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Pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664951/universal-versus-conditional-day-3-follow-up-for-children-with-non-severe-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-a-cluster-randomized-community-based-non-inferiority-trial
#1
Luke C Mullany, Elburg W van Boetzelaer, Julie R Gutman, Laura C Steinhardt, Pascal Ngoy, Yolanda Barbera Lainez, Alison Wittcoff, Steven A Harvey, Lara S Ho
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization's integrated community case management (iCCM) guidelines recommend that all children presenting with uncomplicated fever and no danger signs return for follow-up on day 3 following the initial consultation on day 1. Such fevers often resolve rapidly, however, and previous studies suggest that expectant home care for uncomplicated fever can be safely recommended. We aimed to determine if a conditional follow-up visit was non-inferior to a universal follow-up visit for these children...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664899/universal-versus-conditional-day-3-follow-up-for-children-with-non-severe-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-ethiopia-a-cluster-randomised-non-inferiority-trial
#2
Karin Källander, Tobias Alfvén, Tjede Funk, Ayalkibet Abebe, Abreham Hailemariam, Dawit Getachew, Max Petzold, Laura C Steinhardt, Julie R Gutman
BACKGROUND: With declining malaria prevalence and improved use of malaria diagnostic tests, an increasing proportion of children seen by community health workers (CHWs) have unclassified fever. Current community management guidelines by WHO advise that children seen with non-severe unclassified fever (on day 1) should return to CHWs on day 3 for reassessment. We compared the safety of conditional follow-up reassessment only in cases where symptoms do not resolve with universal follow-up on day 3...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664370/antimicrobial-resistance-in-invasive-bacterial-infections-in-hospitalized-children-cambodia-2007-2016
#3
Andrew Fox-Lewis, Junko Takata, Thyl Miliya, Yoel Lubell, Sona Soeng, Poda Sar, Kolthida Rith, Gregor McKellar, Vanaporn Wuthiekanun, Erin McGonagle, Nicole Stoesser, Catrin E Moore, Christopher M Parry, Claudia Turner, Nicholas P J Day, Ben S Cooper, Paul Turner
To determine trends, mortality rates, and costs of antimicrobial resistance in invasive bacterial infections in hospitalized children, we analyzed data from Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, for 2007-2016. A total of 39,050 cultures yielded 1,341 target pathogens. Resistance rates were high; 82% each of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were multidrug resistant. Hospital-acquired isolates were more often resistant than community-acquired isolates; resistance trends over time were heterogeneous...
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663903/burden-of-influenza-in-less-than-5-year-old-children-admitted-to-hospital-with-pneumonia-in-developing-and-emerging-countries-a-descriptive-multicenter-study
#4
Cédric Dananché, Valentina Sánchez Picot, Thomas Bénet, Mélina Messaoudi, Monidarin Chou, Jianwei Wang, Jean-William Pape, Shally Awasthi, Ashish Bavdekar, Mala Rakoto-Andrianarivelo, Mariam Sylla, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Graciela Russomando, Florence Komurian-Pradel, Hubert Endtz, Gláucia Paranhos-Baccalà, Philippe Vanhems, On Behalf Of The Pneumonia Gabriel Network
This descriptive 4-year study reports the proportion of detection of influenza viruses in less than 5-year-old children hospitalized for pneumonia in eight developing and emerging countries and describes clinical and microbiological characteristics of influenza-related pneumonia cases. Hospitalized children presenting radiologically confirmed pneumonia aged 2-60 months were prospectively enrolled in this observational standardized study. Mean proportion of isolated influenza virus was 9.7% (95% confidence interval: 7...
April 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662688/distribution-and-determinants-of-pneumonia-diagnosis-using-integrated-management-of-childhood-illness-guidelines-a-nationally-representative-study-in-malawi
#5
Omolara T Uwemedimo, Todd P Lewis, Elsie A Essien, Grace J Chan, Humphreys Nsona, Margaret E Kruk, Hannah H Leslie
Background: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) strategy was developed to standardise care in low-income and middle-income countries for major childhood illnesses and can effectively improve healthcare worker performance. Suboptimal clinical evaluation can result in missed diagnoses and excess morbidity and mortality. We estimate the sensitivity of pneumonia diagnosis and investigate its determinants among children in Malawi...
2018: BMJ Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661585/effectiveness-of-influenza-vaccination-for-children-in-japan-four-year-observational-study-using-a-large-scale-claims-database
#6
Natsumi Shibata, Shinya Kimura, Takahiro Hoshino, Masato Takeuchi, Hisashi Urushihara
BACKGROUND: To date, few large-scale comparative effectiveness studies of influenza vaccination have been conducted in Japan, since marketing authorization for influenza vaccines in Japan has been granted based only on the results of seroconversion and safety in small-sized populations in clinical trial phases not on the vaccine effectiveness. We evaluated the clinical effectiveness of influenza vaccination for children aged 1-15 years in Japan throughout four influenza seasons from 2010 to 2014 in the real world setting...
April 13, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660749/antimicrobial-peptidomimetics-for-recurrent-septicemia-infections-in-vitro-study-for-immuno-compromised-disease-target
#7
Priyanka Sharma, Kandasamy Nagarajan, Bihu Prasad Panda
The frequency of Bacillus subtilis infection such as pneumonia pan-opthalmitis, visceral abscess or musculoskeletal infection etc. complications following bacteremia, meningitis in children & the infection associated with majority of motor vehicle accidents associated with trauma & gun shoot injury. Antibiotics which appear especially useful in the treatment of Bacillus. infection are clindamycin and vancomycin to which vast majority of strains are susceptible in vitro. Our objective is to test the synthesized peptidomimetics with the efforts mainly directed towards the identification of antibacterial compounds against recurrent septicemia infection...
April 16, 2018: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660106/safety-effectiveness-and-feasibility-of-outpatient-management-of-children-with-pneumonia-with-chest-indrawing-at-port-moresby-general-hospital-papua-new-guinea
#8
Rose Morre, Kone Sobi, Wendy Pameh, Paulus Ripa, John D Vince, Trevor Duke
Implementing the World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations on home-based management of pneumonia with chest indrawing is challenging in many settings. In Papua New Guinea, 120 children presenting with the WHO definition of pneumonia were screened for danger signs, comorbidities and hypoxaemia using pulse oximetry; 117 were appropriate for home care. We taught mothers about danger signs and when to return, using structured teaching materials and a video. The children were given a single dose of intramuscular benzylpenicillin, then sent home on oral amoxicillin for 5 days, with follow-up at Days 2 and 6...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658455/-efficacy-of-early-treatment-via-fiber-bronchoscope-in-children-with-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-pneumonia-complicated-by-airway-mucus-obstruction
#9
Li-Jie Cao, Jian-Hua Liu, Jin-Feng Shuai, Bo Niu, Su-Kun Lu, Kun-Ling Huang
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy of early treatment via fiber bronchoscope in children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) complicated by airway mucus obstruction. METHODS: According to the time from admission to the treatment via fiber bronchoscope, the children with MPP who were found to have airway mucus obstruction under a fiber bronchoscope were randomly divided into early intervention group (≤3 days; n=40) and late intervention group (>3 days; n=56)...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658403/endobronchial-stenting-on-vv-ecmo-in-a-6-month-old-girl-with-right-lung-agenesis-and-severe-stenosis-of-the-left-main-bronchus
#10
Vaclav Vobruba, Jiri Votruba, Jan Bělohlávek, Tomas Grus, Pavel Leden, Tomas Zaoral, Jan Hřídel
INTRODUCTION: Lung agenesis is a rare disorder with a variable, but potentially very bad clinical course. It necessitates complex clinical management, especially in life-threatening situations. CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 6-month-old girl with right lung agenesis who required venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) due to pneumonia complicated by exacerbated previously diagnosed left main bronchus stenosis. The stenosis was resolved by endobronchial intervention and X-ray-guided stent insertion, which enabled weaning from ECMO and was aimed at preventing such a life-threatening respiratory failure in the future...
April 1, 2018: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658199/the-added-value-of-the-lateral-chest-radiograph-for-diagnosing-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#11
Michalle Soudack, Semion Plotkin, Aviva Ben-Shlush, Lisa Raviv-Zilka, Jeffrey M Jacobson, Michael Benacon, Arie Augarten
BACKGROUND: Opinions differ as to the need of a lateral radiograph for diagnosing community acquired pneumonia in children referred to the emergency department. A lateral radiograph increases the ionizing radiation burden but at the same time may improve specificity and sensitivity in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of the frontal and lateral chest radiographs compared to frontal view stand-alone images for the management of children with suspected community acquired pneumonia seen in a pediatric emergency department...
January 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655382/risk-factors-for-influenza-related-complications-in-children-during-the-2009-10-pandemic-a-uk-primary-care-cohort-study-using-linked-routinely-collected-data
#12
J J Lee, C Bankhead, M Smith, A A Kousoulis, C C Butler, K Wang
Primary care clinicians have a central role in managing influenza/influenza-like illness (ILI) during influenza pandemics. This study identifies risk factors for influenza-related complications in children presenting with influenza/ILI in primary care. We conducted a cohort study using routinely collected linked data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink on children aged 17 years and younger who presented with influenza/ILI during the 2009/10 pandemic. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for potential risk factors in relation to influenza-related complications, complications requiring intervention, pneumonia, all-cause hospitalisation and hospitalisation due to influenza-related complications within 30 days of presentation...
April 15, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652870/surveillance-for-the-identification-of-cases-of-acute-respiratory-infection-by-enterovirus-d68-in-children-in-a-tertiary-level-care-hospital-during-2014-2016
#13
Ana Estela Gamiño-Arroyo, José Luis Sánchez-Huerta, Alicia Elhaín de la Garza-López, Israel Parra-Ortega, Noé Escobar-Escamilla, Edgar Mendieta-Condado, Fabiola Garcés-Ayala, Gisela Barrera-Badillo, José Ernesto Ramírez-González, José Alberto Díaz-Quiñonez, Daniela de la Rosa-Zamboni
Background: The reemergence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) infections in the United States was reported from August-October 2014 (691 cases). In Mexico, an outbreak at the National Institute of Respiratory Diseases was reported (24 cases). The results of epidemiological surveillance of Enterovirus sp. (EV) and other respiratory viruses in a national pediatric tertiary care level hospital are presented. Methods: Following the alert issued by the reemergence of EV-D68 in 2014, epidemiological surveillance -which only detected respiratory viruses by PCR in patients with influenza-like illness using nasopharyngeal swabs- expanded to include children with asthma exacerbation or acute respiratory distress...
2018: Boletín Médico del Hospital Infantil de México
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650505/universal-versus-conditional-third-day-follow-up-visit-for-children-with-nonsevere-unclassified-fever-at-the-community-level-in-ethiopia-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-noninferiority-trial
#14
Karin Källander, Tobias Alfven, Ayalkibet Abebe Workineh, Abreham Hailemariam, Max Petzold, Dawit Getachew, Lawrence Barat, Laura C Steinhardt, Julie R Gutman
BACKGROUND: Under the World Health Organization's integrated community case management strategy, febrile children seen by community health workers (on day 1) without a diagnosable illness and without danger signs are advised to return on day 3, regardless of symptom resolution. This advice might be unnecessary and place additional time and cost burdens on caregivers and community health workers. However, the safety of not following up with respect to children with unclassified fever is unknown...
April 12, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650215/do-different-positions-affect-the-oxygen-saturation-and-comfort-level-of-children-under-five-with-pneumonia
#15
Ely Mawaddah, Nani Nurhaeni, Dessie Wanda
OBJECTIVE: Children with pneumonia need a correct position to increase their oxygen saturation and comfort level. Postural changes affect the function of the human body and disease conditions. This study aimed to identify the effect of prone and semirecumbent positions on the oxygen saturation and comfort level of children under five with pneumonia. METHOD: The study design was a quasi-experimental with a pre-posttest control group design. Thirty-six children with pneumonia aged 0-59 months were selected using consecutive sampling and divided into three groups: prone (n = 12), semirecumbent (n = 12), and control (n = 12)...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650202/impact-of-family-empowerment-model-on-satisfaction-and-children-s-length-of-stay-in-hospital
#16
Nani Nurhaeni, Yeni Rustina, Nur Agustini, Novi Enis Rosuliana
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to identify the impact of family empowerment model intervention on family satisfaction and children's length of stay in the hospital due to pneumonia. METHOD: The design of the study was that of a quasi-experiment. About 83 family-child groups were divided into 42 pair in the intervention group and 41 pair in the control group; which were recruited using consecutive sampling using certain inclusion criteria. Three district hospitals in Jakarta were used in this study...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650193/inhalation-with-bronchodilator-combination-effective-in-reducing-length-of-hospital-stay-in-children-with-pneumonia
#17
Rahma Annisa, Nani Nurhaeni, Dessie Wanda
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the correlation between inhalation therapy and length of hospital stay in children under age of five with pneumonia. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 102 consecutive patients (secondary data) with pneumonia. The patients were divided depending on the type of therapy they received: Group I used inhalation therapy with bronchodilator β-agonist + NaCl 0,9%, Group II used inhalation therapy with bronchodilator β-agonist and anticholinergic + NaCl 0,9%, Group III used inhalation therapy with NaCl 0,9%, and Group IV used no inhalation therapy...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650183/the-combination-of-nebulization-and-chest-physiotherapy-improved-respiratory-status-in-children-with-pneumonia
#18
Nur Eni Lestari, Nani Nurhaeni, Siti Chodidjah
OBJECTIVE: There is controversy regarding the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy to solve airway obstruction problems experienced by children younger than five years of age with pneumonia. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of chest physiotherapy and nebulization on the respiratory status of these children. METHOD: This study was quasi-experimental with a pre- and post-test nonequivalent control group design. Thirty-four respondents selected by consecutive sampling were divided into two groups: one that received nebulization and one that received nebulization with chest physiotherapy...
February 2018: Enfermería Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649269/carriage-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-haemophilus-influenzae-moraxella-catarrhalis-and-staphylococcus-aureus-in-indonesian-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Eileen M Dunne, Chrysanti Murad, Sunaryati Sudigdoadi, Eddy Fadlyana, Rodman Tarigan, Sang Ayu Kompiyang Indriyani, Casey L Pell, Emma Watts, Catherine Satzke, Jason Hinds, Nurhandini Eka Dewi, Finny Fitry Yani, Kusnandi Rusmil, E Kim Mulholland, Cissy Kartasasmita
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of infection and commonly colonizes the nasopharynx of young children, along with other potentially pathogenic bacteria. The objectives of this study were to estimate the carriage prevalence of S. pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus in young children in Indonesia, and to examine interactions between these bacterial species. 302 healthy children aged 12-24 months were enrolled in community health centers in the Bandung, Central Lombok, and Padang regions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649227/from-kitchen-to-classroom-assessing-the-impact-of-cleaner-burning-biomass-fuelled-cookstoves-on-primary-school-attendance-in-karonga-district-northern-malawi
#20
Christine A Kelly, Amelia C Crampin, Kevin Mortimer, Albert Dube, Jullita Malava, Deborah Johnston, Elaine Unterhalter, Judith R Glynn
Household air pollution from burning solid fuels is responsible for an estimated 2.9 million premature deaths worldwide each year and 4.5% of global disability-adjusted life years, while cooking and fuel collection pose a considerable time burden, particularly for women and children. Cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstoves have the potential to lower exposure to household air pollution as well as reduce fuelwood demand by increasing the combustion efficiency of cooking fires, which may in turn yield ancillary benefits in other domains...
2018: PloS One
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