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peripheral neuropathy and urology

Anne Louise Oaklander
The best-known peripheral neuropathies are those affecting the large, myelinated motor and sensory fibers. These have well-established immunological causes and therapies. Far less is known about the somatic and autonomic "small fibers"; the unmyelinated C-fibers, thinly myelinated A-deltas, and postganglionic sympathetics. The small fibers sense pain and itch, innervate internal organs and tissues, and modulate the inflammatory and immune responses. Symptoms of small-fiber neuropathy include chronic pain and itch, sensory impairment, edema, and skin color, temperature, and sweating changes...
January 2016: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
Ahmed Farouk Donia, Nevin Fayez Zaki, Mai Elassy, Wafaa Elbahaey
PURPOSE: Depression is common among hemodialysis patients. Even in developed countries, the prevalence of depression and its relation to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in dialysis patients has only been poorly investigated. Furthermore, similar reports from many developing countries such as Egypt are scarce. This might be due to cultural and social concerns. This study is intended to address this important issue. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at the dialysis unit of the Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Egypt...
November 2015: International Urology and Nephrology
Fabrizio Torelli, Erica Terragni, Salvatore Blanco, Natale Di Bella, Marco Grasso, Donatella Bonaiuti
OBJECTIVES: The overall aims of this study were to investigate the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with neurological conditions and their prevalence and impact on a clinical sample of outpatients of a neurorehabilitation service. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the files of 132 patients treated in our neurorehabilitation service from December 2012 to December 2013. Patients were divided into several subgroups based on the neurological diagnosis: Multiple Sclerosis (MS), other demyelinating diseases, Peripheral Neuropathy, neurovascular disorders (ND), neoplastic disease, traumatic brain injury (TBI), Parkinson and Parkinsonism, spinal cord injuries (SCI)...
June 2015: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
Michael A Granieri, George D Webster, Andrew C Peterson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the timing, incidence, and resolution of scrotal and perineal sensory neuropathy after urethroplasty for bulbar urethral stricture disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed an institutional review board--approved retrospective review of our urethroplasty database with specific attention paid to patient demographics, stricture location, repair type, and postoperative sensory neuropathy defined as the complaint of hypesthesia, anesthesia, paresthesia, hyperesthesia, and pain in the scrotal and perineal region after surgery...
December 2014: Urology
Ji Hyun Park, Jae-Lyun Lee
INTRODUCTION: Taxane-based chemotherapy is one of the most commonly used agents in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who developed disease progression after gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy. The response rates, however, are dismal reported around 10-20%. Recently, promising efficacy results of paclitaxel when combined with oral cyclophosphamide as metronomic therapy have been reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) intravenously over 3 h on day 1 and cyclophosphamide 50 mg/day orally on days 1-7 every 3 weeks...
February 2015: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
Jae Joon Han, Yu Jung Kim, Jin Won Kim, Hyun Chang, Jeong-Ok Lee, Keun-Wook Lee, Chang Wook Jeong, Jee Hyun Kim, Sung Kyu Hong, Soo-Mee Bang, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Jong Seok Lee
AIMS AND BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of weekly, low-dose paclitaxel chemotherapy after the failure of platinum-based combination chemotherapy in elderly or poor performance status patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 25 patients. The regimen consisted of paclitaxel, 60 mg/m2 on days 1, 8 and 15, with or without carboplatin (AUC 2). Treatment was repeated every 4 weeks until disease progression...
July 2014: Tumori
Mahyar Etminan, James M Brophy, Ali Samii
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of peripheral neuropathy (PN) with oral fluoroquinolone (FQ) use. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study within a cohort of men aged 45 to 80 years in the United States followed from 2001 to 2011. Cases were defined as those with the first physician visit diagnosis of PN, polyneuropathy, or drug-induced polyneuropathy. Four controls were matched to each case by age, follow-up, and calendar time using density-based sampling. As a sensitivity analysis, we also quantified the risk of PN with finasteride use, a drug that is not expected to increase the risk of PN...
September 30, 2014: Neurology
Ritu Karoli, Sanjay Bhat, Jalees Fatima, S Priya
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus has been associated with an earlier onset and increased severity of urologic diseases that often result in debilitating urologic complications. Diabetic bladder dysfunction refers to a group of bladder symptoms occurring in patients with diabetes mellitus ranging from bladder over activity to impaired bladder contractility. AIM: Bladder dysfunction is an under evaluated issue in women with diabetes. Aim of our study was to investigate prevalence of bladder dysfunction and its relation with other chronic complications of diabetes in women with type 2 diabetes...
July 2014: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Sarah K Holt, Natalya Lopushnyan, James Hotaling, Aruna V Sarma, Rodney L Dunn, Patricia A Cleary, Barbara H Braffett, Patricia Gatcomb, Catherine Martin, William H Herman, Hunter Wessells
CONTEXT: Previous studies have demonstrated lower testosterone concentrations in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data in men with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are limited. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the prevalence of low testosterone in men with T1DM and identify predisposing factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a cross-sectional study of men with T1DM participating in UroEDIC (n = 641), an ancillary study of urologic complications in the Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC)...
September 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Troy Sukhu, Tracey L Krupski
Positioning injuries in the perioperative period are one of the inherent risks of surgery, but particularly in robot-assisted urologic surgery, and can result in often unrecognized morbidity. Injuries such as upper or lower extremity peripheral neuropathies occur via neural mechanisms and injuries such as compartment syndrome, rhabdomyolysis, ischemic optic neuropathy, and acute arterial occlusion occur via vascular mechanisms. The risk of injury may be exacerbated by operative and patient-related risk factors...
April 2014: Current Urology Reports
John J Bodkin, Michael Duff, Phillip J Seereiter, K Kent Chevli
Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) vary in incidence and manifestation based on tumor histology. PNS secondary to urologic malignancies have an extremely low incidence. Most reported cases of PNS from urologic malignancies are associated with adenocarcinoma. Peripheral neuropathy-associated PNS from urologic malignancy are exceedingly rare. An 80-year-old male developed a paraneoplastic sensorimotor polyneuropathy and foot-drop after a diagnosis of clinical stage T2cN0M0, Gleason grade 5+4 prostate cancer. A thorough workup is needed in order to adequately assess and treat PNS...
2013: Research and Reports in Urology
Jun-Ichi Kira
Prosultiamine, a vitamin B1 derivative, has long been used for beriberi neuropathy and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Based on the finding that prosultiamine induces apoptosis in human T lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-infected T cells, Nakamura et al. conducted a clinical trial of prosultiamine in patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM)/tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP). In this open-label, single arm study enrolling 24 HAM/TSP patients recently published in BMC Medicine, oral prosultiamine (300 mg/day for 12 weeks) was found to be effective by neurological, urological and virological evaluations...
2013: BMC Medicine
Ahmet Z Burakgazi, Bander Alsowaity, Zeynep Aydin Burakgazi, Dogan Unal, John J Kelly
Normal bladder function depends on the complex interaction of sensory and motor pathways. Bladder dysfunction can develop as a result of several neurological conditions. It can happen in a number of ways, including diabetic cystopathy, detrusor overactivity, bladder outlet obstruction, and urge and stress urinary incontinence. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy-associated bladder dysfunction. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and amyloid neuropathy are other major causes...
January 2012: Muscle & Nerve
Jae-Lyun Lee, Jin-Hee Ahn, Se Hoon Park, Ho Young Lim, Jung Hye Kwon, Shin Ahn, Cheryn Song, Jun Hyuk Hong, Choung-Soo Kim, Hanjong Ahn
INTRODUCTION: Genexol-PM is a novel Cremophor® EL (CrEL)-free polymeric micelle formulation of paclitaxel. This multicenter phase II study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Genexol-PM monotherapy in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who developed disease progression after gemcitabine and cisplatin combination chemotherapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients received Genexol-PM 240 mg/m(2) intravenously over 3 h every 3 weeks without premedication...
October 2012: Investigational New Drugs
Toshiyasu Amano, Tetsuya Imao, Masaya Seki, Katsurou Takemae, Yasuharu Ohta, Sumi Sakai, Hisae Ohta
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to clarify the relationship of erectile dysfunction (ED) and diabetes mellitus (DM) parameters (referred to with '1'), including peripheral neuropathy (referred to with '2'). METHODS: (1) The DM parameters including age, serum levels of blood sugar, hemoglobin A1c, duration of DM and number of DM complications were obtained from 145 patients at a general DM clinic. (2) The peripheral neuropathy examinations by vibration perception threshold (VPT) and Achilles tendon reflex were performed in 97 DM patients...
2011: Urologia Internationalis
Andrew J M Boulton, Paul Valensi, Solomon Tesfaye
Neuropathies are amongst the most common of the long-term complications of diabetes, affecting up to 50% of patients. Their clinical features vary immensely and patients may present with a wide spectrum of specialties, from neurology to urology, for example, or from cardiology to podiatry. Neuropathies are typically characterized by a progressive loss of nerve fibres which may affect both of the principal divisions of the peripheral nervous system. The epidemiology and natural history of the diabetic neuropathies remain poorly defined...
October 2011: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Abdullah Erdem Canda
Diabetes is an important disease affecting many people worldwide which causes significant morbidity. In the lower urinary tract (LUT), diabetes causes LUT dysfunction in humans by leading to neuropathic bladder. In addition, diabetes can lead to functional and anatomical abnormalities of the external urethral sphincter. Diabetes was suggested to cause these complications by affecting autonomic or peripheral nerves or both. Cells having similar characteristics with interstitial cells of Cajal that are present in the gastrointestinal system have also been described in the human urinary tract...
May 2011: Medical Hypotheses
Bryan J Schneider, Gregory P Kalemkerian, Deborah Bradley, David C Smith, Merrill J Egorin, Stephanie Daignault, Rodney Dunn, Maha Hussain
INTRODUCTION: Vorinostat is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase 6, which acetylates tubulin and stabilizes microtubules. Since taxanes also stabilize microtubules, we hypothesized that the administration of vorinostat followed by docetaxel should result in synergistic cytotoxicity. We conducted a phase I trial to determine the dose level of vorinostat plus docetaxel that would result in dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in ≤30% of patients. METHODS: Eligible patients had castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) or relapsed urothelial or non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after ≥1 prior chemotherapy regimen not containing docetaxel, performance status of 0-2, and adequate organ function...
February 2012: Investigational New Drugs
Francesc Casas, Josep María Borràs, Ferran Ferrer, Núria Guanyabens, Rafael Gutiérrez del Pozo, Concha León, José López Torrecilla, Begoña Mellado, Joan Morote, Manel Puig, María José Ribal, Carme Ruscalleda, Agustí Serra, Valentí Valls, Almudena Zapatero
INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the tumours with the highest incidence in recent years. PC therapies have several adverse effects. A panel consensus recommendation has been made to prevent or ameliorate complications in PC treatment to improve quality of life. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen specialists have met to analyse the different toxicities associated with PC treatment. Each medical specialist performed a National Library of Medicine PubMed search citations searching about these secondary effects and his specialty from 1999 to 2009 to propose measures for their prevention/amelioration...
May 2010: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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