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Epigenetics AND dietary compounds

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863907/evidence-of-epigenetic-tags-in-cardiac-fibrosis
#1
REVIEW
Vincenzo Grimaldi, Maria Rosaria De Pascale, Alberto Zullo, Andrea Soricelli, Teresa Infante, Francesco Paolo Mancini, Claudio Napoli
In cardiac fibrosis, following an injury or a stress, non-functional fibrotic tissue substitutes normal myocardium, thus leading to progressive heart failure. Activated fibroblasts are principal determinants of cardiac fibrosis by producing excessive fibrotic extracellular matrix and causing hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNAs have been involved in these mechanisms. Therefore, there is a strong interest in reverting such epigenetic transformations in order to arrest myocardial fibrotic degeneration...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843913/quercetin-as-an-emerging-anti-melanoma-agent-a-four-focus-area-therapeutic-development-strategy
#2
REVIEW
Zoey Harris, Micah G Donovan, Gisele Morais Branco, Kirsten H Limesand, Randy Burd
Replacing current refractory treatments for melanoma with new prevention and therapeutic approaches is crucial in order to successfully treat this aggressive cancer form. Melanoma develops from neural crest cells, which express tyrosinase - a key enzyme in the pigmentation pathway. The tyrosinase enzyme is highly active in melanoma cells and metabolizes polyphenolic compounds; tyrosinase expression thus makes feasible a target for polyphenol-based therapies. For example, quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) is a highly ubiquitous and well-classified dietary polyphenol found in various fruits, vegetables, and other plant products including onions, broccoli, kale, oranges, blueberries, apples, and tea...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790141/dietary-phytochemicals-in-neuroimmunoaging-a-new-therapeutic-possibility-for-humans
#3
REVIEW
Graziamaria Corbi, Valeria Conti, Sergio Davinelli, Giovanni Scapagnini, Amelia Filippelli, Nicola Ferrara
Although several efforts have been made in the search for genetic and epigenetic patterns linked to diseases, a comprehensive explanation of the mechanisms underlying pathological phenotypic plasticity is still far from being clarified. Oxidative stress and inflammation are two of the major triggers of the epigenetic alterations occurring in chronic pathologies, such as neurodegenerative diseases. In fact, over the last decade, remarkable progress has been made to realize that chronic, low-grade inflammation is one of the major risk factor underlying brain aging...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27465151/role-of-dietary-phenols-in-mitigating-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation
#4
REVIEW
Parakalan Rangarajan, Aparna Karthikeyan, S T Dheen
Chronic neuroinflammation is a pathological feature of a number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and is mediated by sustained activation of microglial cells, the innate immune cells of the CNS. Studies have mainly focused on identifying the molecular and epigenetic mechanisms of microglial activation. This is crucial in designing therapeutic strategies for neuropathologies in which prolonged microglial activation is known to exacerbate disease condition. In recent years, increasing evidence show that naturally occurring compounds present in regular diet could function as "nutraceuticals," arresting microglial activation, and thus conferring neuroprotection...
September 2016: Neuromolecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391253/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-and-reproductive-health
#5
REVIEW
Marya G Zlatnik
This review discusses the evidence linking industrial chemicals to a variety of health and reproductive outcomes. Industrial chemical production has increased over the past 30 to 40 years. Basic science, animal models, and epidemiologic data suggest that certain chemicals may act as endocrine disruptors (substances that interfere with normal hormonal action) and may play an etiologic role in a number of conditions whose incidence has also increased during this same period. These include low birth weight, gestational diabetes, obesity, certain cancers, certain birth defects, and neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit disorder and autism...
July 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355345/methylation-landscape-of-human-breast-cancer-cells-in-response-to-dietary-compound-resveratrol
#6
Rubiceli Medina-Aguilar, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, Laurence A Marchat, Patricio Gariglio, Jaime García Mena, Sergio Rodríguez Cuevas, Erika Ruíz-García, Horacio Astudillo-de la Vega, Jennifer Hernández Juárez, Ali Flores-Pérez, César López-Camarillo
Aberrant DNA methylation is a frequent epigenetic alteration in cancer cells that has emerged as a pivotal mechanism for tumorigenesis. Accordingly, novel therapies targeting the epigenome are being explored with the aim to restore normal DNA methylation patterns on oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. A limited number of studies indicate that dietary compound resveratrol modulates DNA methylation of several cancer-related genes; however a complete view of changes in methylome by resveratrol has not been reported yet...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27165229/evaluation-of-mir-34-family-and-dna-methyltransferases-1-3a-3b-gene-expression-levels-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-following-treatment-with-dendrosomal-nanocurcumin
#7
Fatemeh Chamani, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Mahbobeh Masoumi, Sadegh Babashah
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignancy of the liver making up more than 80 percent of cases. It is known to be the sixth most prevalent cancer and the third most frequent cause of cancer related death worldwide. Epigenetic regulation constitutes an important mechanism by which dietary components can selectively activate or inactivate target gene expression. The miR-34 family members including mir-34a, mir-34b and mir-34c are tumor suppressor micro RNAs, which are expressed in the majority of normal tissues...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159275/a-novel-combinatorial-epigenetic-therapy-using-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-for-restoring-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-er%C3%AE-expression-in-er%C3%AE-negative-breast-cancer-cells
#8
Rishabh Kala, Trygve O Tollefsbol
Breast cancer is the second most common cancer and a leading cause of cancer death in women. Specifically, estrogen receptor-α (ERα)-negative breast cancers are clinically more aggressive and normally do not respond to conventional hormone-directed therapies such as tamoxifen. Although epigenetic-based therapies such as 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and/or trichostatin A as DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, respectively, can regulate the expression of ERα, this can often lead to a number of side effects...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117759/dietary-phytochemicals-as-epigenetic-modifiers-in-cancer-promise-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Eswar Shankar, Rajnee Kanwal, Mario Candamo, Sanjay Gupta
The influence of diet and environment on human health has been known since ages. Plant-derived natural bioactive compounds (phytochemicals) have acquired an important role in human diet as potent antioxidants and cancer chemopreventive agents. In past few decades, the role of epigenetic alterations such as DNA methylation, histone modifications and non-coding RNAs in the regulation of mammalian genome have been comprehensively addressed. Although the effects of dietary phytochemicals on gene expression and signaling pathways have been widely studied in cancer, the impact of these dietary compounds on mammalian epigenome is rapidly emerging...
October 2016: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27097608/effect-of-polyphenols-on-glucose-and-lactate-transport-by-breast-cancer-cells
#10
REVIEW
F Martel, M Guedes, E Keating
One of the cancer molecular hallmarks is a deviant energetic metabolism, known as the Warburg effect, whereby the rate of glucose uptake is significantly increased and a high rate of glycolysis and lactic acid production occurs even when oxygen is present-"aerobic lactatogenesis". Accordingly, GLUT1 and MCT1, which are the main glucose and lactate transporters in cancer cells, respectively, have been proposed as oncogenes and are currently seen as potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment. Polyphenols, commonly contained in fruits and vegetables, have long been associated with a protective role against cancer...
May 2016: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26915659/epigenetic-in-multiple-sclerosis-molecular-mechanisms-and-dietary-intervention
#11
Yamel Rito, Ivan Torre-Villalvazo, José Flores, Verónica Rivas, Teresa Corona
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, inflammatory, neurodegenerative demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Unfortunately, MS cause important disability in young adults and its prevalence is increasing. While the etiology of MS etiology is not completely understood, it seems to be a multifactorial entity that is influenced by both genetic and epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic mechanisms add or remove different chemical groups for the activation or inhibition of gene expression to block the production of proinflammatory proteins...
February 26, 2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26882112/impacts-on-sirtuin-function-and-bioavailability-of-the-dietary-bioactive-compound-dihydrocoumarin
#12
Jennifer L Jacobi, Bo Yang, Xu Li, Anna K Menze, Sara M Laurentz, Elsa M Janle, Mario G Ferruzzi, George P McCabe, Clint Chapple, Ann L Kirchmaier
The plant secondary metabolite and common food additive dihydrocoumarin (DHC) is an inhibitor of the Sirtuin family of NAD+-dependent deacetylases. Sirtuins are key regulators of epigenetic processes that maintain silent chromatin in yeast and have been linked to gene expression, metabolism, apoptosis, tumorogenesis and age-related processes in multiple organisms, including humans. Here we report that exposure to the polyphenol DHC led to defects in several Sirtuin-regulated processes in budding yeast including the establishment and maintenance of Sir2p-dependent silencing by causing disassembly of silent chromatin, Hst1p-dependent repression of meiotic-specific genes during the mitotic cell cycle...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840281/olive-oil-and-the-hallmarks-of-aging
#13
REVIEW
Lucía Fernández del Río, Elena Gutiérrez-Casado, Alfonso Varela-López, José M Villalba
Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26762288/proanthocyanidins-in-health-and-disease
#14
REVIEW
Cinta Bladé, Gerard Aragonès, Anna Arola-Arnal, Begoña Muguerza, Francisca Isabel Bravo, M Josepa Salvadó, Lluis Arola, Manuel Suárez
Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are the most abundant flavonoids in the human diet. Several epidemiological studies connect PA consumption and health benefits and the designation of PAs as healthy compounds started at the early stages of the 20th century. The beneficial health properties of PAs are attributed to their conjugated and colonic metabolites. Therefore, gut microbial compositions can determine the effectiveness of PAs. Reciprocally, dietary polyphenols can act as prebiotics. Recently, it has also been described that PAs modulate the circadian rhythm...
January 2016: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700221/methylation-analysis-in-fatty-acid-related-genes-reveals-their-plasticity-associated-with-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-calcium-supplementation-in-adult-mice
#15
Alice Chaplin, Andreu Palou, Francisca Serra
PURPOSE: DNA methylation is one of the most extensively studied mechanisms within epigenetics, and it is suggested that diet-induced changes in methylation status could be involved in energy metabolism regulation. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and calcium supplementation counteract body weight gain, particularly under a high-fat (HF) diet, in adult mice. The aim was to determine whether the modulation of DNA methylation pattern in target genes and tissues could be an underlying mechanism of action...
December 23, 2015: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26665212/exploration-of-mechanisms-in-nutriepigenomics-identification-of-chromatin-modifying-compounds-from-olea-europaea
#16
Natalie P Bonvino, Nancy B Ray, Vi T Luu, Julia Liang, Andrew Hung, Tom C Karagiannis
Chemical modification of histones represents an important epigenetic mechanism critical for DNA metabolism including, transcription, replication and repair. A well-known example is maintenance of histone acetylation status by the opposing actions of histone acetyltransferase and histone deacetylase enzymes which add and remove acetyl groups on lysine residues on histone tails, respectively. Similarly, histone methyltransferase and histone demethylase enzymes are responsible for adding and removing methyl groups on histone tails, respectively...
September 2015: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26593940/impact-of-maternal-diet-on-the-epigenome-during-in-utero-life-and-the-developmental-programming-of-diseases-in-childhood-and-adulthood
#17
REVIEW
Ho-Sun Lee
Exposure to environmental factors in early life can influence developmental processes and long-term health in humans. Early life nutrition and maternal diet are well-known examples of conditions shown to influence the risk of developing metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases, in adulthood. It is increasingly accepted that environmental compounds, including nutrients, can produce changes in the genome activity that, in spite of not altering the DNA sequence, can produce important, stable and, in some instances, transgenerational alterations in the phenotype...
November 2015: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26527507/nutritional-control-of-immunity-balancing-the-metabolic-requirements-with-an-appropriate-immune-function
#18
REVIEW
Veronica De Rosa, Mario Galgani, Marianna Santopaolo, Alessandra Colamatteo, Roberta Laccetti, Giuseppe Matarese
The immune system is a highly integrated network of cells sensitive to a number of environmental factors. Interestingly, recent years have seen a dramatic increase in our understanding of how diet makes a crucial contribution to human health, affecting the immune system, secretion of adipocytokines and metabolic pathways. Recent experimental evidence indicates that diet and its components are able to profoundly influence immune responses, thus affecting the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases...
September 2015: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26459286/epigenetic-based-combinatorial-resveratrol-and-pterostilbene-alters-dna-damage-response-by-affecting-sirt1-and-dnmt-enzyme-expression-including-sirt1-dependent-%C3%AE-h2ax-and-telomerase-regulation-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
Rishabh Kala, Harsh N Shah, Samantha L Martin, Trygve O Tollefsbol
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is believed to be a primary contributor in regulating gene expression by affecting epigenetic pathways such as DNA methylation and histone modification. Resveratrol and pterostilbene are phytoalexins produced by plants as part of their defense system. These two bioactive compounds when used alone have been shown to alter genetic and epigenetic profiles of tumor cells, but the concentrations employed in various studies often far exceed physiologically achievable doses...
October 12, 2015: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26457241/-curcumin-the-king-of-spices-epigenetic-regulatory-mechanisms-in-the-prevention-of-cancer-neurological-and-inflammatory-diseases
#20
Sarandeep S S Boyanapalli, Ah-Ng Tony Kong
Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a polyphenolic compound, is a component of Curcuma longa, commonly known as turmeric. It is a well-known anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-lipidemic agent and has recently been shown to modulate several diseases via epigenetic regulation. Many recent studies have demonstrated the role of epigenetic inactivation of pivotal genes that regulate human pathologies, such as neurocognitive disorders, inflammation, obesity, and cancers. Epigenetic changes involve changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, or altered microRNA expression patterns which are known to be interconnected and play a key role in tumor progression and failure of conventional chemotherapy...
April 2015: Current Pharmacology Reports
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