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Pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236286/corticosteroids-for-pneumonia
#1
REVIEW
Anat Stern, Keren Skalsky, Tomer Avni, Elena Carrara, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
BACKGROUND: Pneumonia is a common and potentially serious illness. Corticosteroids have been suggested for the treatment of different types of infection, however their role in the treatment of pneumonia remains unclear. This is an update of a review published in 2011. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in the treatment of pneumonia. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and LILACS on 3 March 2017, together with relevant conference proceedings and references of identified trials...
December 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234355/treatment-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-are-all-countries-treating-children-in-the-same-way-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Daniele Donà, Dora Luise, Liviana Da Dalt, Carlo Giaquinto
Background: Pneumonia represents an important threat to children's health in both developed and developing countries. In the last 10 years, many national and international guidelines on the treatment of pediatric CAP have been published, in order to optimize the prescription of antibiotics and limit their cost and side effects. However, the practical implementation of these guidelines is still limited. Main Text: We analyzed the current recommendations for the therapy of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that all converge on the identification of aminopenicillins and beta-lactams as the optimal treatment for CAP...
2017: International Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233576/changing-epidemiology-of-haemophilus-influenzae-in-children
#3
REVIEW
David F Butler, Angela L Myers
Haemophilus influenzae remains a common cause of illness in children throughout the world. Before the introduction of vaccination, H influenzae type b (Hib) disease was the leading cause of bacterial meningitis in young children and a frequent cause of pneumonia, epiglottitis, and septic arthritis. Clinicians should remain diligent in counseling parents on the dangers of Hib and provide vaccination starting at 2 months of age. The epidemiology of invasive H influenzae disease is shifting. It is imperative that clinicians recognize the changing epidemiology and antibiotic resistance patterns for H influenzae to optimize care in hospital and ambulatory settings...
December 9, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233111/effectiveness-of-two-community-based-strategies-on-disease-knowledge-and-health-behaviour-regarding-malaria-diarrhoea-and-pneumonia-in-ghana
#4
Blanca Escribano-Ferrer, Margaret Gyapong, Jane Bruce, Solomon A Narh Bana, Clement T Narh, Naa-Korkor Allotey, Roland Glover, Charity Azantilow, Constance Bart-Plange, Isabella Sagoe-Moses, Jayne Webster
BACKGROUND: Ghana has developed two community-based strategies that aim to increase access to quality treatment for malaria, diarrhoea and suspected pneumonia, and to improve household and family practices: integrated Community Case Management (iCCM) and Community-based Health Planning and Services (CHPS). The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of iCCM and CHPS on disease knowledge and health behaviour regarding malaria, diarrhoea and pneumonia. METHODS: A household survey was conducted two and eight years after implementation of iCCM in the Volta and Northern Regions of Ghana respectively, and more than ten years of CHPS implementation in both regions...
December 12, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233110/accounting-for-misclassification-bias-of-binary-outcomes-due-to-underscreening-a-sensitivity-analysis
#5
Nanhua Zhang, Si Cheng, Lilliam Ambroggio, Todd A Florin, Maurizio Macaluso
BACKGROUND: Diagnostic tests are performed in a subset of the population who are at higher risk, resulting in undiagnosed cases among those who do not receive the test. This poses a challenge for estimating the prevalence of the disease in the study population, and also for studying the risk factors for the disease. METHODS: We formulate this problem as a missing data problem because the disease status is unknown for those who do not receive the test. We propose a Bayesian selection model which models the joint distribution of the disease outcome and whether testing was received...
December 12, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232913/pharmacoeconomic-analysis-of-drugs-used-in-the-treatment-of-pneumonia-in-paediatric-population-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-india-a-cost-of-illness-study
#6
Lekha Saha, Sharonjeet Kaur, Pratibha Khosla, Sweta Kumari, Alka Rani
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: The cost of antibiotic therapy for the treatment of pneumonia in the inpatient paediatric population can have a major impact on the healthcare expenditure. We planned to assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosis and medical treatment of paediatric patients with community acquired pneumonia who are hospitalized in a tertiary care hospital in India. METHODS: 125 children with a diagnosis of pneumonia who were admitted to the inpatient department of a paediatric hospital receiving antibiotic treatment were observed...
December 11, 2017: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232879/the-alteration-of-nasopharyngeal-and-oropharyngeal-microbiota-in-children-with-mpp-and-non-mpp
#7
Zhiwei Lu, Wenkui Dai, Yanhong Liu, Qian Zhou, Heping Wang, Dongfang Li, Zhenyu Yang, Yinhu Li, Gan Xie, Shuaicheng Li, Yuejie Zheng
Background: In recent years, the morbidity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) has increased significantly in China. A growing number of studies indicate that imbalanced respiratory microbiota is associated with various respiratory diseases. Methods: We enrolled 119 children, including 60 pneumonia patients and 59 healthy children. Nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) sampling was performed for 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene analysis of all children. Sputum and OP swabs were obtained from patients for pathogen detection...
December 11, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232664/vaccination-practices-in-pediatric-dialysis-patients-across-europe-a-european-pediatric-dialysis-working-group-and-european-society-for-pediatric-nephrology-dialysis-working-group-study
#8
Sevcan A Bakkaloğlu, Yesim Özdemir Atikel, Fabio Paglialonga, Constantinos J Stefanidis, Varvara Askiti, Enrico Vidal, Gema Ariceta, Engin Melek, Enrico Verrina, Nikoleta Printza, Karel Vondrak, Aleksandra Zurowska, Ilona Zagozdzon, Mesiha Ekim, Elif Nursel Özmert, Stephanie Dufek, Augustina Jankauskiene, Claus Peter Schmitt, Eszter Lévai, Johan Vande Walle, Nur Canpolat, Tuula Holtta, Michel Fischbach, Guenter Klaus, Christoph Aufricht, Rukshana Shroff, Alberto Edefonti
BACKGROUND: Data on the immunization practices in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are scarce. The purpose of this study was to evaluate current vaccination practices for children on dialysis across European pediatric nephrology centers. METHODS: A total of 18 tertiary pediatric nephrology centers from 12 European countries were included in the study. The data on universal national immunization programs and immunization practices for children with chronic disease or risk were recorded from European Center for Disease Prevention and Control and the World Health Organization...
December 12, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230219/functional-impairment-of-mononuclear-phagocyte-system-by-the-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#9
REVIEW
Karen Bohmwald, Janyra A Espinoza, Raúl A Pulgar, Evelyn L Jara, Alexis M Kalergis
The mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) comprises of monocytes, macrophages (MΦ), and dendritic cells (DCs). MPS is part of the first line of immune defense against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, such as the human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV). The hRSV is an enveloped virus that belongs to the Pneumoviridae family, Orthopneumovirus genus. This virus is the main etiological agent causing severe acute lower respiratory tract infection, especially in infants, children and the elderly. Human RSV can cause bronchiolitis and pneumonia and it has also been implicated in the development of recurrent wheezing and asthma...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228533/denosumab-treatment-of-severe-disuse-osteoporosis-in-a-boy-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#10
Stepan Kutilek
Denosumab is a fully human recombinant monoclonal antibody to the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. Denosumab is used in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis and cancer-related bone disorders. There are only very scarce data on denosumab treatment in children. 14-year-old boy with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and severe disuse osteoporosis (spinal bone mineral density L1-L4 BMD-6.2SD Z-score) and two prevalent fragility fractures was treated with denosumab. He received 60 mg  subcutaneous injection at the baseline and seven months later...
October 2017: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228381/the-etiology-and-impact-of-co-infections-in-children-hospitalized-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#11
Vikki G Nolan, Sandra R Arnold, Anna M Bramley, Krow Ampofo, Derek J Williams, Carlos G Grijalva, Wesley H Self, Evan J Anderson, Richard G Wunderink, Kathryn M Edwards, Andrew T Pavia, Seema Jain, Jonathan A McCullers
Background: Recognition that co-infections are common in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is increasing, but gaps remain in our understanding of their frequency and importance. Methods: We analyzed data from 2219 children hospitalized with CAP and compared demographics, clinical characteristics, and outcomes between groups with viruses alone, bacteria alone, or co-infections. We also assessed the frequency of selected pairings of co-detected pathogens and their clinical characteristics...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228237/co-infections-in-hospitalized-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia-what-does-this-mean-for-the-clinician
#12
Sheldon L Kaplan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227466/morbidity-and-mortality-of-a-cohort-of-peruvian-hiv-infected-children-2003-2012
#13
Amira N Baker, Angela M Bayer, Rolando M Viani, Lenka Kolevic, Myung-Shin Sim, Jaime G Deville
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of INSN HIV clinic patients between 2003-2012...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227464/antibiotic-resistance-of-potential-otopathogens-isolated-from-nasopharyngeal-flora-of-children-with-acute-otitis-media-before-during-and-after-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccines-implementation
#14
Alexis Rybak, Corinne Levy, Stéphane Bonacorsi, Stéphane Béchet, François Vié le Sage, Annie Elbez, Emmanuelle Varon, Robert Cohen
BACKGROUNDL: To re-evaluate antibiotic strategies for acute otitis media (AOM) in young children, we analyzed the trends of nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp), Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mc) isolated from young children with AOM during a 16-year period. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed from 2001 to 2016, the nasopharyngeal carriage of Sp, Hi and Mc of young children with AOM...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227265/-peculiarities-of-the-analysis-of-the-level-of-proinflammatory-cytokins-in-the-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#15
A Akhaeyva, D Zhupenova, T Kenzhetaeva, A Kysabekova, S Dzhabaeva
The high specific gravity in the structure of morbidity in children of all age groups, complicated course, determines the urgency of studying the clinical and diagnostic aspects of community-acquired pneumonia. In recent years, interest has been growing in the study of the child's cytokine status. A number of studies indicate that cytokines regulate the severity and duration of the inflammatory process. In this regard, the study of the possibility of determining the level of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-6 , TNF-α) is of great practical importance for assessing the prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia in children...
November 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225071/clinical-characteristics-of-pulmonary-mycobacterium-lentiflavum-disease-in-adult-patients
#16
Kazuma Yagi, Kozo Morimoto, Makoto Ishii, Ho Namkoong, Satoshi Okamori, Takanori Asakura, Shoji Suzuki, Takahiro Asami, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Yohei Funatsu, Hiroshi Fujiwara, Hirofumi Kamata, Tomoyasu Nishimura, Tomoko Betsuyaku, Atsuyuki Kurashima, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium lentiflavum organisms are slow-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria often associated with immunocompromised state and cervical lymphadenitis in young children. However, little is known about the clinical importance of pulmonary infection with M. lentiflavum in adults. METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of all adults who met the diagnostic criteria of pulmonary M. lentiflavum disease at Keio University Hospital and Fukujuji Hospital from 2001 to 2015...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221826/trends-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-and-its-serotypes-in-the-autonomous-community-of-madrid
#17
Pello Latasa Zamalloa, Juan Carlos Sanz Moreno, María Ordobás Gavín, María Dolores Barranco Ordoñez, Esther Insúa Marisquerena, Ángel Gil de Miguel, Abelardo Claudio Fernández Chávez, Luis García-Comas
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important cause of morbidity. Vaccination is the most effective measure to prevent it. The aim of this study is to analyse the evolution of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Observational study of IPD cases notified to the Epidemiological Surveillance Network of the Autonomous Community of Madrid between 2008 and 2015. The IPD case was defined as the disease caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, with isolation and DNA or antigen detection, in samples from normally sterile sites...
December 5, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219134/does-infant-feeding-method-influence-the-incidence-and-pattern-of-morbidities-among-human-immunodeficiency-virus-exposed-uninfected-nigerian-infants
#18
Olusoga Babatunde Ogunfowora, Tinuade Adetutu Ogunlesi, Abiodun Folashade Adekanmbi, Victor Ayodeji Ayeni
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-exposed infants enrolled into the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV program generally receive antiretroviral therapy (ARV), but the feeding methods differ based on several socioeconomic and cultural differences. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the incidence and pattern of morbidities among HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) Nigerian infants and determine any relationship with infant feeding methods...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217093/risk-factors-for-the-appearance-of-secondary-foci-of-infection-in-children-with-community-acquired-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteraemia-cohort-study-2010-2016
#19
M Guadalupe Perez, Soledad Martiren, Florencia Escarra, Vanesa Reijtman, Alejandra Mastroianni, Ana Varela-Baino, Carola Cedillo, M Eva Garcia, Moira Taicz, Rosa Bologna
INTRODUCTION: Community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus (SA) bacteraemia is a common cause of hospitalisation in children. The occurrence of secondary foci (SF) of SA infection is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for SF of infection in children with community-acquired SA bacteraemia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective cohort. All children aged from 30 days to 16 years admitted to a paediatric referral hospital between January 2010 and December 2016 for community-acquired infections, with SA isolated in blood cultures, were included...
December 4, 2017: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215596/rsv-infection-in-human-macrophages-promotes-cxcl10-ip-10-expression-during-bacterial-co-infection
#20
Daniela Machado, Jonathan Hoffmann, Marie Moroso, Manuel Rosa-Calatrava, Hubert Endtz, Olivier Terrier, Glaucia Paranhos-Baccalà
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a major etiologic agent of acute lower respiratory infection constitutes the most important cause of death in young children worldwide. Viral/bacterial mixed infections are related to severity of respiratory inflammatory diseases, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have previously investigated the intracellular mechanisms that mediate the immune response in the context of influenza virus/Streptococcus pneumoniae (Sp) co-infection using a model of human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs)...
December 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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