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vasculitis acute kidney injury

Yue Chen, Ping Li, Chunli Cui, Aihong Yuan, Kun Zhang, Chen Yu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics, renal histopathological spectrum and prognostic factors of biopsy-proven kidney diseases in the elderly. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was conducted in elderly patients who had received renal biopsies. Demographic, clinical and pathological data at the time of the biopsy were collected from the medical records. Follow-up records and prognostic factors were studied. RESULTS: The elderly (≥60 years) accounted for 74 of 434 (17...
September 5, 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
Parminder K Judge, Michael E Reschen, Richard Haynes, Edward J Sharples
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody-associated vasculitis (AAV) is a cause of biopsy-proven acute kidney injury, more common in the elderly. Treatment requires immunosuppression, which can have significant toxic effects. The aim of this study was to assess whether morbidity and mortality that are associated with immunosuppression for AAV varied with age. METHODS: A retrospective review of 232 patients given induction therapy with prednisolone and cyclophosphamide was conducted...
2016: Nephron
P F Halloran, K S Famulski, J Chang
Histologic diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR) in kidney transplant biopsies uses lesion score cutoffs such as 0 versus >0 rather than actual scores and requires donor-specific antibody (DSA); however, cutoffs lose information, and DSA is not always reliable. Using microarray-derived molecular ABMR scores as a histology-independent estimate of ABMR in 703 biopsies, we reassessed criteria for ABMR to determine relative importance of various lesions, the utility of equations using actual scores rather than cutoffs, and the potential for diagnosing ABMR when DSA is unknown or negative...
June 24, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Daniel R Bunker, Timothy Sullivan
Importance. Infections can cause leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Observations. We report the case of a patient with a left ventricular assist device who presented with acute kidney injury and biopsy proven leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Blood cultures grew Listeria monocytogenes. The patient's rash improved with treatment of the underlying Listeria infection. Conclusion. Clinicians should be aware that there are a number of broad categories of disease associated with the histologic finding of vasculitis, including infection...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Ryan Kunjal, Raafat Makary, Andreea Poenariu
Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis rarely affects females of reproductive age. A 28-year-old African American woman presented at 8 weeks of gestation with intractable vomiting attributed to hyperemesis gravidarum. She was found to have acute kidney injury that was unresponsive to vigorous fluid resuscitation and urine sediment examination was suggestive of an underlying glomerulonephritis. Serum c-ANCA and PR3 were elevated and there was no peripheral eosinophilia. During her course she also developed one episode of small volume hemoptysis with right upper lobe infiltrates on CT Chest...
2016: Case Reports in Nephrology
Bonnie Fergie, James Basha, Michelle McRae, Ian McCrossin
We report five cases of Rickettsia australis infection from southern coastal New South Wales, Australia. All patients presented with a cutaneous eruption of erythematous papules and pustules and systemic features of malaise, headache, lymphadenopathy and myalgia. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was present in two of five cases and one of five cases had acute delirium. Improvement was only seen after treatment with doxycycline 100 mg b.i.d. Positive serology for R. australis was present in four of five cases and a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was seen in one of five cases...
June 10, 2016: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Ji-Won Lee, Jun-Pyo Myong, Yeong-Jin Choi, Seyoung Lee, Bum Seak Jo, Jung-Wan Koo
BACKGROUND: An association between silica exposure and autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis has been made. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old male presented with silicosis and had an occupational history of precious metal processing for 30 years and a 30 pack-year smoking history. The patient was diagnosed with pneumoconiosis and received compensation...
2016: Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Sergio Fusco, Sabrina Garasto, Andrea Corsonello, Silvio Vena, Vincenzo Mari, Pietro Gareri, Giovanni Ruotolo, Filippo Luciani, Arturo Roncone, Marcello Maggio, Fabrizia Lattanzio
OBJECTIVE: To summarize current evidence about mechanisms, clinical features, diagnostic issues, and strategies for prevention of medication-induced nephrotoxicity among older people. METHODS: A Pubmed search was performed, and studies concerning age-related changes in kidney structure and function predisposing to nephrotoxicity, pathophysiological mechanisms, kidney drug metabolism enzymes, clinical epidemiology of medication-induced kidney damage, biomarkers for early identification of nephrotoxicity and strategies for prevention of medication-induced nephrotoxicity among older people were selected...
2016: Current Drug Metabolism
Wajid M Choudhry, Uday S Nori, Tibor Nadasdy, Anjali A Satoskar
Diagnostic kidney biopsies sometimes yield clinically unsuspected diagnoses. We present a case of a 69-year-old woman with established ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) of 4 years duration who was in clinical remission following cytotoxic therapy and was on maintenance immunosuppression. She presented to the hospital with acute kidney injury (AKI), symptoms suggestive of a systemic vasculitis, and in addition had hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis. A relapse in the AAV was suspected but a diagnostic kidney biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis, patchy interstitial inflammation, and calcium phosphate deposits...
May 2016: Clinical Nephrology
Xunhong Duan, Dongqi Yu, Changlong Yu, Biao Wang, Yibin Guo
Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP) is a systemic vasculitis of unknown cause, with immune-mediated inflammation of the small vessels, which is characterized by a series of clinical symptoms, such as purpuric rash, colicky abdominal pain, arthritis and acute glomerulonephritis. Twenty-one days following a high-voltage electrical burn injury, a 40-year-old man developed classic clinical symptoms of HSP, including purpuric rash on bilateral lower extremities and abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with HSP associated with high-voltage burn injury, which is an extremely rare phenomenon...
February 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Annette Bruchfeld, Mårten Wendt, Edmund J Miller
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, including sepsis, autoimmune disease, atherogenesis, plaque instability, and pulmonary arterial hypertension. MIF in plasma and urine is significantly elevated in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) and elevated MIF in serum is associated with markers of oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction, arterial stiffness, and markers of myocardial damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD)...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
Kamata Yoshinori, Azuma Arata, Hotta Osamu, Joh Kensuke
We encountered a case of granulomatous tubulointerstitial nephritis in a patient with sarcoidosis, who was also found to show an elevated serum titer of anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody. The serum creatinine level had been documented to be within normal range 8 months before the first visit. Gallium scintigraphy revealed bilateral kidney uptake, but no uptake in the pulmonary hilum. No typical findings of sarcoidosis, e.g., bilateral hilar adenopathy, uveitis or elevated serum ACE level were recognized in the early stage...
2015: Sarcoidosis, Vasculitis, and Diffuse Lung Diseases: Official Journal of WASOG
Sierra C Simmons, Maxwell L Smith, April Chang-Miller, Mira T Keddis
Lupus nephritis (LN) is a serious and common complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that predisposes to significant morbidity and mortality. Studies show that prompt diagnosis and treatment improves patient survival. We present a case of a 49-year-old female with an atypical presentation of LN who initially presented with new-onset hypertension, edema, arthritis, serositis and recently diagnosed leukocytoclastic vasculitis who later developed acute kidney injury, hematuria and nephrotic syndrome...
2015: American Journal of Nephrology
Jens H Westhoff, Burkhard Tönshoff, Sina Waldherr, Johannes Pöschl, Ulrike Teufel, Timm H Westhoff, Alexander Fichtner
BACKGROUND: The G1 cell cycle inhibitors tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) have been identified as promising biomarkers for the prediction of adverse outcomes including renal replacement therapy (RRT) and mortality in critically ill adult patients who develop acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the prognostic value of urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 in neonatal and pediatric AKI for adverse outcome has not been investigated yet...
2015: PloS One
Chinmay Patel, Hitesh H Shah
Immunization with influenza vaccine remains an important global health strategy to prevent outbreaks and epidemics of seasonal influenza. Influenza vaccine has rarely been associated with vasculitis, acute kidney injury (AKI) and nephrotic syndrome (NS). Glomerular diseases following influenza vaccination have also been rarely reported. We report a patient who developed acute-onset massive proteinuria with NS and severe AKI soon after receiving the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine. Kidney biopsy showed membranous nephropathy (MN) and acute interstitial nephritis (AIN)...
November 2015: Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation
Joanna R Ghali, Stephen R Holdsworth, A Richard Kitching
T helper (Th) cells belong to the adaptive immune system and provide an effective and antigen-specific means of host protection. Th17 cells are a subset of Th cells, characterized by the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-17A (IL-17A) and IL-17F, which bind to a receptor complex comprised of IL-17RA and IL-17RC subunits. Th17 cells combat extracellular and fungal infections, but have been implicated in autoimmune diseases. In many autoimmune conditions, the dysregulated immune response involves several parts of the immune system, including autoantibodies, B and T cells...
2015: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Natalya Iorio, Gregory R Bernstein, Zubair Malik, Ron Schey
A 63-year-old woman with abdominal pain and melena developed a palpable, purpuric rash and acute kidney injury. Skin and kidney biopsy confirmed Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Upper endoscopy revealed diffuse, circumferential, black-appearing mucosa of the esophagus consistent with acute esophageal necrosis (AEN), also known as black esophagus. AEN is a very rare cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage with a high mortality risk. To our knowledge, there have been no prior reports of AEN associated with Henoch-Schonlein purpura or other vasculitis...
October 2015: ACG Case Reports Journal
Giles Walters, Narelle S Willis, Jonathan C Craig
BACKGROUND: Renal vasculitis presents as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis which comprises of a group of conditions characterised by acute kidney injury (AKI), haematuria and proteinuria. Treatment of these conditions comprises steroid and non-steroid agents in combination with plasma exchange. Although immunosuppression overall has been very successful in treatment of these conditions, many questions remain unanswered in terms of dose and duration of therapy, the use of plasma exchange and the role of new therapies...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Joanna R Ghali, Yuan Min Wang, Stephen R Holdsworth, A Richard Kitching
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are CD4+ T cells that can suppress immune responses by effector T cells, B cells and innate immune cells. This review discusses the role that Tregs play in murine models of immune-mediated renal diseases and acute kidney injury and in human autoimmune kidney disease (such as systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis). Current research suggests that Tregs may be reduced in number and/or have impaired regulatory function in these diseases...
February 2016: Nephrology
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