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Migraine in children

N Karsan, P Prabhakar, P J Goadsby
BACKGROUND: The premonitory stage of migraine attacks, when symptomatology outside of pain can manifest hours to days before the onset of the headache, is well recognised. Such symptoms have been reported in adults in a number of studies, and have value in predicting an impending headache. These symptoms have not been extensively studied in children. We aimed to characterise which, if any, of these symptoms are reported in children seen within a Specialist Headache Service. METHODS: We reviewed clinic letters from the initial consultation of children and adolescents seen within the Specialist Headache Service at Great Ormond Street Hospital between 1999 and 2015 with migraine in whom we had prospectively assessed clinical phenotype data...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015...
October 8, 2016: Lancet
Christina L Szperka, Amy A Gelfand, Andrew D Hershey
OBJECTIVE: To describe current patterns of use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for treatment of pediatric headache. BACKGROUND: Peripheral nerve blocks are often used to treat headaches in adults and children, but the available studies and practice data from adult headache specialists have shown wide variability in diagnostic indications, sites injected, and medication(s) used. The purpose of this study was to describe current practice patterns in the use of nerve blocks and trigger point injections for pediatric headache disorders...
October 12, 2016: Headache
Kelsey Merison, Howard Jacobs
While the diagnosis of migraine in children is generally straightforward, treatment can seem complex with a number of medication choices, many of which are used "off label." Patients with intermittent migraines can often be managed with ibuprofen or naproxen taken as needed. Unfortunately, by the time that children present to our practice, they have often tried these medications without improvement. Triptans are frequently prescribed to these patients with good success. It is important to make the patient aware of the possible associated serotonergic reactions...
November 2016: Current Treatment Options in Neurology
Lucio Parmeggiani, Michela Salandin, Flavio Egger, Fiorenzo Lupi, Marco Primerano, Giorgio Radetti
AIM: Migraine affects approximately 10-20% of the general population, including children and adolescents, and an association between migraine and increased risks for cardiovascular disease and stroke have been reported in adult patients. This study aimed to address the lack of data on children with migraine. METHODS: This study comprised 30 children and adolescents (16 male) with migraine. We evaluated their biochemical profile, glucose homeostasis, vascular function by flow mediated dilatation and arterial structure by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT)...
September 30, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
I Bouzios, G Chouliaras, G P Chrousos, E Roma, V Gemou-Engesaeth
BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are a common, diverse group of disorders of unknown etiology, resulting in significant socieconomic burden. In this study, we aimed to assess the prevalence of FGIDs in children aged 6-18 years and examine their association with various demographic and socioeconomic parameters. METHODS: This was a school-based, cross-sectional study approved by the relevant government authorities. Informed consent was obtained by the legal representatives of all children who participated...
September 28, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Lin Shi
According to the seventh report of Joint National Committee (JNC 7), hypertensive emergency (HE), a kind of hypertensive crisis, is defined as a sudden and abrupt elevation in blood pressure so as to cause acute target organ dysfunctions, including central nervous system, cardiovascular system or kidneys. Patients with HE require immediate reduction in markedly elevated blood pressure. Currently, there are no international guidelines for children HE, so the JNC definition is commonly used. Hypertensive emergency in children is rare but a life-threatening emergency...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
K Jahn
Vertigo and dizziness of at least moderate severity occur in >5% of school-aged children and cause considerable restrictions in participation in school and leisure activity. More than 50% of dizzy children also have headache. Vestibular migraine and benign paroxysmal vertigo as a migraine precursor are the most common diagnoses in dizziness clinics for children and adolescents. They account for 30-60% of diagnoses. Other common causes are somatoform, orthostatic, or posttraumatic dizziness. All other disorders that are known to cause vertigo and dizziness in adults also occur in children, but incidence rates are usually lower...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Emma Kristin Johansson, Natalia Ballardini, Inger Kull, Anna Bergström, Carl-Fredrik Wahlgren
BACKGROUND: Several studies show an association between eczema and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in childhood, but the mechanisms and time sequence remain unclear. Information on the association between eczema and other disorders involving the central nervous system (CNS) is limited. The aim was to explore if preschool eczema was associated with ADHD or other CNS-associated disorders requiring pharmacotherapy at school age, and to analyze if eczema at other ages of childhood was associated with medication for ADHD...
September 17, 2016: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology
Robert L Ruff, Kayla Blake
This article reviews possible ways that traumatic brain injury (TBI) can induce migraine-type post-traumatic headaches (PTHs) in children, adults, civilians, and military personnel. Several cerebral alterations resulting from TBI can foster the development of PTH, including neuroinflammation that can activate neural systems associated with migraine. TBI can also compromise the intrinsic pain modulation system and this would increase the level of perceived pain associated with PTH. Depression and anxiety disorders, especially post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), are associated with TBI and these psychological conditions can directly intensify PTH...
2016: F1000Research
Mollie E Wood, Jean A Frazier, Hedvig M E Nordeng, Kate L Lapane
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether changes in neurodevelopmental outcomes between 18 and 36 months of age were associated with prenatal exposure to triptan medications, a class of 5-HT receptor agonists used in the treatment of migraine. METHOD: Using data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, a prospective birth cohort that includes nearly 40% of all pregnancies in Norway from 1999 to 2008, we identified 50 469 mother-child dyads who met inclusion criteria and were present for at least one follow-up assessment at 18 or 36 months postpartum...
September 13, 2016: BMJ Open
Vincenzo Guidetti, Noemi Faedda, Michael Siniatchkin
It is well documented that headache is a multifactorial disorder which includes not only genetic, biological, medical and neuropsychological factor but also psychological and personality traits. The close relationship between stress and migraine attacks and the significant psychiatric comorbidities in migraine provide evidence of a "paradigm" of tight interaction between somatic and psychological aspects in paediatric migraine. In particular in younger children, an uncomfortable situation, a psychological problem or an emotional distress is rarely expressed directly but usually through physical symptoms...
December 2016: Journal of Headache and Pain
S Ahmed, S Tabassum, S M Rahman, S Akhter, M M Rahman, F Bayes, S Roy
Recurrent headache is common in children. Among them migraine is the most common disabling cause of primary headache. It causes serious disability in child's life and family. It causes negative impact on their quality of life. Clinical characteristic of migraine in children differ from adult. It may be shorter in duration and bifrontal or bitemporal in location in contrast to adult which is longer in duration and usually unilateral. It is less common before 3 years of age. Males are more affected before puberty...
July 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
Mark T Mackay, Adriana Yock-Corrales, Leonid Churilov, Paul Monagle, Geoffrey A Donnan, Franz E Babl
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinical identification of stroke in the pediatric emergency department is critical for improving access to hyperacute therapies. We identified key clinical features associated with childhood stroke or transient ischemic attack compared with mimics. METHODS: Two hundred and eighty consecutive children presenting to the emergency department with mimics, prospectively recruited over 18 months from 2009 to 2010, were compared with 102 children with stroke or transient ischemic attack, prospectively/retrospectively recruited from 2003 to 2010...
October 2016: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
Inger J Bakken, Kari Tveito, Kari M Aaberg, Sara Ghaderi, Nina Gunnes, Lill Trogstad, Per Magnus, Camilla Stoltenberg, Siri E Håberg
BACKGROUND: Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a complex condition. Causal factors are not established, although underlying psychological or immunological susceptibility has been proposed. We studied primary care diagnoses for children with CFS/ME, with children with another hospital diagnosis (type 1 diabetes mellitus [T1DM]) and the general child population as comparison groups. METHODS: All Norwegian children born 1992-2012 constituted the study sample...
2016: BMC Family Practice
Tal Eidlitz-Markus, Shirit Zolden, Yishai Haimi-Cohen, Avraham Zeharia
OBJECTIVE: To compare comorbidities between migraine and tension headache in patients treated in a tertiary pediatric headache clinic. METHODS: Files of patients with migraine or tension headache attending a pediatric headache clinic were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of organic comorbidities. Additionally, patients were screened with the self-report Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire to identify nonorganic comorbidities. If necessary, patients were referred to a pediatric psychiatrist, psychologist or social worker for further evaluation...
September 1, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
Vidyut Bhatia, Shivani Deswal, Swati Seth, Akshay Kapoor, Anupam Sibal, Sarath Gopalan
BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal diseases (FGIDs) are emerging as an important cause of morbidity in adolescents globally. The prevalence of FGIDs among Indian children or adolescents is not clear. METHODS: A cross-sectional school-based survey conducted in 1115 children aged 10-17 years attending four semi urban government schools of National capital territory (NCT) of Delhi. Rome III questionnaire was translated into Hindi and was filled by the students under supervision...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Marco Angriman, Samuele Cortese, Oliviero Bruni
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a relatively common neurological disorder in childhood, although it is usually overlooked due to the atypical presentation in children and associated comorbid conditions that may affect its clinical presentation. Here, we aimed to perform, for the first time, a systematic review of studies reporting the association between RLS in children and adolescents (<18 y) and somatic or neuropsychiatric conditions. We searched for peer-reviewed studies in PubMed, Ovid (including PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE(®), and Embase), Web of Knowledge (Web of Science, Biological abstracts, BIOSIS, FSTA) through November 2015, with no language restrictions...
July 1, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
Francesco Brigo, Stanley C Igwe, Alessandra Del Felice
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in Issue 6, 2012.Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders. Despite the plethora of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) currently available, 30% of people continue having seizures. This group of people requires a more aggressive treatment, since monotherapy, the first choice scheme, fails to control seizures. Nevertheless, polytherapy often results in a number of unwanted effects, including neurological disturbances (somnolence, ataxia, dizziness), psychiatric and behavioural symptoms, and metabolic alteration (osteoporosis, inducement or inhibition of hepatic enzymes, etc...
2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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