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Pain mechanisms

Hai-Yun Wu, Xiao-Fang Mao, Xue-Qi Tang, Usman Ali, Evhy Apryani, Hao Liu, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is antinociceptive in various animal models of pain without induction of tolerance, and its mechanism of action was generally believed to be mediated by inhibition of neuroinflammation. Here we reported that intrathecal IL-10 injection dose dependently attenuated mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesiain male and female neuropathic rats, with ED50 values of 40.8 ng and 24 ng, and Emax values of 61.5% MPE and 100% MPE in male rats. Treatment with IL-10 specifically increased expression of the β-endorphin (but not prodynorphin) gene and protein in primary cultures of spinal microglia but not in astrocytes or neurons...
June 18, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Pei-Yue Jiang, Xiao-Jun Zhu, Yi-Na Zhang, Fei-Fei Zhou, Xiao-Fu Yang
Endometritis is a puzzling disease that often associates with severe pelvic pain. In this study, we aimed to detect whether apigenin had protective effect against LPS-induced endometritis, if so, the underlying mechanism was further investigated. Apigenin was administrated 1 h before LPS treatment. The levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured by ELISA. The expression of NF-κB and Nrf2 were detected by Western blot analysis. The results showed that LPS treatment induced severe histological alteration of uterus and this change was attenuated by the treatment of apigenin...
June 18, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Yves Boucher, Nathan Moreau, Annie Mauborgne, Wisam Dieb
We explored the molecular and behavioral effects of a perineural Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory priming on the development and maintenance of painful post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy (PPTTN) following infra-orbital nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI-IoN) in rats. Rats were pretreated with repetitive perineural injections in the vicinity of the IoN of either LPS or vehicle (Vhcl) before being submitted to CCI-IoN. Orofacial pain-like behaviors (response to Von Frey Filament testing and spontaneous isolated face grooming) were measured during the period of LPS injections (three weeks) and following CCI-IoN surgery (two weeks)...
June 18, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Natalia Fantin Sardi, Mayla Ketlyn Lazzarim, Vinicius Augusto Guilhen, Renata Scuzziatto Marcílio, Priscila Shizue Natume, Thainá Caldeiras Watanabe, Marcelo de Meira Santos Lima, Glaucia Tobaldini, Luana Fischer
Painful conditions and sleep disturbances are major public health problems worldwide and one directly affects the other. Sleep loss increases pain prevalence and severity; while pain disturbs sleep. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we asked whether chronic sleep restriction for 6 h daily progressively increases pain sensitivity and if this increase is reversed after two days of free sleep. Also, whether the pronociceptive effect of chronic sleep restriction depends on the periaqueductal grey and on the nucleus accumbens, two key regions involved in the modulation of pain and sleep-wake cycle...
June 18, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Giancarlo Meloni, Massimo Milani
Plantar warts account for 30% of all cutaneous warts. These lesions could be very painful, especially if the lesion is located over pressure sites such as the metatarsal head. Plantar wart treatment remains a challenging therapeutic problem. A 67-year-old immunocompetent nonsmoking man presented with a large mosaic plantar wart on his right foot. The lesion had been present for 5 years. Several cryotherapy sessions (a total of 6 procedures) had been performed with no success. The lesion was therefore treated with a 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) regimen and then with a topical combination of 5-FU and salicylic acid, but also these approaches failed...
May 2018: Case Reports in Dermatology
Alberto Izquierdo Fernández, Angel González Fernández
Intrathoracic dislocation of the shoulder is a rare condition that usually occurs after high-energy trauma. Etiology, mechanism of injury and associated lesions are diverse. We present the case of a patient who suffered a great height fall, treated with removal of the humeral head and implantation of a shoulder hemiarthroplasty. One year after the surgery, the patient was pain free and the Constant score was 70 points.
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma
Lekshmi S Bhooshan, M Geetha Devi, R Aniraj, P Binod, M Lekshmi
Background: The skin rejuvenation potential of the autologous emulsified nanofat was studied by Tonnard et al . in 2013. This property is due to the viable adipose-derived stem cells present in the nanofat; although, there are no viable adipocytes. The aim of this study was to determine the aesthetic outcome of autologous emulsified nanofat injection in scars using a standardised and validated Patient Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and photographs. Materials and Methods: A total of 34 patients with scars of varied aetiologies were included in the study as per inclusion criteria...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
Josiane C S Mapplebeck, Rebecca Dalgarno, YuShan Tu, Orla Moriarty, Simon Beggs, Charlie H T Kwok, Katherine Halievski, Sofia Assi, Jeffrey S Mogil, Tuan Trang, Michael W Salter
Microglia-neuron signalling in the spinal cord is a key mediator of mechanical allodynia caused by peripheral nerve injury. We recently reported sex differences in microglia in pain signalling in mice: spinal mechanisms underlying nerve injury-induced allodynia are microglial dependent in male but not female mice. Whether this sex difference in pain hypersensitivity mechanisms is conserved in other species is unknown. Here, we show that in rats, the spinal mechanisms of nerve injury-induced hypersensitivity in males differ from those in females, with microglial P2X4 receptors (P2X4Rs) being a key point of divergence...
April 30, 2018: Pain
Lisa V Doan, Jing Wang
OBJECTIVE: In the context of the current opioid epidemic, there has been a renewed interest in the use of ketamine as an analgesic agent. METHODS: We have reviewed ketamine analgesia. RESULTS: Ketamine is well-known as an antagonist for N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. In addition, it can regulate the function of opioid receptors and sodium channels. Ketamine also increases signaling through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors...
June 20, 2018: Clinical Journal of Pain
P G Genov, V Kh Timerbaev, N S Dolgasheva, A A Efanov, A A Grin', O Yu Rebrova
The risk factors for acute pain as well as chronic pain syndrome (CPS) in spine surgery have not been defined to date. PURPOSE: To define the prognostic parameters of acute pain severity and the risk of CPS in patients operated on for spinal diseases and injuries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 291 patients operated on for degenerative diseases and injuries of the spine at the Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Medicine in 2010-2016. Sociodemographic and clinical data and the psychological status of patients were evaluated...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Alexander Breen, Fiona Mellor, Alan Breen
PURPOSE: Intervertebral kinematic assessments have been used to investigate mechanical causes when back pain is resistant to treatment, and recent studies have identified intervertebral motion markers that discriminate patients from controls. However, such patients are a heterogeneous group, some of whom have structural disruption, but the effects of this on intervertebral kinematics are unknown. METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with treatment-resistant back pain referred for quantitative fluoroscopy were matched to an equal number of pain-free controls for age and sex...
June 20, 2018: European Spine Journal
Ming-Li Sun, Jun-Ping Ao, Yi-Rui Wang, Qian Huang, Teng-Fei Li, Xin-Yan Li, Yong-Xiang Wang
Lappaconitine is a representative C18-diterpenoid alkaloid extracted from Aconitum sinomontanum Nakai and has been prescribed as a pain relief medicine in China for more than 30 years. This study evaluated its antihypersensitivity activity in the rat models of neuropathic and cancer pains and explored its underlying mechanisms. Subcutaneous injection of cumulative doses of lappaconitine produced dose-dependent mechanical antiallodynia and thermal antihyperalgesia in spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathic rats...
June 20, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Fang Zhang, Rui Gu, Ya-Xing Feng, Yao-Lei Zhang, Wei Li, Ting Li, Ming Zhang
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on neuropathic pain in the chronic compression of dorsal root ganglion (CCD) rat model and the underlying mechanism. Pain behavioral tests were applied to observe the effects of DEX on mechanical allodynia in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. Whole cell patch clamp was used to observe the influence of DEX on excitability and hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih ) of C- and Aδ -type dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Chao Li, Wei Mao, Yun-Ke Huang, Zhi-Qi Zhao, Ning Lyu
Post-incision pain often occurs after surgery and is emergent to be treated in clinic. It hinders the rehabilitation of patients and easily leads to various types of postoperative complications. Acupuncture-combined anesthesia (ACA) is the combination of traditional acupuncture and modern anesthesia, which means acupuncture is applied at acupoints with general anesthesia. It was testified that ACA strengthened the analgesic effect and reduced the occurrence of postoperative pain, but its mechanism was not clear...
June 25, 2018: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
M Garmyn, A R Young, S A Miller
Humans have been exposed to solar UV radiation since their appearance on Earth and evolution has enabled most individuals to adapt to this exposure, to some degree. UV radiation produces several deleterious effects in human skin and light-skinned individuals are at greatest risk for both acute and long-term negative effects such as DNA damage, sunburn, immune suppression and skin cancer. The benefits of photoadaptation, which leads to a decreased response after acclimatization, are that humans who have skin that is capable of photoadaptation can work and play in the sun with reduced fear of painful sunburn...
June 21, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Bo Zhang, Feng Xu, Pingping Hu, Mingyuan Zhang, Kehui Tong, Gang Ma, Yuemei Xu, Liang Zhu, Jiande D Z Chen
BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal disturbance occurs after abdominal surgeries and could last for an extended period of time in some cases. This study was designed (1) to evaluate the effects of needleless transcutaneous electrical acustimulation (TEA) on postoperative recovery, and (2) to investigate the mechanisms involving autonomic function in postoperative patients after removal of gastrointestinal cancers. METHODS: Forty-two patients (33 male, age: 69...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Ashley M Cowie, Francie Moehring, Crystal O'Hara, Cheryl L Stucky
Cutaneous somatosensory neurons convey innocuous and noxious mechanical, thermal, and chemical stimuli from peripheral tissues to the CNS. Among these are nociceptive neurons that express calcitonin gene-related peptide-α (CGRPα). The role of peripheral CGRPα neurons (CANs) in acute and injury-induced pain has been studied using diphtheria toxin ablation, but their functional roles remain controversial. Because ablation permanently deletes a neuronal population, compensatory changes may ensue that mask the physiological or pathophysiological roles of CANs, particularly for injuries that occur after ablation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Roberta Messina, Maria A Rocca, Bruno Colombo, Elisabetta Pagani, Andrea Falini, Peter J Goadsby, Massimo Filippi
OBJECTIVE: To explore cross-sectional and longitudinal gray matter (GM) volume changes in patients with migraine and their association with patients' clinical characteristics and disease activity. METHODS: Brain T2-weighted and 3-dimensional T1-weighted scans were acquired from 73 episodic migraineurs and 46 age- and sex-matched nonmigraine controls at baseline. Twenty-four migraineurs and 25 controls agreed to be reexamined after a mean follow-up of 4 years. Using a general linear model and SPM12, a whole-brain analysis was performed to assess GM volume modifications...
June 20, 2018: Neurology
Alice Crane, Sudhir Isharwal, Hui Zhu
The field of urology encompasses all benign and malignant disorders of the urinary tract and male genital tract. Together, urological disorders convey a huge economic and patient quality-of-life burden. Furthermore, hospital acquired urinary tract infections are coming under scrutiny as a measure of hospital quality. Given the importance of these pathologies, there is much progress still to be made in drug delivery designed to minimize side effects while providing effective care. Bladder pathology, in particular poses a unique opportunity for the development of novel intravesical therapies that can avoid some of the pitfalls of systemic drug delivery...
June 20, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Chandan Kumar, Rohit Sharma, Tapas Das, Aruna Korde, H D Sarma, Sharmila Banerjee, Ashutosh Dash
Bone pain is the major manifestations of skeletal metastases. Although various treatment modalities are available for bone pain palliation, use of radiolabeled phosphonates is documented to be more effective. Among radionuclides available for this purpose, lutetium-177 is gaining popularity due to its moderate beta energy, theranostic capability, favorable half-life and convenient production logistics. 177 Lu-DOTMP has shown considerable promise as a metastatic bone pain palliating agent in preliminary evaluations and recent clinical studies...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Labelled Compounds & Radiopharmaceuticals
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