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Pneumonia in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29935210/comparison-of-serological-assays-using-pneumococcal-proteins-or-polysaccharides-for-detection-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-infection-in-children-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#1
Igor C Borges, Dafne C Andrade, Nina Ekström, Camilla Virta, Merit Melin, Annika Saukkoriipi, Maija Leinonen, Olli Ruuskanen, Helena Käyhty, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
The aim of this study was to compare the results of serological assays using pneumococcal proteins or polysaccharides for the detection of pneumococcal infection in childhood pneumonia. Serological assays measured IgG against eight pneumococcal proteins (Ply,CbpA,PspA1,PspA2,PcpA,PhtD,StkP-C,PcsB-N), C-polysaccharide [in the whole study population, n = 183], or 19 pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (1,2,4,5,6B,7F,8,9 V,10A,11A,12F,14,15B,17F,18C,19F,20,23F,33F) [only in a subgroup of patients, n = 53] in paired serum samples of children aged <5 years-old hospitalized with clinical and radiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29933686/-efficacy-and-safety-of-xiyanping-injection-combined-with-azithromycin-in-treating-mycoplasma-pneumonia-of-children-meta-analysis
#2
Yu-Jun Luo, Xiao-Ying Wen, Xiao-Liang Ni, Xiao-Lan Xiao
To systemically evaluate the safety and efficacy of Xiyanping injection combined with azithromycin in the treatment of mycoplasmal pneumonia in children. PubMed, Wanfang Data, CNKI, VIP and CBM were used to search for the clinical randomized controlled trials on Xiyanping injection combined with azithromycin in the treatment of mycoplasmal pneumonia in children from database establishment to July, 2017. The papers were screened according to the established inclusion and exclusion criteria, and then the quality of the included studies was evaluated to extract valid data for Meta-analysis by using Revman 5...
May 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29932038/community-acquired-pneumonia-in-children
#3
Alexander Kc Leung, Alex H C Wong, Kam Lun Hon
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity in developed countries and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Prompt diagnosis and appropriate treatment are very important. OBJECTIVE: To provide an update on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in children. METHODS: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key term "community-acquired pneumonia"...
June 21, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931473/lung-ultrasound-in-diagnosing-pneumonia-in-childhood-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Daniele Orso, Alessio Ban, Nicola Guglielmo
PURPOSE: Pneumonia is the third leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age worldwide. In pediatrics, both the accuracy and safety of diagnostic tools are important. Lung ultrasound (LUS) could be a safe diagnostic tool for this reason. We searched in the literature for diagnostic studies about LUS to predict pneumonia in pediatric patients using systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: The Medline, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, SPORTDiscus, ScienceDirect, and Web of Science databases from inception to September 2017 were searched...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926438/sudden-death-from-acute-epiglottitis-in-a-toddler
#5
Ann Sophie Schröder, Carolin Edler, Jan Peter Sperhake
The bacterium Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) can cause severe and life-threatening infections such as epiglottitis and meningitis. The course of the disease can be very rapid, resulting in sudden death. The incidence of Hib-induced epiglottitis in children has declined since the introduction of vaccinations in countries where such vaccinations are routinely administered. We herein present a case involving a 2.5-year-old boy who died suddenly at home. He had developed acute-onset throat and abdominal pain and a high fever...
June 20, 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925674/impact-of-improved-cookstoves-on-women-s-and-child-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Megha Thakur, Paulien A W Nuyts, Esther A Boudewijns, Javier Flores Kim, Timor Faber, Giridhara R Babu, Onno C P van Schayck, Jasper V Been
OBJECTIVES: Improved biomass cookstoves may help reduce the substantial global burden of morbidity and mortality due to household air pollution (HAP) that disproportionately affects women and children in low and middle income countries (LMICs). DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of (quasi-)experimental studies identified from 13 electronic databases (last update: 6 April 2018), reference and citation searches and via expert consultation. SETTING: LMICs PARTICIPANTS: Women and children INTERVENTIONS: Improved biomass cookstoves MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, perinatal mortality, paediatric acute respiratory infections (ARIs) and COPD among women...
June 20, 2018: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29925656/murine-pneumonia-virus-mpv-expressing-the-fusion-f-glycoprotein-of-human-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-from-an-added-gene-is-highly-attenuated-and-immunogenic-in-rhesus-macaques
#7
Linda G Brock, Xiang Liu, Bo Liang, Matthias Lingemann, Xueqiao Liu, Richard Herbert, Ashley D Hackenberg, Ursula J Buchholz, Peter L Collins, Shirin Munir
Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) continues to be the leading viral cause of severe acute lower respiratory tract disease in infants and children worldwide. A licensed vaccine or antiviral drug suitable for routine use remains unavailable. Like RSV, murine pneumonia virus (MPV) is a member of the genus Orthopneumovirus , family Pneumoviridae Humans are not normally exposed to MPV and MPV is not cross-protective with RSV. We evaluated MPV as an RSV vaccine vector expressing the RSV fusion (F) glycoprotein...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29921616/study-of-complications-of-varicella-zoster-virus-infection-in-hospitalized-children-at-a-reference-hospital-for-infectious-disease-treatment
#8
Lilian Martins Oliveira Diniz, Marcelle Marie Martins Maia, Yara Vieira de Oliveira, Marina Santos Falci Mourão, Amanda Vieira Couto, Vânia Carneiro Mota, Carolina Mazieiro Versiani, Priscila Olívia da Costa Silveira, Roberta Maia Castro Romanelli
OBJECTIVES: Varicella is a disease with potentially severe complications. We aimed to investigate characteristics of hospitalized children with varicella in Brazil in the prevaccine period and to identify predictors for requiring intensive care treatment. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from May 2011 to April 2014. Patients up to 13 years of age with varicella diagnosis were included. Information was collected through interview and review of medical records...
June 19, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920161/streptococcus-pneumoniae-antimicrobial-resistance-and-serotypes-of-strains-carried-by-children-and-causing-invasive-disease-in-the-faroe-islands
#9
Marita Debess Magnussen, Helga Erlendsdóttir, Shahin Gaini, Thorolfur Gudnason, Karl G Kristinsson
Knowledge about pneumococcal carriage, antibacterial resistance, serotype prevalence, and prevalence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) is lacking in the Faroe Islands. PCV-7 was introduced in 2008 and PCV-13 in 2010. The aim was to obtain knowledge on serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in pneumococci from carriage in children attending day-care centers (DCCs) and invasive isolates. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 607 healthy children attending DCCs in the Faroe Islands in January to March in 2009, 2010, and 2011...
June 19, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914745/tracheal-bronchus-diagnosed-in-children-undergoing-flexible-bronchoscopy
#10
REVIEW
Estela Pérez Ruiz, Pilar Caro Aguilera, Ana Isabel Valdivielso, Sonia Sanchís Cárdenas, Yazmina Martínez García, Javier Pérez Frías
This paper describes the clinical features of paediatric patients with tracheal bronchus (TB) identified with flexible bronchoscopy (FB) in a tertiary care hospital. A retrospective review of every FB with diagnosis of TB carried out in our centre since 1990 was performed which considered specifically: age at diagnosis, gender, semiology, somatic anomalies, tracheal bronchus type, other bronchoscopic findings and clinical progress. Out of 1665 FB in 1337 patients, TB was found in 26 (1.9%). The median age was 15 months (age range 1 month-13 years), with no gender differences...
May 19, 2018: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29914608/levels-of-fractional-exhaled-nitric-oxide-in-children-in-relation-to-air-pollution-in-chinese-day-care-centres
#11
X Zhang, Q Fan, X Bai, T Li, Z Zhao, X Fan, D Norbäck
OBJECTIVE: To study fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels among pre-school children in day care centres (DCCs) in relation to indoor and outdoor air pollution in northern China. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study among children aged 5 years from 34 classrooms at 10 randomly selected DCCs in Taiyuan, China. A total of 507 (99%) children participated. Air pollution and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels were measured in the classroom and outside the school...
July 1, 2018: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912842/severe-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection-in-children-admitted-to-pediatric-intensive-care
#12
Katie M Moynihan, Andrew Barlow, Clare Nourse, Claire Heney, Sanmarié Schlebusch, Luregn J Schlapbach
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia and may cause life-threatening disease in children. We identified 30 (0.3%) confirmed M. pneumoniae cases by clinical and laboratory criteria in 11,526 PICU admissions. Outcomes were comparable to patients admitted with other infections (n=3,005, p>0.1). Our findings indicate that empiric antimicrobial coverage for M. pneumoniae infection in PICU is rarely needed.
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912700/pediatric-complicated-pneumonia-caused-by-streptococcus-pneumoniae-serotype-3-in-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccinees-portugal-2010-2015
#13
Catarina Silva-Costa, Maria João Brito, Marcos D Pinho, Ana Friães, Sandra I Aguiar, M Ramirez, Jose Melo-Cristino
Despite use of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, incidence of pleural effusion and empyema (pediatric complicated pneumococcal pneumonia [PCPP]) is reportedly increasing globally. We cultured and performed PCR on 152 pleural fluid samples recovered from pediatric patients in Portugal during 2010-2015 to identify and serotype Streptococcus pneumoniae. We identified only 17 cases by culture, but molecular methods identified S. pneumoniae in 68% (92/135) of culture-negative samples. The most frequent serotypes were 3, 1, and 19A, together accounting for 62% (68/109) of cases...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908521/respiratory-viruses-among-children-with-non-severe-community-acquired-pneumonia-a-prospective-cohort-study
#14
Amanda C Nascimento-Carvalho, Ana-Luisa Vilas-Boas, Maria-Socorro H Fontoura, Tytti Vuorinen, Cristiana M Nascimento-Carvalho
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) causes a major burden to the health care system among children under-5 years worldwide. Information on respiratory viruses in non-severe CAP cases is scarce. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the frequency of respiratory viruses among non-severe CAP cases. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study conducted in Salvador, Brazil. Out of 820 children aged 2-59 months with non-severe CAP diagnosed by pediatricians (respiratory complaints and radiographic pulmonary infiltrate/consolidation), recruited in a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908315/expression-and-purification-of-pneumococcal-surface-protein-a-of-clade-4-in-escherichia-coli-using-hydroxylapatite-and-ion-exchange-column-chromatography
#15
Hualong Xi, Jinfei Yu, Qing Sun, Jingcai Lu, Tiejun Gu, Xiaonan Guo, Bo Li, Xiaorui Chen, Kaixin Zhang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen that causes life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia, otitis media, bacteremia, and meningitis, worldwide and especially in young children and the elderly. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a widely studied candidate protein vaccine that represents a promising replacement for current polysaccharide and polysaccharide-conjugate vaccines. In this study, we describe a simple method to produce PspA of clade 4 from an Escherichia coli expression system using hydroxylapatite and ion-exchange chromatography...
June 13, 2018: Protein Expression and Purification
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905633/longer-duration-of-urinary-catheterization-increases-catheter-associated-urinary-tract-infection-in-picu
#16
Kahoru Fukuoka, Mihoko Furuichi, Kenta Ito, Yoshihiko Morikawa, Ichiro Watanabe, Naoki Shimizu, Yuho Horikoshi
OBJECTIVES: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections account for 30% of healthcare-associated infections. To date, few studies have addressed pediatric catheter-associated urinary tract infection in PICUs. The aim of our study was to assess the risk of catheter-associated urinary tract infection in relation to the duration of catheterization in the PICU. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital...
June 13, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903376/burden-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-disease-in-children-in-the-era-of-conjugate-vaccines-global-regional-and-national-estimates-for-2000-15
#17
Brian Wahl, Katherine L O'Brien, Adena Greenbaum, Anwesha Majumder, Li Liu, Yue Chu, Ivana Lukšić, Harish Nair, David A McAllister, Harry Campbell, Igor Rudan, Robert Black, Maria Deloria Knoll
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine are now used in most countries. To monitor global and regional progress towards improving child health and to inform national policies for disease prevention and treatment, we prepared global, regional, and national disease burden estimates for these pathogens in children from 2000 to 2015. METHODS: Using WHO and Maternal and Child Epidemiology Estimation collaboration country-specific estimates of pneumonia and meningitis mortality and pneumonia morbidity from 2000 to 2015, we applied pneumococcal and Hib cause-specific proportions to estimate pathogen-specific deaths and cases...
July 2018: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899982/comparison-of-text-messaging-data-collection-vs-face-to-face-interviews-for-public-health-surveys-a-cluster-randomized-crossover-study-of-care-seeking-for-childhood-pneumonia-and-diarrhoea-in-rural-china
#18
Michelle Helena van Velthoven, Wei Wang, Qiong Wu, Ye Li, Robert W Scherpbier, Xiaozhen Du, Li Chen, Yanfeng Zhang, Josip Car, Igor Rudan
Background: To compare text messaging and face-to-face interviews to conduct a survey on childhood diarrhoea and pneumonia. Methods: Caregivers of young children able to send text messages in Zhao County in rural China were included in this crossover study. Villages (clusters) were randomized into two groups using the ratio 1:1.6 to account for an expected higher drop-out in group 2. In group 1, participants first completed the face-to-face and then text messaging survey; this order was reversed in group 2...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29899785/association-between-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-and-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-infection
#19
Archana Ramgopal, Aravind Thavamani, Abdulla Ghori
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a microbe known to affect numerous organ systems, and in particular, can cause neurological manifestations. We describe an otherwise healthy child who presented with acute onset intractable headache with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), a neurological manifestation that presents with headache, vision changes, altered mental status, or seizures. Our patient did not have any of the common etiologies for PRES reported but tested positive for acute M...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893805/vancomycin-monotherapy-may-be-insufficient-to-treat-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-coinfection-in-children-with-influenza-related-critical-illness
#20
Adrienne G Randolph, Ruifei Xu, Tanya Novak, Margaret M Newhams, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg, Scott L Weiss, Ronald C Sanders, Neal J Thomas, Mark W Hall, Keiko M Tarquinio, Natalie Cvijanovich, Rainer G Gedeit, Edward J Truemper, Barry Markovitz, Mary E Hartman, Kate G Ackerman, John S Giuliano, Steven L Shein, Kristin Moffitt
Background: Respiratory coinfection with influenza virus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia in children. Sporadic incidence precludes evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy. We assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill children with influenza-MRSA respiratory coinfection and evaluated antibiotic use. Methods: We prospectively enrolled children (<18 years) with influenza infection and acute respiratory failure across 34 pediatric intensive care units Nov 2008 to May 2016...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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