EPA and the active metabolite of atorvastatin (ATM) on endothelial cell function under conditions of oxidative stress...
July 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863796/ursodeoxycholic-acid-suppresses-the-formation-of-fructose-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-cataract-in-rats
#20
Amany Abdel-Ghaffar, Hala M Ghanem, Emad K Ahmed, Olfat A Hassanin, Rawda G Mohamed
The main objective of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) on fructose/streptozotocin-induced diabetic cataract in rats. The diabetic model was induced through the administration of 10% fructose in drinking water for two weeks followed by streptozotocin injection (intraperitoneal). One week later, hyperglycemia was assisted and diabetic animals were treated with UDCA either as local eye drops (0.5% solution, four times/day) or orally (100 mg/kg b.w.). Cataract formation was monitored biweekly and scored into 4 stages...
June 4, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
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