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Locked in

William H Curley, Peter B Forgacs, Henning U Voss, Mary M Conte, Nicholas D Schiff
Patients with severe brain injury are difficult to assess and frequently subject to misdiagnosis. 'Cognitive motor dissociation' is a term used to describe a subset of such patients with preserved cognition as detected with neuroimaging methods but not evident in behavioural assessments. Unlike the locked-in state, cognitive motor dissociation after severe brain injury is prominently marked by concomitant injuries across the cerebrum in addition to limited or no motoric function. In the present study, we sought to characterize the EEG signals used as indicators of cognition in patients with disorders of consciousness and examine their reliability for potential future use to re-establish communication...
March 19, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Wenjun Liu, Mengli Liu, Jinde Yin, Hao Chen, Wei Lu, Shaobo Fang, Hao Teng, Ming Lei, Peiguang Yan, Zhiyi Wei
Two-dimensional materials have become the focus of research for their photoelectric properties, and are employed as saturable absorption materials. Currently, the challenge is how to further improve the modulation depth of saturable absorbers (SAs) based on two-dimensional materials. In this paper, three kinds of WSe2 films with different thicknesses are prepared using the chemical vapor deposition method. The nonlinear optical responses of the WSe2 films including the nonlinear saturable absorption and nonlinear refractive index are characterized by the double-balanced detection method and Z-scan experiments...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Wei An, Aisaiti Ainiwaer, Patiguli Wusiman, Gulibusitan Ali, Adili Moming
PURPOSE: The study proposed to determine the superiority between different fixation methods in the mandibular angle fractures (MAFs) and to evaluate best option for surgeon and patient. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines, examining Medline-Ovid, Embase, and Pubmed databases. The quality of studies was assessed, and the odds risk (OR) with its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) was assessed to measure the effect size...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Michael Coleman Barbour, Kenneth W Gow, Alberto Aliseda
Central venous catheters (CVCs) are routinely filled with a heparin lock while not in use to avoid thrombus formation near the tip. However, heparin leakage is known to occur, and the lock effectiveness remains in question. It was recently shown that convective fluxes from the blood flow in the host vein transport the majority of locking solution away from the tip of hemodialysis catheters immediately after instillation. Combined with the low diffusivity of heparin, this results in concentrations of heparin at the catheter tip that are orders of magnitude lower than at instillation for the majority of the interdialytic phase, diminishing the antithrombotic effectiveness of the lock...
March 16, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Francisco Locks, Nidhi Gupta, David Hallman, Marie Birk Jørgensen, Ana Beatriz Oliveira, Andreas Holtermann
This study aims to investigate the cross-sectional association between objectively measured total time and temporal patterns of static standing (short bouts: 0-5 min; moderate bouts: >5-10 min; and long bouts: >10 min) during work and leisure and low back pain (LBP) among 698 blue-collar workers. Workers reported LBP on a 0-10 scale. The association between time spent on static standing and LBP was tested with linear regression. A positive association with LBP intensity was found for long bouts of static standing (β = 0...
March 21, 2018: Ergonomics
Ashley Haubert, Matt Walsh, Rachel Boyd, Megan Morris, Megan Wiedbusch, Mike Krusmark, Glenn Gunzelmann
Cognitive fatigue emerges in wide-ranging tasks and domains, but traditional vigilance tasks provide a well-studied context in which to explore the mechanisms underlying it. Though a variety of experimental methodologies have been used to investigate cognitive fatigue in vigilance, relatively little research has utilized electroencephalography (EEG), specifically event-related potentials (ERPs), to explore the nature of cognitive fatigue, also known as the vigilance decrement. Moreover, much of the research that has been done on vigilance and ERPs uses non-traditional vigilance paradigms, limiting generalizability to the established body of behavioral results and corresponding theories...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Inga Griskova-Bulanova, Evaldas Pipinis, Aleksandras Voicikas, Thomas Koenig
Auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are increasingly used in research of neuropsychiatric disorders and for brain-computer interface applications. However, results on attentional modulation of ASSRs are inconclusive. The evaluation of large-scale effects of task-related modulation on ASSRs might give better estimation of the induced changes. The aim of the study was to test global field synchronization - a reference-independent evaluation of the amount of phase-locking among all active regions at a given frequency - during tasks differing in attentional demands to 40 Hz auditory stimulation...
March 17, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Austin J Roebke, Adam S Martin, Zubair Sarmast, Erica Fisk, Kanu S Goyal
PURPOSE: To determine the accuracy of a distal-first open reduction internal plate fixation technique in achieving correction of volar tilt in dorsally angulated distal radius fractures. METHODS: Twenty foam radius models were divided evenly into groups N (normal) and O (osteoporotic). Dorsally angulated extra-articular distal radius fractures were then created. Group O underwent further modification to simulate an osteoporotic model. After static pinning in various degrees of dorsal angulation, opaque fiducial markers were placed and fluoroscopy was used to measure prereduction volar tilt...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Yu Zhou, Zhenyu Zhou, Lifeng Liu, Xuecheng Cao
BACKGROUND: Skeletal and soft tissue damage are often associated with unilateral facet dislocations, which undoubtedly lead to instability of the spine and further increase difficulties in cervical reduction. This type of irreducible facet dislocation is usually accompanied with potential catastrophic consequences including neurological deficit and severe disability. Therefore, a consistent and evidence-based treatment plan is imperative. CASE PRESENTATION: The literature regarding the management of traumatic unilateral locked cervical facet dislocations was reviewed...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Jan Puetzler, Willem-Jan Metsemakers, Daniel Arens, Stephan Zeiter, Richard Kuehl, Michael J Raschke, Robert Geoff Richards, Thomas Fintan Moriarty
OBJECTIVES: The optimal duration of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis (PAP) for open fractures remains controversial because of heterogeneous or unclear guidelines and highly variable prophylactic regimens in clinical practice. We aimed at testing different PAP durations under controlled conditions in a contaminated rabbit fracture model. METHODS: A complete humeral osteotomy in 18 rabbits was fixed with a 7-hole locking compression plate and inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus...
April 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Naser Nawayseh
Little is known about the transmission of vibration to the head when using whole-body vibration (WBV) training machines. This paper investigates the effect of frequency and posture on the transmission of vibration from a vibrating plate to the head of standing people. Nine male participants were exposed to vertical vibration at nine frequencies in the range of 17-46 Hz and vibration acceleration in the range of 7.85-18.64 m/s2 (peak). The participants adopted four standing postures described as standing with locked knee (LK), bent knee (BK), one leg (OL), and one foot to the front and the other to the back (FB)...
March 20, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
Kimberly McCoy, Masaki Uchida, Byeongdu Lee, Trevor Douglas
Bottom-up construction of mesoscale materials using biologically derived nanoscale building blocks enables engineering of desired physical properties using green production methods. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are exceptional building blocks due to their monodispersed sizes, geometric shapes, production ease, proteinaceous composition, and our ability to independently functionalize the interior and exterior interfaces. Here a VLP, derived from bacteriophage P22, is used as a building block for the fabrication of a Protein Macromolecular Framework (PMF); a tightly-linked 3D network of functional protein cages that exhibit long-range order and catalytic activity...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Catarina Lopes Dias, Andreea Ioana Sburlea, Gernot R Müller-Putz
The detection of error-related potentials (ErrPs) in tasks with discrete feedback is well established in the brain-computer interface (BCI) field. However, the decoding of ErrPs in tasks with continuous feedback is still in its early stages. OBJECTIVE: We developed a task in which subjects have continuous control of a cursor's position by means of a joystick. The cursor's position was shown to the participants in two different modalities of continuous feedback: normal and jittered. The jittered feedback was created to mimic the instability that could exist if participants controlled the trajectory directly with brain signals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
R Siboni, P Beaufils, P Boisrenoult, C Steltzlen, N Pujol
INTRODUCTION: Using locking plates in opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy (OWHTO) via a medial opening theoretically allows early weight-bearing without need for bone or bone-substitute grafting. It incurs a risk of non-consolidation in case of large correction (> 10°), although rates and risk factors of non-union are not known. The present retrospective study compared OWHTO with correction <10° versus >10°, with a view to determining: 1) complications rates (non-union) according to degree of correction, and 2) risk factors for such complications...
March 16, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
João Castelhano, Paula Tavares, Susana Mouga, Guiomar Oliveira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalographic biomarkers have been widely investigated in autism, in the search for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic outcome measures. Here we took advantage of the information available in temporal oscillatory patterns evoked by simple perceptual decisions to investigate whether stimulus dependent oscillatory signatures can be used as potential biomarkers in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: We studied an extensive set of stimuli (9 categories of faces) and performed data driven classification (Support vector machine, SVM) of ASD vs...
February 20, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Allison R Fleming, Mary Edwin, Jeffrey A Hayes, Benjamin D Locke, Allison J Lockard
Students with disabilities are a growing population on college campuses and have unique challenges that put them at risk for early departure, creating complexity in efforts to address their personal and academic needs. PURPOSE: The purpose was to explore academic and other sources of distress among college students with disabilities to identify possible areas where enhanced supports might benefit this population. Research Method and Design: Researchers analyzed cross-sectional data from the Center for Collegiate Mental Health to compare subsamples of students with (n = 1,774) and without disabilities (n = 1,774) on presenting concerns, and to determine significant predictors of academic distress among students with disabilities...
February 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Michael D Guthrie, Donald L Gilbert, David A Huddleston, Ernest V Pedapati, Paul S Horn, Stewart H Mostofsky, Steve W Wu
We describe the development of a reproducible, child-friendly motor response inhibition task suitable for online Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) characterization of primary motor cortex (M1) excitability and inhibition. Motor response inhibition prevents unwanted actions and is abnormal in several neuropsychiatric conditions. TMS is a non-invasive technology that can quantify M1 excitability and inhibition using single- and paired-pulse protocols and can be precisely timed to study cortical physiology with high temporal resolution...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bryan Ceronie, Benjamin M Jacobs, David Baker, Nicolas Dubuisson, Zhifeng Mao, Francesca Ammoscato, Helen Lock, Hilary J Longhurst, Gavin Giovannoni, Klaus Schmierer
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of action of oral cladribine, recently licensed for relapsing multiple sclerosis, is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether cladribine depletes memory B cells consistent with our recent hypothesis that effective, disease-modifying treatments act by physical/functional depletion of memory B cells. METHODS: A cross-sectional study examined 40 people with multiple sclerosis at the end of the first cycle of alemtuzumab or injectable cladribine...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Sang-Min Kim, Jae-Woo Yeom, Hyung Keun Song, Kyu-Tae Hwang, Ji-Hyo Hwang, Je-Hyun Yoo
PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to investigate healing outcome of lateral locked plating for distal femoral fractures caused by low-energy trauma. In addition, we sought to determine predictable factors associated with fracture healing time. METHODS: Seventy-three patients (73 fractures) with distal femur fractures (AO/OTA type 33) caused by low-energy trauma were recruited. The mean age of patients was 69.8 years (range, 43-87 years). All fractures were stabilized by less invasive osteosynthesis with anatomical periarticular locking system...
March 16, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Lizhen Wang, Peizhen Xu, Yuhang Li, Jize Han, Xin Guo, Yudong Cui, Xueming Liu, Limin Tong
Mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers around 1 μm are attractive for high power applications and low noise pulse train generation. Mode-locked fiber lasers working in soliton and stretched-pulse regime outperform others in terms of the laser noise characteristics, mechanical stability and easy maintenance. However, conventional optical fibers always show a normal group velocity dispersion around 1 μm, leading to the inconvenience for necessary dispersion management. Here we show that optical microfibers having a large anomalous dispersion around 1 μm can be integrated into mode-locked Yb-doped fiber lasers with ultralow insertion loss down to -0...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
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