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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454147/layout-of-nalm-fiber-laser-with-adjustable-peak-power-of-generated-pulses
#1
Sergey Smirnov, Sergey Kobtsev, Alexey Ivanenko, Alexey Kokhanovskiy, Anna Kemmer, Mikhail Gervaziev
The Letter proposes a new layout of a passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) with two stretches of active fiber and two independently controlled pump modules. In contrast with conventional NALM configurations using a single piece of active fiber that yields virtually constant peak power, the proposed novel laser features larger than a factor of 2 adjustment range of peak power of generated pulses. The proposed layout also provides independent adjustment of duration and peak power of generated pulses as well as power-independent control of generated pulse spectral width impossible in NALM lasers with a single piece of active fiber...
May 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453851/eradication-of-staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-infections-using-synthetic-antimicrobial-peptides
#2
Marta Zapotoczna, Éanna Forde, Siobhan Hogan, Hilary Humphreys, James P O'Gara, Deirdre Fitzgerald-Hughes, Marc Devocelle, Eoghan O'Neill
Here, we demonstrate that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are an effective antibiofilm treatment when applied as catheter lock solutions (CLSs) against S. aureus biofilm infections. The activity of synthetic AMPs (Bac8c, HB43, P18, Omiganan, WMR, Ranalexin, and Polyphemusin) was measured against early and mature biofilms produced by methicillin-resistant S. aureus and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus isolates from patients with device-related infections grown under in vivo-relevant biofilm conditions. The cytotoxic and hemolytic activities of the AMPs against human cells and their immunomodulatory potential in human blood were also characterized...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453731/shear-stress-regulated-mir-27b-controls-pericyte-recruitment-by-repressing-sema6a-and-sema6d
#3
Shemsi Demolli, Anuradha Doddaballapur, Kavi Devraj, Konstantin Stark, Yosif Manavski, Annekathrin Eckart, Christoph M Zehendner, Tina Lucas, Thomas Korff, Markus Hecker, Steffen Massberg, Stefan Liebner, David Kaluza, Reinier A Boon, Stefanie Dimmeler
Aims: Vessel maturation involves the recruitment of mural cells such as pericytes and smooth muscle cells. Laminar shear stress is a major trigger for vessel maturation, but the molecular mechanisms by which shear stress affects recruitment of pericytes are unclear. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-coding RNAs, which post-transcriptionally control gene expression. The aim of the present study was to unveil the mechanism by which shear stress-regulated microRNAs contribute to vessel maturation...
May 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453556/characterization-of-interfragmentary-motion-associated-with-common-osteosynthesis-devices-for-rat-fracture-healing-studies
#4
Nicholaus Meyers, Matthias Sukopp, Rudolf Jäger, Malte Steiner, Romano Matthys, Bernd Lapatki, Anita Ignatius, Lutz Claes
Rat models are widely used in preclinical studies investigating fracture healing. The interfragmentary movement at a fracture site is critical to the course of healing and therefore demands definition in order to aptly interpret the experimental results. Estimation of this movement requires knowledge of the fixation stiffness and loading. The characteristic loading for the rat femur has been estimated, but the stiffness of fixation used in rat studies has yet to be fully described. This study aimed to determine the 6 degree of freedom stiffness of four commonly used implants, two external fixators (RatExFix and UlmExFix), a locking plate, and a locking intramedullary nail, in all degrees of freedom and estimate the interfragmentary movement under specific physiological loads...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449323/in-vitro-comparison-of-renal-stone-laser-treatment-using-fragmentation-and-popcorn-technique
#5
Paul Klaver, Tjeerd de Boorder, Alex I Rem, Tycho M T W Lock, Herke Jan Noordmans
OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of two laser techniques clinically used to fragment renal stones: fragmenting technique (FT) and popcorn technique (PT). METHODS: Phantom stones were placed in a test tube filled with water, mimicking a renal calyx model. A Holmium:YAG laser was used for fragmentation using both techniques. Four series of experiments were performed with two parameters: the technique (FT or PT) and the number of stones in the test tube (one or four)...
April 27, 2017: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447972/wild-type-blocking-pcr-combined-with-direct-sequencing-as-a-highly-sensitive-method-for-detection-of-low-frequency-somatic-mutations
#6
Adam Z Albitar, Wanlong Ma, Maher Albitar
Accurate detection and identification of low frequency mutations can be problematic when assessing residual disease after therapy, screening for emerging resistance mutations during therapy, or when patients have few circulating tumor cells. Wild-type blocking PCR followed by sequencing analysis offers high sensitivity, flexibility, and simplicity as a methodology for detecting these low frequency mutations. By adding a custom designed locked nucleic acid oligonucleotide to a new or previously established conventional PCR based sequencing assay, sensitivities of approximately 1 mutant allele in a background of 1,000 WT alleles can be achieved (1:1,000)...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446870/a-randomized-controlled-erp-study-on-the-effects-of-multi-domain-cognitive-training-and-task-difficulty-on-task-switching-performance-in-older-adults
#7
Kristina Küper, Patrick D Gajewski, Claudia Frieg, Michael Falkenstein
Executive functions are subject to a marked age-related decline, but have been shown to benefit from cognitive training interventions. As of yet, it is, however, still relatively unclear which neural mechanism can mediate training-related performance gains. In the present electrophysiological study, we examined the effects of multi-domain cognitive training on performance in an untrained cue-based task switch paradigm featuring Stroop color words: participants either had to indicate the word meaning of Stroop stimuli (word task) or perform the more difficult task of color naming (color task)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446664/analysis-of-competing-hiv-1-splice-donor-sites-uncovers-a-tight-cluster-of-splicing-regulatory-elements-within-exon-2-2b
#8
Anna-Lena Brillen, Lara Walotka, Frank Hillebrand, Lisa Müller, Marek Widera, Stephan Theiss, Heiner Schaal
The HIV-1 accessory protein Vif is essential for viral replication by counteracting the host restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G), and balanced levels of both proteins are required for efficient viral replication. Non-coding exons 2/2b contain the Vif start codon between their alternatively used splice donors 2 and 2b (D2 and D2b). For the vif mRNA, intron 1 must be removed, while intron 2 must be retained. Thus, splice acceptor 1 (A1) must be activated by U1 snRNP binding to either D2 or D2b, while splicing at D2 or D2b must be prevented...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445469/phylogenetic-ctdna-analysis-depicts-early-stage-lung-cancer-evolution
#9
Christopher Abbosh, Nicolai J Birkbak, Gareth A Wilson, Mariam Jamal-Hanjani, Tudor Constantin, Raheleh Salari, John Le Quesne, David A Moore, Selvaraju Veeriah, Rachel Rosenthal, Teresa Marafioti, Eser Kirkizlar, Thomas B K Watkins, Nicholas McGranahan, Sophia Ward, Luke Martinson, Joan Riley, Francesco Fraioli, Maise Al Bakir, Eva GrÖnroos, Francisco Zambrana, Raymondo Endozo, Wenya Linda Bi, Fiona M Fennessy, Nicole Sponer, Diana Johnson, Joanne Laycock, Seema Shafi, Justyna Czyzewska-Khan, Andrew Rowan, Tim Chambers, Nik Matthews, Samra Turajlic, Crispin Hiley, Siow Ming Lee, Martin D Forster, Tanya Ahmad, Mary Falzon, Elaine Borg, David Lawrence, Martin Hayward, Shyam Kolvekar, Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos, Sam M Janes, Ricky Thakrar, Asia Ahmed, Fiona Blackhall, Yvonne Summers, Dina Hafez, Ashwini Naik, Apratim Ganguly, Stephanie Kareht, Rajesh Shah, Leena Joseph, Anne Marie Quinn, Phil Crosbie, Babu Naidu, Gary Middleton, Gerald Langman, Simon Trotter, Marianne Nicolson, Hardy Remmen, Keith Kerr, Mahendran Chetty, Lesley Gomersall, Dean A Fennell, Apostolos Nakas, Sridhar Rathinam, Girija Anand, Sajid Khan, Peter Russell, Veni Ezhil, Babikir Ismail, Melanie Irvin-Sellers, Vineet Prakash, Jason F Lester, Malgorzata Kornaszewska, Richard Attanoos, Haydn Adams, Helen Davies, Dahmane Oukrif, Ayse U Akarca, John A Hartley, Helen L Lowe, Sara Lock, Natasha Iles, Harriet Bell, Yenting Ngai, Greg Elgar, Zoltan Szallasi, Roland F Schwarz, Javier Herrero, Aengus Stewart, Sergio A Quezada, Peter Van Loo, Caroline Dive, C Jimmy Lin, Matthew Rabinowitz, Hugo Jwl Aerts, Allan Hackshaw, Jacqui A Shaw, Bernhard G Zimmermann, Charles Swanton
The early detection of relapse following primary surgery for non-small cell lung cancer and the characterization of emerging subclones seeding metastatic sites might offer new therapeutic approaches to limit tumor recurrence. The potential to non-invasively track tumor evolutionary dynamics in ctDNA of early-stage lung cancer is not established. Here we conduct a tumour-specific phylogenetic approach to ctDNA profiling in the first 100 TRACERx (TRAcking non-small cell lung Cancer Evolution through therapy (Rx)) study participants, including one patient co-recruited to the PEACE (Posthumous Evaluation of Advanced Cancer Environment) post-mortem study...
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445205/inhibition-of-microrna-429-in-the-renal-medulla-increased-salt-sensitivity-of-blood-pressure-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#10
Qing Zhu, Junping Hu, Lei Wang, Weili Wang, Zhengchao Wang, Pin-Lan Li, Krishna M Boini, Ningjun Li
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that high salt intake suppresses the expression of prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein 2 (PHD2), an enzyme promoting the degradation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, and increases HIF-1α along with its target genes in the renal medulla, which promotes sodium excretion and regulate salt sensitivity of blood pressure. However, it remains unknown how high salt inhibits the expression of PHD2. METHOD AND RESULTS: The current study first revealed that high-salt-induced PHD2 inhibition was due to the enhanced decay of mRNA...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445169/continuous-size-and-shape-control-synthesis-of-hollow-silica-nanoparticles-enabled-by-a-microreactor-assisted-rapid-mixing-process
#11
Yujuan He, Ki-Joong Kim, Chih-Hung Alex Chang
Hollow silica nanoparticles (HSNPs) were synthesized using a microreactor-assisted system with a hydrodynamic focusing micromixer (HFM). Due to the fast mixing of each precursor in the system, the PAA thermodynamic-locked (TML) conformations were protected from their random aggregations by the immediately initiated growth of silica shells. When altering the mixing time through varying flow rates and flow rate ratios, the different degrees of the aggregation of PAA TML conformations were observed. The globular and necklace-like TML conformations were successfully captured by modifying the PAA concentration at the optimized mixing condition...
April 26, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444438/effect-and-safety-of-early-weight-bearing-on-the-outcome-after-open-wedge-high-tibial-osteotomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
O-Sung Lee, Soyeon Ahn, Yong Seuk Lee
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of early weight-bearing by comparing clinical and radiological outcomes between early and traditional delayed weight-bearing after OWHTO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A rigorous and systematic approach was used. The methodological quality was also assessed. Results that are possible to be compared in two or more than two articles were presented as forest plots...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444162/coronary-artery-disease-severity-and-long-term-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-myocardial-infarction-a-danish-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#13
Cengiz Özcan, Anna Deleskog, Anne-Marie Schjerning Olsen, Helene Nordahl Christensen, Morten Lock Hansen, Gunnar Hilmar Gislason
Background: HASH(0x4e9d1b8) Long-term prognostic impact of coronary artery disease (CAD) severity in stable post-myocardial infarction (MI) patients is not well known. We examined the impact of CAD severity and co-morbidity on long-term (one year and beyond) risk of cardiovascular events after MI. Methods and Results: HASH(0x4e96638) From nationwide administrative and clinical registers, we identified 55,747 MI patients, during 2004 to 2010, who had not experienced subsequent MI, stroke or death within 7 day post-discharge...
April 21, 2017: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443571/numerical-optimization-of-the-position-in-femoral-head-of-proximal-locking-screws-of-proximal-femoral-nail-system-biomechanical-study
#14
Mehmet Nuri Konya, Özgür Verim
BACKGROUND: Proximal femoral fracture rates are increasing due to osteoporosis and traffic accident. Proximal femoral nails are routinely used in the treatment of these fractures on the proximal femur. AIMS: The present study aimed to compare various combination and to determine ideal proximal lag screw (PLS) position on the pertrochanteric fractures (AO classification 31-A1) of femur by using optimised finite element analysis. STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical Study...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442327/sample-preservation-transport-and-processing-strategies-for-honeybee-rna-extraction-influence-on-rna-yield-quality-target-quantification-and-data-normalization
#15
Eva Forsgren, Barbara Locke, Emilia Semberg, Ane T Laugen, Joachim R de Miranda
Viral infections in managed honey bees are numerous, and most of them are caused by viruses with an RNA genome. Since RNA degrades rapidly, appropriate sample management and RNA extraction methods are imperative to get high quality RNA for downstream assays. This study evaluated the effect of various sampling-transport scenarios (combinations of temperature, RNA stabilizers, and duration) of transport on six RNA quality parameters; yield, purity, integrity, cDNA synthesis efficiency, target detection and quantification...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442161/zurich-cementless-total-hip-replacement
#16
REVIEW
David Hummel
Total hip replacement (THR) is the gold standard treatment of intractable pain from hip dysplasia. THR procedures are divided into 2 main categories: cemented and cementless, with hybrid a combination. The Zurich Cementless THR system uses a combination of press-fit (acetabular component) and locking screw (femoral component) fixation designed to address the main challenge facing cemented systems (aseptic loosening) while providing the benefit of immediate stability with its novel locking screw implantation system for the femoral stem...
April 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441943/return-to-sports-after-plate-fixation-of-humeral-head-fractures-65-cases-with-minimum-24-month-follow-up
#17
Philipp Ahrens, Frank Martetschläger, Sebastian Siebenlist, Johann Attenberger, Moritz Crönlein, Peter Biberthaler, Ulrich Stöckle, Gunther H Sandmann
BACKGROUND: Humeral head fractures requiring surgical intervention are severe injuries, which might affect the return to sports and daily activities. We hypothesize that athletic patients will be constrained regarding their sporting activities after surgically treated humeral head fractures. Despite a long rehabilitation program physical activities will change and an avoidance of overhead activities will be noticed. METHODS: Case series with 65 Patients, with a minimum follow-up of 24 months participated in this study...
April 26, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441055/ex-vivo-biomechanical-evaluation-of-pigeon-columba-livia-cadaver-intact-humeri-and-ostectomized-humeri-stabilized-with-caudally-applied-titanium-locking-plate-or-stainless-steel-nonlocking-plate-constructs
#18
Brett G Darrow, Jeffrey J Biskup, Joseph P Weigel, Michael P Jones, Xie Xie, Peter K Liaw, Josh L Tharpe, Aashish Sharma, Dayakar Penumadu
OBJECTIVE To evaluate mechanical properties of pigeon (Columba livia) cadaver intact humeri versus ostectomized humeri stabilized with a locking or nonlocking plate. SAMPLE 30 humeri from pigeon cadavers. PROCEDURES Specimens were allocated into 3 groups and tested in bending and torsion. Results for intact pigeon humeri were compared with results for ostectomized humeri repaired with a titanium 1.6-mm screw locking plate or a stainless steel 1.5-mm dynamic compression plate; the ostectomized humeri mimicked a fracture in a thin cortical bone...
May 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439549/observation-of-current-induced-long-lived-persistent-spin-polarization-in-a-topological-insulator-a-rechargeable-spin-battery
#19
Jifa Tian, Seokmin Hong, Ireneusz Miotkowski, Supriyo Datta, Yong P Chen
Topological insulators (TIs), with their helically spin-momentum-locked topological surface states (TSSs), are considered promising for spintronics applications. Several recent experiments in TIs have demonstrated a current-induced electronic spin polarization that may be used for all-electrical spin generation and injection. We report spin potentiometric measurements in TIs that have revealed a long-lived persistent electron spin polarization even at zero current. Unaffected by a small bias current and persisting for several days at low temperature, the spin polarization can be induced and reversed by a large "writing" current applied for an extended time...
April 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439303/proximal-femoral-osteotomy-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-the-perspective-of-the-trainee
#20
L Zhou, M Camp, A Gahukamble, K L Willoughby, M Harambasic, C Molesworth, A Khot, H K Graham
BACKGROUND: There are a range of implants for fixation of proximal femoral osteotomies (PFOs) in children. We investigated the training experiences and preferences of orthopaedic residents and fellows who were learning PFO, using a fixed angled blade plate (ABP) or a locking, cannulated blade plate (LCBP). We also studied short-term technical and radiographic outcomes. METHODS: This was a prospective, parallel-group, cohort study of 90 consecutive children and adolescents with cerebral palsy who underwent bilateral PFOs with ABP or LCBP...
2017: Journal of Children's Orthopaedics
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