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Dehydration in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422812/randomized-double-blind-trial-of-ringer-s-lactate-versus-normal-saline-in-pediatric-acute-severe-diarrheal-dehydration
#1
Gayathri Bhuvaneswaran Kartha, Ramachandran Rameshkumar, Subramanian Mahadevan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of Ringer Lactate (RL) versus normal saline (NS) in the correction of pediatric acute severe diarrheal dehydration, as measured by improvement in clinical status and pH (≥7.35). METHODS: 68 children aged 1-month to 12-year with acute severe diarrheal dehydration (World Health Organization (WHO classification) were randomized into RL (n = 34) and NS-group (n = 34) and received 100 ml/kg of the assigned intravenous fluid according to WHO PLAN-C for the management of diarrheal dehydration...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416428/-nasogastric-rehydration-for-treating-children-with-gastroenteritis
#2
B Rébeillé-Borgella, C Barbier, R Moussaoui, A Faisant, A-P Michard-Lenoir, A Rubio
INTRODUCTION: When oral rehydration is not feasible, enteral rehydration via the nasogastric route has been the ESPGHAN recommended method of rehydration since 2008, rather than intravenous rehydration (IVR), for children with acute gastroenteritis. However, these recommendations are rarely followed in France. Since 2011, in case of failure of oral rehydration, enteral rehydration has been used as a first-line therapy in the Children's Emergency Department at the Grenoble-Alpes University Hospital...
April 14, 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409830/magnesium-for-treating-sickle-cell-disease
#3
REVIEW
Nan Nitra Than, Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe, Senthil K Palaniappan, Adinegara Bl Abas, Lucia De Franceschi
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is an autosomal recessive inherited haemoglobinopathy which causes painful vaso-occlusive crises due to sickle red blood cell dehydration. Vaso-occlusive crises are common painful events responsible for a variety of clinical complications; overall mortality is increased and life expectancy decreased compared to the general population. Experimental studies suggest that intravenous magnesium has proven to be well-tolerated in individuals hospitalised for the immediate relief of acute (sudden onset) painful crisis and has the potential to decrease the length of hospital stay...
April 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393756/norovirus-epidemiology-in-south-african-children-5-years-hospitalised-for-diarrhoeal-illness-between-2009-and-2013
#4
N A Page, M J Groome, S Nadan, R Netshikweta, K H Keddy, B Poonsamy, J Moyes, S Walaza, K Kahn, S A Madhi, M B Taylor, J Mans, C Cohen
Public health interest in norovirus (NoV) has increased in recent years following improved diagnostics, global burden estimates and the development of NoV vaccine candidates. This study aimed to describe the detection rate, clinical characteristics and environmental features associated with NoV detection in hospitalized children <5 years with diarrhoea in South Africa (SA). Between 2009 and 2013, prospective diarrhoeal surveillance was conducted at four sites in SA. Stool specimens were collected and screened for NoVs and other enteric pathogens using molecular and serological assays...
April 10, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363627/evaluation-of-a-nurse-initiated-acute-gastroenteritis-pathway-in-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#5
Rebecca A Carson, Shawna S Mudd, P Jamil Madati
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a common illness treated in the emergency department. Delays in initiating rehydration for children with mild or moderate dehydration from AGE can lead to prolonged ED visits and increased resource utilization that do not provide prognostic value or support family-centered care. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to promote early oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for persons with AGE in an attempt to reduce unnecessary resource utilization and length of stay (LOS)...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348804/cytolethal-distending-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli-strains-causing-severe-diarrhoea-in-young-mexican-children
#6
Mario Meza-Segura, Mussaret Bano Zaidi, Samantha Maldonado-Puga, Jazmin Huerta-Cantillo, Lucia Chavez-Dueñas, Fernando Navarro-Garcia, Teresa Estrada-Garcia
Introduction. Cytolethal distending toxins (CDTs), encoded by cdt genes, have DNase activity leading to cellular and nuclear distension, resulting in irreversible cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of target cells. cdt-positive Escherichia coli strains have been isolated from children with diarrhoea. There is, however, scant information on the prevalence and clinical presentation of diarrhoeal disease caused by these strains. Furthermore, toxin production of cdt-positive strains is rarely confirmed. We report five young children with diarrhoea caused by CDT-producing E...
February 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346473/oral-administration-of-bifidobacterium-bifidum-g9-1-alleviates-rotavirus-gastroenteritis-through-regulation-of-intestinal-homeostasis-by-inducing-mucosal-protective-factors
#7
Tomohiro Kawahara, Yutaka Makizaki, Yosuke Oikawa, Yoshiki Tanaka, Ayako Maeda, Masaki Shimakawa, Satoshi Komoto, Kyoko Moriguchi, Hiroshi Ohno, Koki Taniguchi
Human rotavirus (RV) infection is a leading cause of dehydrating diarrhea in infants and young children worldwide. Since therapeutic approaches to RV gastroenteritis are limited to alleviation of dehydration with oral rehydration solutions, more direct approaches to palliate symptoms of RV gastroenteritis are required. Treatments with probiotics have been increasingly recognized as alternative safe and low cost treatments for moderate infectious diarrhea. In this study, Bifidobacterium bifidum G9-1 (BBG9-1), which has been used as an intestinal drug for several decades, was shown to have a remarkable protective effect against RV gastroenteritis in a suckling mice model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346109/assessing-process-of-paediatric-care-in-a-resource-limited-setting-a-cross-sectional-audit-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#8
Celestin Hategeka, Jeannie Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Routine assessment of quality of care helps identify deficiencies which need to be improved. While gaps in the emergency care of children have been documented across sub-Saharan Africa, data from Rwanda are lacking. OBJECTIVE: To assess the care of sick infants and children admitted to Rwandan district hospitals and the extent to which it follows currently recommended clinical practice guidelines in Rwanda. METHODS: Data were gathered during a retrospective cross-sectional audit of eight district hospitals across Rwanda in 2012/2013...
March 27, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334725/predominance-of-g9p-4-rotavirus-from-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-northwestern-mexico
#9
Leticia Felix-Valenzuela, Dora Patricia Cooley-García, Manuel Alberto Cano-Rangel, Maria de Los Angeles Durazo-Arvizu, Veronica Mata-Haro
In Mexico, group A rotavirus (RVA) infections remain the most common cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea in children. This study was conducted to examine the circulating RVA strains in the northwest region of Mexico. RVA strains collected from stool samples of children were genotyped, and their partial sequences were analyzed. RT-PCR of the VP4 and VP7 genes showed the partial G9P[4] genotype in all the samples. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the partial VP7 gene amplicons of 10 strains showed that they clustered in the RVA G9 lineage III, and 7 of them showed 100% identity with the reference strain LB1562, which was collected in the USA 2 years earlier...
2016: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328233/long-term-neurodevelopmental-outcome-of-neonates-with-hypernatremic-dehydration
#10
Hassan Boskabadi, Javad Akhondian, Maliheh Afarideh, Gholamali Maamouri, Sepideh Bagheri, Seyyed Mostafa Parizadeh, Majid Ghayour Mobarhan, Shabnam Mohammadi, Gordon A A Frens
BACKGROUND: Neonatal hypernatremic dehydration (NHD) is a dangerous condition that can lead to severe weight loss, renal impairment, and central nervous system complications. We aimed to evaluate the consequences of NHD in infants in their second year of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective case-control study in Ghaem hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Sixty-five healthy breastfed neonates (serum sodium concentration <150 mmol/L) and 65 hypernatremic (serum sodium concentration ≥150 mmol/L) neonates were followed up from 2008 to 2011...
April 2017: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326205/shigella-sonnei-bacteremia-presenting-with-profound-hepatic-dysfunction
#11
Oluwaseun Shogbesan, Andrew Rettew, Bilal Shaikh, Abdullateef Abdulkareem, Anthony Donato
Worldwide, Shigellosis is a significant public health issue, associated with nearly one million deaths annually. About half a million cases of Shigella infection are reported annually in the United States. Shigella bacteremia is uncommon and generally seen in children and immunocompromised adults. We present a case of a Shigella sonnei bacteremia with marked hepatic derangement in a 27-year-old previously healthy homosexual male with history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, who presented to the emergency room with a 4-day history of loose watery stool, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, and yellow skin of 2-day duration...
2017: Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315876/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-ins-del-polymorphism-and-body-composition-the-intermediary-role-of-hydration-status
#12
Laura Bordoni, Valerio Napolioni, Francesca Marchegiani, Emilio Amadio, Rosita Gabbianelli
BACKGROUND: The well-known insertion/deletion polymorphism (rs4646994) of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been previously associated with obesity, blood flow, muscular strength, and ACE enzyme activity. Despite the relevant role of ACE in homeostasis, few data are currently available on the relationship between rs4646994 and hydration status. Thus, we tested the association between the ACE Ins/Del polymorphism, body composition, and hydration status in a young Italian population...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Nutrigenetics and Nutrigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291262/effects-of-bumetanide-on-neurobehavioral-function-in-children-and-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
E Lemonnier, N Villeneuve, S Sonie, S Serret, A Rosier, M Roue, P Brosset, M Viellard, D Bernoux, S Rondeau, S Thummler, D Ravel, Y Ben-Ari
In animal models of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the NKCC1 chloride-importer inhibitor bumetanide restores physiological (Cl(-))i levels, enhances GABAergic inhibition and attenuates electrical and behavioral symptoms of ASD. In an earlier phase 2 trial; bumetanide reduced the severity of ASD in children and adolescents (3-11 years old). Here we report the results of a multicenter phase 2B study primarily to assess dose/response and safety effects of bumetanide. Efficacy outcome measures included the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), the Social Responsive Scale (SRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions (CGI) Improvement scale (CGI-I)...
March 14, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284375/toward-a-comprehensive-hypothesis-of-chronic-interstitial-nephritis-in-agricultural-communities
#14
REVIEW
Carlos Manuel Orantes-Navarro, Raúl Herrera-Valdés, Miguel Almaguer-López, Laura López-Marín, Xavier Fernando Vela-Parada, Marcelo Hernandez-Cuchillas, Lilly M Barba
Over the past 20 years, there has been an increase in chronic interstitial nephritis in agricultural communities (CINAC) not associated with traditional risk factors. This disease has become an important public health problem and is observed in several countries in Central America and Asia. CINAC predominantly affects young male farmers between the third and fifth decades of life with women, children, and adolescents less often affected. Clinically, CINAC behaves like a chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy but with systemic manifestations not attributable to kidney disease...
March 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277412/the-use-of-a-triage-based-protocol-for-oral-rehydration-in-a-pediatric-emergency-department
#15
Marissa A Hendrickson, Jennifer Zaremba, Andrew R Wey, Philippe R Gaillard, Anupam B Kharbanda
BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and avoidance of laboratory tests and intravenous fluids for mild to moderate dehydration in children with gastroenteritis; oral ondansetron has been shown to be an effective adjunct. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine if a triage-based, nurse-initiated protocol for early provision of ondansetron and ORT could safely improve the care of pediatric emergency department (ED) patients with symptoms of gastroenteritis...
March 9, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257500/pediatric-emergency-care-capacity-in-a-low-resource-setting-an-assessment-of-district-hospitals-in-rwanda
#16
Celestin Hategeka, Jean Shoveller, Lisine Tuyisenge, Cynthia Kenyon, David F Cechetto, Larry D Lynd
BACKGROUND: Health system strengthening is crucial to improving infant and child health outcomes in low-resource countries. While the knowledge related to improving newborn and child survival has advanced remarkably over the past few decades, many healthcare systems in such settings remain unable to effectively deliver pediatric advance life support management. With the introduction of the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission care (ETAT+)-a locally adapted pediatric advanced life support management program-in Rwandan district hospitals, we undertook this study to assess the extent to which these hospitals are prepared to provide this pediatric advanced life support management...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248796/how-to-predict-oral-rehydration-failure-in-children-with-gastroenteritis
#17
Dorien Geurts, Ewout W Steyerberg, Henriëtte Moll, Rianne Oostenbrink
OBJECTIVES: Oral rehydration is the standard in most current guidelines for young children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE). Failure of oral rehydration can complicate the disease course, leading to morbidity due to severe dehydration. We aimed to identify prognostic factors of oral rehydration failure in children with AGE. METHODS: Design A prospective, observational study.Setting Emergency department (ED), Erasmus Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, 2010- 2012...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198193/association-between-dehydration-and-fever-during-the-first-week-of-life
#18
Ariane Boutin, Ana Carceller, Marie Pier Desjardins, Marisol Sanchez, Jocelyn Gravel
BACKGROUND: Trying to differentiate serious bacterial infection (SBI) from a self-limiting illness in febrile infants seen in the pediatric emergency department (PED) is a significant challenge. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dehydration and its relationship to SBI in febrile full-term newborns under 1 week of age seen in a PED. METHODS: A retrospective observational study was carried out on all children younger than 8 days of age with fever who presented to a single, tertiary care, PED from January 2009 to April 2014...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192635/risk-factors-for-hospitalization-of-children-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia
#19
Ming Yang, Perrin C White
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) owing to 21-hydroxylase deficiency are prone to potentially life-threatening adrenal crises. We tried to identify risk factors for postdiagnosis hospitalization for children with the salt-wasting form of CAH. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of all children who presented to Children's Medical Center, Dallas, from 1999 to 2013 with CAH (ICD-9 code 255·2). RESULTS: Five hundred and twenty-two unique patients were coded for ICD-9 code of 255·2 (CAH) from 1999 to 2013; 155 patients had salt-wasting disease...
February 13, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164028/the-clinical-spectrum-of-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-children-in-cameroon-a-hospital-based-study-in-yaounde-cameroon
#20
Andreas Chiabi, Berthe Malangue, Seraphin Nguefack, Félicitée Nguefack Dongmo, Florence Fru, Virginie Takou, Fru Angwafo
BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is a major health problem, and the cause of more than half of childhood deaths in children less than 5 years in developing countries. Globally, 20 million children under 5 years of age are severely malnourished according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In Cameroon, the prevalence of SAM remains high and estimated at 1.9% in 2011 and 1.3% in 2014. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiology, clinical aspects and outcome of SAM at the Yaounde Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (YGOPH)...
January 2017: Translational pediatrics
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