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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346554/functional-roles-of-sex-biased-growth-hormone-regulated-micrornas-mir-1948-and-mir-802-in-young-adult-mouse-liver
#1
Pengying Hao, David J Waxman
Sex-specific temporal patterns of pituitary GH secretion determine the sex-biased transcription of hundreds of genes in the liver and impart significant sex differences in liver physiology, metabolism and disease. Sex differences in hepatic gene expression vary widely, ranging from <2-fold to >1,000-fold in the mouse. Here, we use small RNA sequencing to discover 24 sex-biased mouse liver miRNAs, and then investigate the roles of two of these miRNAs in GH-regulated liver sex differences. Studies in pre-pubertal and young adult mice, and in mice where pituitary hormones are ablated or where sex-specific hepatic GH signaling is dysregulated, demonstrated that the male-biased miR-1948 and the female-biased miR-802 are both regulated by sex-specific pituitary GH secretory patterns, acquire sex specificity at puberty, and are dependent on the GH-activated transcription factor STAT5 for their sex-specific expression...
January 16, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346359/a-systematic-review-of-leadership-training-for-medical-students
#2
Oscar Lyons, Bruce Su'a, Michelle Locke, Andrew Hill
BACKGROUND: Leadership is increasingly being recognised as an essential requirement for doctors. Many medical schools are in the process of developing formal leadership training programmes, but it remains to be elucidated what characteristics make such programmes effective, and to what extent current programmes are effective, beyond merely positive learner reactions. This review's objective was to investigate the effectiveness of undergraduate medical leadership curricula and to explore common features of effective curricula...
January 19, 2018: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343622/enhanced-preclinical-antitumor-activity-of-m7824-a-bifunctional-fusion-protein-simultaneously-targeting-pd-l1-and-tgf-%C3%AE
#3
Yan Lan, Dong Zhang, Chunxiao Xu, Kenneth W Hance, Bo Marelli, Jin Qi, Huakui Yu, Guozhong Qin, Aroop Sircar, Vivian M Hernández, Molly H Jenkins, Rachel E Fontana, Amit Deshpande, George Locke, Helen Sabzevari, Laszlo Radvanyi, Kin-Ming Lo
Antibodies targeting immune checkpoints are emerging as potent and viable cancer therapies, but not all patients respond to these as single agents. Concurrently targeting additional immunosuppressive pathways is a promising approach to enhance immune checkpoint blockade, and bifunctional molecules designed to target two pathways simultaneously may provide a strategic advantage over the combination of two single agents. M7824 (MSB0011359C) is a bifunctional fusion protein composed of a monoclonal antibody against programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) fused to the extracellular domain of human transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) receptor II, which functions as a "trap" for all three TGF-β isoforms...
January 17, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342838/biopolymer-based-nanoparticles-for-cystic-fibrosis-lung-gene-therapy-studies
#4
Elena Fernández Fernández, Beatriz Santos-Carballal, Chiara de Santi, Joanne M Ramsey, Ronan MacLoughlin, Sally-Ann Cryan, Catherine M Greene
Lung gene therapy for cystic fibrosis disease has not been successful due to several challenges such as the absence of an appropriate vector. Therefore, optimal delivery of emerging therapeutics to airway epithelial cells demands suitable non-viral systems. In this work, we describe the formulation and the physicochemical investigation of biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), including PLGA and chitosan (animal and non-animal), as novel methods for the safe and efficient delivery of CFTR-specific locked nucleic acids (LNAs)...
January 13, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342496/-adverse-events-in-the-treatment-of-periprosthetic-fractures-around-the-knee-a-clinical-and-radiological-outcome-analysis
#5
Anna Janine Schreiner, Christoph Gonser, Christoph Ihle, Max Konstantin Zauleck, Tim Klopfer, Fabian Stuby, Ulrich Stöckle, Björn Gunnar Ochs
BACKGROUND: The incidence of periprosthetic fractures associated with total knee arthroplasty (PpFxK) has been reported to be 0.3 - 5.5%. 40% of all cases are related to revision TKA. The most common localisation is the distal femur. Classification is performed according to Rorabeck (RB). RB I - II fractures are usually treated with locked plating and retrograde intramedullary nailing, whereas RB III fractures are an indication for revision arthroplasty using a hinged endoprosthesis...
January 17, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342430/tissue-expander-stimulated-lengthening-of-arteries-for-the-treatment-of-midaortic-syndrome-in-children
#6
Heung Bae Kim, Gabriel J Ramos-Gonzalez, Khashayar Vakili, Deborah R Stein, Michael A Ferguson, Diego Porras, James E Lock, Gulraiz Chaudry, Ahmad Alomari, Steven J Fishman
BACKGROUND: Midaortic syndrome (MAS) is a rare condition characterized by stenosis of the abdominal aorta. Patients with disease refractory to medical management will usually require either endovascular therapy or surgery with use of prosthetic graft material for bypass or patch angioplasty. We report our early experience with a novel approach using a tissue expander (TE) to lengthen the normal native arteries in children with MAS, allowing primary aortic repair without the need for prosthetic graft material...
January 13, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341682/gate-controlled-spin-valley-locking-of-resident-carriers-in-wse_-2-monolayers
#7
P Dey, Luyi Yang, C Robert, G Wang, B Urbaszek, X Marie, S A Crooker
Using time-resolved Kerr rotation, we measure the spin-valley dynamics of resident electrons and holes in single charge-tunable monolayers of the archetypal transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) semiconductor WSe_{2}. In the n-type regime, we observe long (∼130  ns) polarization relaxation of electrons that is sensitive to in-plane magnetic fields B_{y}, indicating spin relaxation. In marked contrast, extraordinarily long (∼2  μs) polarization relaxation of holes is revealed in the p-type regime, which is unaffected by B_{y}, directly confirming long-standing expectations of strong spin-valley locking of holes in the valence band of monolayer TMDs...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341679/detection-of-the-spin-chemical-potential-in-topological-insulators-using-spin-polarized-four-probe-stm
#8
Saban M Hus, X-G Zhang, Giang D Nguyen, Wonhee Ko, Arthur P Baddorf, Yong P Chen, An-Ping Li
We demonstrate a new method for the detection of the spin-chemical potential in topological insulators using spin-polarized four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy on in situ cleaved Bi_{2}Te_{2}Se surfaces. Two-dimensional (2D) surface and 3D bulk conductions are separated quantitatively via variable probe-spacing measurements, enabling the isolation of the nonvanishing spin-dependent electrochemical potential from the Ohmic contribution. This component is identified as the spin-chemical potential arising from the 2D charge current through the spin momentum locked topological surface states (TSS)...
September 29, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341267/cross-linking-of-thiolated-paclitaxel-oligo-p-phenylene-vinylene-conjugates-aggregates-inside-tumor-cells-leads-to-chemical-locks-that-increase-drug-efficacy
#9
Lingyun Zhou, Fengting Lv, Libing Liu, Guizhi Shen, Xuehai Yan, Guillermo C Bazan, Shu Wang
How to reduce the resistance of certain tumor cells to paclitaxel (PTX) and related taxoid anticancer drugs is a major challenge for improving cure rates. An oligo(p-phenylenevinylene) unit with thiol groups and a PTX unit (OPV-S-PTX), which enhances drug efficacy and reverses resistance is thus designed. The mechanism involves diffusion of OPV-S-PTX into the cell, where π-π interactions lead to aggregation. Cross-linking of the aggregates via oxidation of thiol groups is favored in tumor cells because of the higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration...
January 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341121/violence-guns-and-suicide-in-new-orleans-results-from-a-qualitative-study-of-recent-suicide-decedents
#10
Rajeev Ramchand, Enchanté Franklin, Elizabeth Thornton, Sarah M Deland, Jeffrey C Rouse
Many Americans own guns to protect themselves against other people, but there is evidence that both victimization and gun access increase suicide risk. We conducted qualitative interviews with informants of 17 suicide cases in New Orleans of the 60 who died between January 2015 and April 2016 to understand the relationship between past trauma, gun access and storage, and suicide. Nine cases had experienced a past trauma, including three who had recently had a family member killed by homicide. Eight died via firearm; of those, seven owned the guns they used to take their lives and stored them locked (but loaded) at home or in their cars...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341070/personality-changes-during-the-transition-from-cognitive-health-to-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Richard J Caselli, Blake T Langlais, Amylou C Dueck, Bruce R Henslin, Travis A Johnson, Bryan K Woodruff, Charlene Hoffman-Snyder, Dona E C Locke
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Behavioral problems in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) impose major management challenges. Current prevention strategies are anchored to cognitive outcomes, but behavioral outcomes may provide another, clinically relevant opportunity for preemptive therapy. We sought to determine whether personality changes that predispose to behavioral disorders arise during the transition from preclinical AD to mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Longitudinal observational cohort study...
January 17, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340604/transient-recruitment-of-m-ras-gtpase-to-phagocytic-cups-in-raw264-macrophages-during-fc%C3%AE-r-mediated-phagocytosis
#12
Youhei Egami, Nobukazu Araki
M-Ras, a member of the Ras superfamily, is known to be involved in diverse cellular processes. However, its involvement in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis remains unknown. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of M-Ras during the engulfment of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es) in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused M-Ras, we found that M-Ras was localized to the membrane of phagocytic cups during the early stage of phagosome formation. Notably, ratiometric image analysis revealed that M-Ras was concentrated in the membrane of forming phagosomes...
January 11, 2018: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340102/the-impact-of-antibiotic-usage-on-the-efficacy-of-chemoimmunotherapy-is-contingent-on-the-source-of-tumor-reactive-t-cells
#13
Michal P Kuczma, Zhi-Chun Ding, Tao Li, Tsadik Habtetsion, Tingting Chen, Zhonglin Hao, Locke Bryan, Nagendra Singh, James N Kochenderfer, Gang Zhou
In recent years the combined use of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, collectively termed chemoimmunotherapy, has emerged as a promising treatment option for patients with cancer. Antibiotics are commonly used to reduce infection-related complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Intriguingly, accumulating evidence has implicated gut microbiota as a critical determinant of host antitumor immune responses, raising the question as to whether the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics would invariably diminish tumor response to chemoimmunotherapies...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339841/role-of-autologous-non-vascularised-intramedullary-fibular-strut-graft-in-humeral-shaft-nonunions-following-failed-plating
#14
Sreekanth Kashayi-Chowdojirao, Aashish Vallurupalli, Vijay Krishna Chilakamarri, Chandrasekhar Patnala, Lalith Mohan Chodavarapu, Nageswara Rao Kancherla, Asif Hussain Khazi Syed
Background: Non-union humeral shaft fractures are seen frequently in clinical practice at about 2-10% in conservative management and 30% in surgically operated patients. Osteosynthesis using dynamic compression plate (DCP), intramedullary nailing, locking compression plate (LCP), Ilizarov technique along with bone grafting have been reported previously. In cases of prior failed plate-screw osteosynthesis the resultant osteopenia, cortical defect, bone loss, scalloping around screws and metallosis, make the management of non-union more complicated...
November 2017: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339237/assessing-the-outcomes-risks-and-costs-of-local-vs-general-anesthesia-a-review-with-implications-for-cutaneous-surgery
#15
Maren C Locke, Jeremy C Davis, Ross Joseph Brothers, W Elliot Love
BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data providing direct comparison of outcomes, complications and costs between general and local anesthesia in cutaneous surgery. OBJECTIVE: Analyze the literature from dermatologic and other specialties to compare outcomes, risks and costs of general and local anesthesia. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of case comparison studies from other specialties comparing outcomes, risks, and/or costs in local vs...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338748/finite-element-analysis-of-intramedullary-nailing-and-double-locking-plate-for-treating-extra-articular-proximal-tibial-fractures
#16
Fancheng Chen, Xiaowei Huang, Yingsun Ya, Fenfen Ma, Zhi Qian, Jifei Shi, Shuolei Guo, Baoqing Yu
BACKGROUND: Proximal tibia fractures are one of the most familiar fractures. Surgical approaches are usually needed for anatomical reduction. However, no single treatment method has been widely established as the standard care. Our present study aims to compare the stress and stability of intramedullary nails (IMN) fixation and double locking plate (DLP) fixation in the treatment of extra-articular proximal tibial fractures. METHODS: A three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the extra-articular proximal tibial fracture, whose 2-cm bone gap began 7 cm from the tibial plateau articular surface, was created fixed by different fixation implants...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336856/evaluation-of-kidney-donors-core-curriculum-2018
#17
Deirdre Sawinski, Jayme E Locke
Nearly 100,000 patients are waiting for a kidney transplant, yet each year only 11,000 undergo transplantation with a deceased donor kidney. Annual death rates among waitlist registrants range from 5% to 15%; many die before receiving a transplant. Not surprisingly, registrants turn to family and friends to become living kidney donors on their behalf. Living kidney donor selection practices aim to quantify lifetime risk for kidney failure based on a candidate's predonation demographic and health characteristics...
January 11, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335564/electrical-control-of-charged-carriers-and-excitons-in-atomically-thin-materials
#18
Ke Wang, Kristiaan De Greve, Luis A Jauregui, Andrey Sushko, Alexander High, You Zhou, Giovanni Scuri, Takashi Taniguchi, Kenji Watanabe, Mikhail D Lukin, Hongkun Park, Philip Kim
Electrical confinement and manipulation of charge carriers in semiconducting nanostructures are essential for realizing functional quantum electronic devices1-3. The unique band structure4-7 of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offers a new route towards realizing novel 2D quantum electronic devices, such as valleytronic devices and valley-spin qubits 8 . 2D TMDs also provide a platform for novel quantum optoelectronic devices9-11 due to their large exciton binding energy12,13. However, controlled confinement and manipulation of electronic and excitonic excitations in TMD nanostructures have been technically challenging due to the prevailing disorder in the material, preventing accurate experimental control of local confinement and tunnel couplings14-16...
January 15, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335558/strongly-exchange-coupled-and-surface-state-modulated-magnetization-dynamics-in-bi2se3-yttrium-iron-garnet-heterostructures
#19
Y T Fanchiang, K H M Chen, C C Tseng, C C Chen, C K Cheng, S R Yang, C N Wu, S F Lee, M Hong, J Kwo
Harnessing the spin-momentum locking of topological surface states in conjunction with magnetic materials is the first step to realize novel topological insulator-based devices. Here, we report strong interfacial coupling in Bi2Se3/yttrium iron garnet (YIG) bilayers manifested as large interfacial in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) and enhancement of damping probed by ferromagnetic resonance. The interfacial IMA and damping enhancement reaches a maximum when the Bi2Se3 film approaches its two-dimensional limit, indicating that topological surface states play an important role in the magnetization dynamics of YIG...
January 15, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335321/effectiveness-and-cost-of-weekly-recombinant-tissue-plasminogen-activator-hemodialysis-catheter-locking-solution
#20
Brenda R Hemmelgarn, Braden J Manns, Steven D Soroka, Adeera Levin, Jennifer MacRae, Karthik Tennankore, Jo-Anne S Wilson, Robert G Weaver, Pietro Ravani, Robert R Quinn, Marcello Tonelli, Mercedeh Kiaii, Paula Mossop, Nairne Scott-Douglas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence to guide hemodialysis catheter locking solutions is limited. We aimed to assess effectiveness and cost of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) once per week as a locking solution, compared with thrice weekly citrate or heparin, in patients at high risk of complications. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We used a prospective design and pre-post comparison in three sites across Canada. Pre-post comparisons were conducted using multilevel mixed effects regression models accounting for cluster with site and potential enrollment of patients more than once...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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