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Dehydration in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104624/youtube-are-parent-uploaded-videos-of-their-unwell-children-a-useful-source-of-medical-information-for-other-parents
#1
Katie Knight, Dorothy M van Leeuwen, Damian Roland, Henriette A Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
AIMS: YouTube is a vast source of freely accessible user-uploaded medical information. To our knowledge no study has analysed the quality of parent-uploaded videos which depict illness in their children. We aimed to investigate the quality and quantity of videos representing two common conditions, croup and dehydration. METHOD: YouTube was searched using the search terms 'croup+child' and 'dehydration+child'. The first 400 videos of each search were screened. Videos created by doctors or by educational institutions were excluded...
January 19, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062483/the-sialic-acid-to-urea-ratio-as-a-measure-of-airway-surface-hydration
#2
Charles R Esther, David B Hill, Brian Button, Shuai Shi, Corey M Jania, Elizabeth A Duncan, Claire M Doerschuk, Gang Chen, Sarath Ranganathan, Stephen Michael Stick, Richard C Boucher
INTRODUCTION: Although airway mucus dehydration is key to pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) and other airways diseases, measuring mucus hydration is challenging. We explored a robust method to estimate mucus hydration using sialic acid as a marker for mucin content. METHODS: Terminal sialic acid residues from mucins were cleaved by acid hydrolysis from airway samples, and concentrations of sialic acid, urea, and other biomarkers analyzed using mass spectrometry...
January 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056276/-infection-status-clinical-symptoms-and-gene-type-transition-of-group-a-rotavirus-in-children-less-than-five-years-of-age-with-diarrhea-in-sentinel-hospitals-of-henan-province-china
#3
J Y Zhao, X J Shen, S L Xia, B F Zhang, Y J Mu, X Y Huang, B L Xu
Objective: To investigate the infectious status, gene type transition and epidemiological features of rotavirus A isolated from infants and children (<59 months-of-age) in sentinel hospitals from 2008 to 2015 in Henan province, China. Methods: In total, 2 541 stool samples (each 3- 5 ml) were collected from infants and children aged less than five years in two sentinel hospitals and group A rotavirus was detected by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. Viral RNA was extracted from positive samples and G/P gene typing was performed using a two-step nested multiplex RT-PCR...
January 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043020/management-of-childhood-diarrhea-by-healthcare-professionals-in-low-income-countries-an-integrative-review
#4
REVIEW
Ana F Diallo, Xiaomei Cong, Wendy A Henderson, Jacqueline McGrath
BACKGROUND: The significant drop in child mortality due to diarrhea has been primarily attributed to the use of oral rehydration solutions, continuous feeding and zinc supplementation. Nevertheless uptake of these interventions have been slow in developing countries and many children suffering from diarrhea are not receiving adequate care according to the World Health Organization recommended guidelines for the clinical management of childhood diarrhea. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this integrative review is to appraise healthcare professionals' management of childhood diarrhea in low-income countries...
January 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034476/defining-cases-of-severe-pediatric-diarrhea-for-an-efficacy-trial-of-an-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-vaccine-report-on-an-international-workshop-washington-dc-march-2016
#5
Thomas F Wierzba, Alexandra Bourgis
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) causes severe acute watery diarrhea. No ETEC vaccine is available but candidates are in development, including ETVAX, an oral, whole-cell inactivated vaccine. ETVAX is being tested in a descending-age trial in Bangladesh. If found safe and immunogenic, investigators may test it for efficacy in children. Like oral rotavirus vaccines, we expect that ETVAX will be most effective at decreasing the incidence of moderate-to-severe ETEC episodes. Thus, for an efficacy trial outcome, it will be necessary to triage patients into moderate-to-severe versus mild disease...
December 26, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030918/to-treat-or-not-to-treat-drug-refractory-epilepsy-by-the-ketogenic-diet-that-is-the-question
#6
REVIEW
Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł, Ryszard Pluta, Anna Bogucka-Kocka, Stanisław J Czuczwar
Epilepsy is a serious neurologic disorder worldwide which affects about 1% of the population (ca. 50 million people), the highest prevalence occurring in both children and elderly. Apart from idiopathic forms, etiology of the disease involves multiple brain risk factors - the most frequent being cerebrovascular diseases, tumours and traumatic injuries. Several treatment options exist, including, for instance, pharmacotherapy, vagal nerve stimulation or epilepsy surgery. In spite of treatment, about 30% of patients with epilepsy still have seizures and become drug-refractory...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011610/characteristics-and-outcomes-of-pediatric-patients-with-ebola-virus-disease-admitted-to-treatment-units-in-liberia-and-sierra-leone-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Michael A Smit, Ian C Michelow, Justin Glavis-Bloom, Vanessa Wolfman, Adam C Levine
BACKGROUND: The clinical and virologic characteristics of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in children have not been thoroughly documented. METHODS: Consecutive children aged <18 years with real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-confirmed EVD were enrolled retrospectively in 5 Ebola treatment units in Liberia and Sierra Leone in 2014/2015. Data collection and medical management were based on standardized International Medical Corps protocols. We performed descriptive statistics, multivariate logistic regression, and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009937/needle-aspiration-versus-incision-and-drainage-for-the-treatment-of-peritonsillar-abscess
#8
REVIEW
Brent A Chang, Andrew Thamboo, Martin J Burton, Chris Diamond, Desmond A Nunez
BACKGROUND: Peritonsillar abscess is a common infection presenting as a collection of pus in the peritonsillar area. The condition is characterised by a severe sore throat, difficulty in swallowing and pain on swallowing, fever and malaise, and trismus. Needle aspiration and incision and drainage are the two main treatment modalities currently used in the treatment of this condition. The effectiveness of one versus the other has not been clearly demonstrated and remains an area of debate...
December 23, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009823/acute-diarrhoea-in-children-determination-of-duration-using-a-combined-bismuth-hydroxide-gel-and-oral-rehydration-solution-therapy-vs-oral-rehydration-solution
#9
Adriana Oviedo, Mirna Díaz, María Laura Valenzuela, Victoria Vidal, Liliana Racca, Hebe Bottai, Graciela Priore, Graciela Peluffo, Susana Di Bartolomeo, Graciela Cabral, María Del Carmen Toca
Oral rehydration salt (ORS) treatment in young children with acute diarrhoea (AD) has contributed to decrease mortality associated with dehydration although effective strategies to reduce morbidity associated with this disease are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diarrhoea duration when using combined colloidal bismuth hydroxide gel (CBHG) and oral rehydration salt treatment compared with ORS therapy in children with AD. We designed a double-blind, randomised prospective study with treatment and control groups...
December 21, 2016: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959472/polymer-based-oral-rehydration-solution-for-treating-acute-watery-diarrhoea
#10
REVIEW
Germana V Gregorio, Maria Liza M Gonzales, Leonila F Dans, Elizabeth G Martinez
BACKGROUND: Acute diarrhoea is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality among children in low-income countries. Glucose-based oral rehydration solution (ORS) helps replace fluid and prevent further dehydration from acute diarrhoea. Since 2004, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the osmolarity of less than 270 mOsm/L (ORS ≤ 270) versus greater than 310 mOsm/L formulation (ORS ≥ 310). Polymer-based ORS (for example, prepared using rice or wheat) slowly releases glucose and may be superior to glucose-based ORS...
December 13, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933399/implementation-of-clinical-decision-support-in-young-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-a-randomized-controlled-trial-at-the-emergency-department
#11
Dorien Geurts, Evelien de Vos-Kerkhof, Suzanne Polinder, Ewout Steyerberg, Johan van der Lei, Henriëtte Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequent reasons for young children to visit emergency departments (EDs). We aimed to evaluate (1) feasibility of a nurse-guided clinical decision support system for rehydration treatment in children with AGE and (2) the impact on diagnostics, treatment, and costs compared with usual care by attending physician. A randomized controlled trial was performed in 222 children, aged 1 month to 5 years at the ED of the Erasmus MC-Sophia Children's hospital in The Netherlands ( 2010-2012)...
February 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912886/medicinal-plants-and-natural-molecules-with-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-against-rotavirus-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Gopalsamy Rajiv Gandhi, Paula Gurgel Barreto, Bruno Dos Santos Lima, Jullyana de Souza Siqueira Quintans, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo Jose Quintans-Júnior, Ricardo Queiroz Gurgel
BACKGROUND: Rotaviruses can cause life-threatening health disorders, such as severe dehydrating gastroenteritis and diarrhea in children. Vaccination is the main preventive strategy to reduce rotavirus diarrhea and the severity of episodes, but vaccines are not fully effective and new episodes may occur, even in vaccinated children. The WHO recommends oral rehydration therapy and zinc supplementation for rotavirus-induced diarrhea management. There is little preclinical evidence to support the use of phytotherapeutics in the management of rotaviral infections...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893870/associations-between-hydration-status-intravenous-fluid-administration-and-outcomes-of-patients-infected-with-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
Silviu Grisaru, Jianling Xie, Susan Samuel, Lisa Hartling, Phillip I Tarr, David Schnadower, Stephen B Freedman
Importance: The associations between hydration status, intravenous fluid administration, and outcomes of patients infected with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) remain unclear. Objective: To determine the relationship between hydration status, the development and severity of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), and adverse outcomes in STEC-infected individuals. Data Sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials via the OvidSP platform, PubMed via the National Library of Medicine, CINAHL Plus with full text, Scopus, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials...
January 1, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888815/acute-diarrhoea-induced-by-rotavirus-in-children-hospitalysed-in-provincial-hospital-for-infectious-diseases-in-bydgoszcz-in-2014-year
#14
Beata Smok, Katarzyna Zieniewicz-Cieślik, Ewa Smukalska, Małgorzata Pawłowska
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to describe the epidemiology and course of rotavirus infection in children hospitalized at the T. Browicz Provincial Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Bydgoszcz, Poland in 2014 year. INTRODUCTION: Rotavirus infection is responsible for over 2 millions hospitalizations per year among children under 5 year old. Rotavirus gastroenterocolitis is one of the most common cause of severe dehydration, electrolyte disturbances and metabolic acidosis, leading to 400-600 thousand deaths per year in children younger than 5 years of age worldwide...
2016: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880811/oral-ondansetron-versus-domperidone-for-acute-gastroenteritis-in-pediatric-emergency-departments-multicenter-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Federico Marchetti, Maurizio Bonati, Alessandra Maestro, Davide Zanon, Francesca Rovere, Alberto Arrighini, Egidio Barbi, Paolo Bertolani, Paolo Biban, Liviana Da Dalt, Andrea Guala, Elisa Mazzoni, Anna Pazzaglia, Paolo Francesco Perri, Antonino Reale, Salvatore Renna, Antonio Francesco Urbino, Enrico Valletta, Antonio Vitale, Tiziana Zangardi, Antonio Clavenna, Luca Ronfani
The use of antiemetics for vomiting in acute gastroenteritis in children is still a matter of debate. We conducted a double-blind randomized trial to evaluate whether a single oral dose of ondansetron vs domperidone or placebo improves outcomes in children with gastroenteritis. After failure of initial oral rehydration administration, children aged 1-6 years admitted for gastroenteritis to the pediatric emergency departments of 15 hospitals in Italy were randomized to receive one oral dose of ondansetron (0...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861203/validation-of-a-simple-stool-diary-used-by-caregivers-to-document-diarrhea-among-young-children-in-a-low-income-country
#16
Benedikte Grenov, Hanifa Namusoke, Nicolette Nabukeera-Barungi, Betty Lanyero, Christian Ritz, Amalie Carlsson, Cecilie Kragh Vinther, Kim F Michaelsen, Tove Holm-Larsen
OBJECTIVES: Development and validation of a simple stool diary for caretakers collecting data on stool frequency and consistency among young children in a low-income country. METHODS: Focus group studies evaluated how diarrhea was understood by caregivers (content validity). The sensitivity, reliability, and correlations between dehydration and diary scores (construct validity) were tested in a clinical trial. RESULTS: Caregivers recognized and understood the concept and severity of diarrhea...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857783/hyponatremia-in-children-with-tuberculous-meningitis-a-hospital-based-cohort-study
#17
Prithi Inamdar, Sanjeevani Masavkar, Preeti Shanbag
BACKGROUND: Hyponatremia has long been recognized as a potentially serious metabolic consequence of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) occurring in 35-65% of children with the disease. The syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) secretion has for long been believed to be responsible for the majority of cases of hyponatremia in TBM. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome (CSWS) is being increasingly reported as a cause of hyponatremia in some of these children. AIM: This study was done to determine the frequency and causes of hyponatremia in children with TBM...
July 2016: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846837/prevalence-aetiology-treatment-and-outcomes-of-shock-in-children-admitted-to-kenyan-hospitals
#18
George Mbevi, Philip Ayieko, Grace Irimu, Samuel Akech, Mike English
BACKGROUND: Shock may complicate several acute childhood illnesses in hospitals within low-income countries and has a high case fatality. Hypovolemic shock secondary to diarrhoea/dehydration and septic shock are thought to be common, but there are few reliable data on prevalence or treatment that differ for the two major forms of shock. Examining prevalence and treatment practices has become important since reports suggest high risks from liberal use of fluid boluses in African children...
November 16, 2016: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835052/options-for-improving-effectiveness-of-rotavirus-vaccines-in-developing-countries
#19
Marion S Tissera, Daniel Cowley, Nada Bogdanovic-Sakran, Melanie L Hutton, Dena Lyras, Carl D Kirkwood, Jim P Buttery
Rotavirus gastroenteritis is a leading global cause of mortality and morbidity in young children due to diarrhea and dehydration. Over 85% of deaths occur in developing countries. In industrialised countries, two live oral rotavirus vaccines licensed in 2006 quickly demonstrated high effectiveness, dramatically reducing severe rotavirus gastroenteritis admissions in many settings by more than 90%. In contrast, the same vaccines reduced severe rotavirus gastroenteritis by only 30-60% in developing countries, but have been proven life-saving...
November 11, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790628/factors-associated-with-pneumonia-among-overweight-and-obese-under-five-children-in-an-urban-hospital-of-a-developing-country
#20
K M Shahunja, Tahmeed Ahmed, Md Iqbal Hossain, Sumon Kumar Das, Abu Syeed Golam Faruque, Md Munirul Islam, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin Shahid, Jui Das, Mohammad Habibur Rahman Sarker, Mohammod Jobayer Chisti
To our knowledge, there are no data on the role of overweight and obesity in childhood pneumonia. We sought to determine that impact of overweight and obesity in such children. In this retrospective chart analysis, we enrolled hospitalized children aged 6 to 59 months in the Dhaka Hospital of the icddr,b, Bangladesh (International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh), from January 2010 to June 2014. Children with pneumonia having overweight and obesity (body mass index Z score [BMIZ] >2.00) constituted cases (n = 25), and those who had pneumonia without overweight and obesity (BMIZ -2...
2016: Global Pediatric Health
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