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Causation in evidence based medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754286/br-07-1-development-of-the-cell-microarray-for-high-throughput-analysis-of-gut-microbiota
#1
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681809/microbiota-is-a-primary-cause-of-pathogenesis-of-chronic-wounds
#2
R Wolcott, N Sanford, R Gabrilska, J L Oates, J E Wilkinson, K P Rumbaugh
OBJECTIVE: Diverse microorganisms present on the surface of chronic wounds have been established to constitute wound microbiota. The aims of this study were to quantify the viability of wound microbiota, classify dispersal of viable microbes from the wound, and determine if human wound microbiota can produce a chronic wound in an animal model. METHOD: Wound microbiotas as units (multiple microbial species acting as one infectious agent) were obtained from well-defined human chronic wounds and seeded onto mouse surgical excision wounds to produce chronically infected wounds that closely resembled the chronic wounds observed in the original hosts...
October 2016: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671725/evidence-based-toxicology
#3
Sebastian Hoffmann, Thomas Hartung, Martin Stephens
Evidence-based toxicology (EBT) was introduced independently by two groups in 2005, in the context of toxicological risk assessment and causation as well as based on parallels between the evaluation of test methods in toxicology and evidence-based assessment of diagnostics tests in medicine. The role model of evidence-based medicine (EBM) motivated both proposals and guided the evolution of EBT, whereas especially systematic reviews and evidence quality assessment attract considerable attention in toxicology...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643284/br-07-1-development-of-the-cell-microarray-for-high-throughput-analysis-of-gut-microbiota
#4
Seong-Tshool Hong
The human intestine contains a massive and complex microbial community called gut microbiota. A typical human carries 100 trillion microbes in his/her body which is 10 times greater than the number of their host cells, i.e. whole number of human cells. A combined microbial genome constituting gut microbiota is well excess our own human genome. The microbial composition of gut microbiotata and its role on diseases became a booming area of research, presenting a new paradigm of opportunities for modern medicines...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632829/the-effectiveness-of-non-operative-rehabilitation-programs-for-athletes-diagnosed-with-osteitis-pubis
#5
Scott Cheatham, Morey J Kolber, Kathryn Kumagai Shimamura
: Clinical Scenario: The differential diagnosis of groin pain can be very challenging due to the many causative pathologies. Osteitis pubis is one pathology that is becoming more recognized in athletes who participate in sports such as soccer, ice hockey, rugby, and football.(1) Conservative non-operative treatment is often prescribed first prior to surgical intervention. Of particular interest, are the outcomes of non-operative rehabilitation programs and their effectiveness to return athletes to pre-injury levels of participation...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27544582/detection-of-hereditary-bisalbuminemia-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus-montagu-1821-comparison-between-capillary-zone-and-agarose-gel-electrophoresis
#6
Claudia Gili, Federico Bonsembiante, Renzo Bonanni, Alessia Giordano, Sabina Ledda, Giorgia Beffagna, Saverio Paltrinieri, Matteo Sommer, Maria Elena Gelain
BACKGROUND: Hereditary bisalbuminemia is a relatively rare anomaly characterized by the occurrence of two albumin fractions on serum protein separation by electrophoresis. In human medicine, it is usually revealed by chance, is not been clearly associated with a specific disease and the causative genetic alteration is a point mutation of human serum albumin gene inherited in an autosomal codominant pattern. This type of alteration is well recognizable by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), whilst agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE) not always produces a clear separation of albumin fractions...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27441534/risk-factors-of-thyroid-pathology-formation-in-outpatient-pregnant-population
#7
N Morchiladze, B Tkeshelashvili, D Gagua, T Gagua
Several medical - biological and social - hygienic factors have been found to account for the definite increase in the incidence of thyroid gland disorders in reproductive age and pregnant women. Aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for development of thyroid gland pathology in outpatient pregnant women. Observational study - "case - control" study has been conducted at the base of David Gagua Hospital Ltd. Main (study) group involved 292 pregnant patients with established thyroid pathology. Control group included 58 conditionally healthy pregnant participants without any demonstrated thyroid pathology...
June 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052648/cns-infections-in-patients-with-hematological-disorders-including-allogeneic-stem-cell-transplantation-guidelines-of-the-infectious-diseases-working-party-agiho-of-the-german-society-of-hematology-and-medical-oncology-dgho
#8
M Schmidt-Hieber, G Silling, E Schalk, W Heinz, J Panse, O Penack, M Christopeit, D Buchheidt, U Meyding-Lamadé, S Hähnel, H H Wolf, M Ruhnke, S Schwartz, G Maschmeyer
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are infrequently diagnosed in immunocompetent patients, but they do occur in a significant proportion of patients with hematological disorders. In particular, patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation carry a high risk for CNS infections of up to 15%. Fungi and Toxoplasma gondii are the predominant causative agents. The diagnosis of CNS infections is based on neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid examination and biopsy of suspicious lesions in selected patients...
July 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26821064/dysregulated-mitochondrial-and-chloroplast-bioenergetics-from-a-translational-medical-perspective-review
#9
George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
Mitochondria and chloroplasts represent endosymbiotic models of complex organelle development, driven by intense evolutionary pressure to provide exponentially enhanced ATP-dependent energy production functionally linked to cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Within the realm of translational medicine, it has become compellingly evident that mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in compromised cellular bioenergetics, represents a key causative factor in the etiology and persistence of major diseases afflicting human populations...
March 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26778324/encouragement-to-increase-the-use-of-psychosocial-skills-in-the-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-patients-with-functional-dysphonia
#10
Jürg Kollbrunner, Eberhard Seifert
Clinicians believe that psychosocial factors play a causal role in the etiology of many forms of functional dysphonia (FD). But for decades, all attempts to confirm such causation have failed. This paper aims to show the logic of this failure, to discuss the possibilities of employing psychology in therapy nonetheless, and to encourage clinicians to use their psychosocial knowledge and skills. The failure to confirm psychic and social factors as causal in the etiology of FD is basically a consequence of a principal shortcoming of evidence-based medicine (EBM)...
January 5, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26614812/evidence-based-causation-in-toxicology-a-10-year-retrospective
#11
REVIEW
R C James, J K Britt, N C Halmes, P S Guzelian
We introduced Evidence-based Toxicology (EBT) in 2005 to address the disparities that exist between the various Weight-of-Evidence (WOE) methods typically applied in the regulatory hazard decision-making arena and urged toxicologists to adopt the evidence-based guidelines long-utilized in medicine (i.e., Evidence-Based Medicine or EBM). This review of the activities leading to the adoption of evidence-based methods and EBT during the last decade demonstrates how fundamental concepts that form EBT, such as the use of systematic reviews to capture and consider all available information, are improving toxicological evaluations performed by various groups and agencies...
December 2015: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26501104/genome-wide-polygenic-burden-of-rare-deleterious-variants-in-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy
#12
Costin Leu, Simona Balestrini, Bridget Maher, Laura Hernández-Hernández, Padhraig Gormley, Eija Hämäläinen, Kristin Heggeli, Natasha Schoeler, Jan Novy, Joseph Willis, Vincent Plagnol, Rachael Ellis, Eleanor Reavey, Mary O'Regan, William O Pickrell, Rhys H Thomas, Seo-Kyung Chung, Norman Delanty, Jacinta M McMahon, Stephen Malone, Lynette G Sadleir, Samuel F Berkovic, Lina Nashef, Sameer M Zuberi, Mark I Rees, Gianpiero L Cavalleri, Josemir W Sander, Elaine Hughes, J Helen Cross, Ingrid E Scheffer, Aarno Palotie, Sanjay M Sisodiya
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) represents the most severe degree of the spectrum of epilepsy severity and is the commonest cause of epilepsy-related premature mortality. The precise pathophysiology and the genetic architecture of SUDEP remain elusive. Aiming to elucidate the genetic basis of SUDEP, we analysed rare, protein-changing variants from whole-exome sequences of 18 people who died of SUDEP, 87 living people with epilepsy and 1479 non-epilepsy disease controls. Association analysis revealed a significantly increased genome-wide polygenic burden per individual in the SUDEP cohort when compared to epilepsy (P = 5...
September 2015: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26497602/evidence-illness-and-causation-an-epidemiological-perspective-on-the-russo-williamson-thesis
#13
Alexander R Fiorentino, Olaf Dammann
According to the Russo-Williamson Thesis, causal claims in the health sciences need to be supported by both difference-making and mechanistic evidence. In this article, we attempt to determine whether Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) can be improved through the consideration of mechanistic evidence. We discuss the practical composition and function of each RWT evidence type and propose that exposure-outcome evidence (previously known as difference-making evidence) provides associations that can be explained through a hypothesis of causation, while mechanistic evidence provides finer-grained associations and knowledge of entities that ultimately explains a causal hypothesis...
December 2015: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26489997/we-need-to-talk-about-error-causes-and-types-of-error-in-veterinary-practice
#14
C Oxtoby, E Ferguson, K White, L Mossop
Patient safety research in human medicine has identified the causes and common types of medical error and subsequently informed the development of interventions which mitigate harm, such as the WHO's safe surgery checklist. There is no such evidence available to the veterinary profession. This study therefore aims to identify the causes and types of errors in veterinary practice, and presents an evidence based system for their classification. Causes of error were identified from retrospective record review of 678 claims to the profession's leading indemnity insurer and nine focus groups (average N per group=8) with vets, nurses and support staff were performed using critical incident technique...
October 31, 2015: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365364/-evidence-based-aspects-of-clinical-mastitis-treatment
#15
E M Mansion-de Vries, M Hoedemaker, V Krömker
Mastitis is one of the most common and expensive diseases in dairy cattle. The decision to treat clinical mastitis is usually made without any knowledge of the etiology, and can therefore only be evidence-based to a limited extent. Evidence-based medicine relies essentially on a combination of one's own clinical competence and scientific findings. In mastitis therapy, those insights depend mostly on pathogen-specific factors. Therefore, in evidence-based therapeutic decision making the pathogen identification should serve as a basis for the consideration of scientifically validated therapeutic concepts...
2015: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26309442/ameliorating-role-exerted-by-al-hijamah-in-autoimmune-diseases-effect-on-serum-autoantibodies-and-inflammatory-mediators
#16
REVIEW
Hussam Baghdadi, Nada Abdel-Aziz, Nagwa Sayed Ahmed, Hany Salah Mahmoud, Ayman Barghash, Abdullah Nasrat, Manal Mohamed Helmy Nabo, Salah Mohamed El Sayed
Autoimmune diseases have common properties characterized by abnormal blood chemistry with high serum autoimmune antibodies, and inflammatory mediators. Those causative pathological substances (CPS) cannot be excreted by physiological mechanisms. Current treatments for autoimmune diseases involve steroids, cytotoxic drugs, plasmapheresis and monoclonal antibodies. Wet cupping therapy (WCT) of prophetic medicine is called Al-hijamah that treats numerous diseases having different etiology and pathogenesis via a pressure-dependent and size-dependent non-specific filtration then excretion of CPS causing clearance of blood and interstitial fluids...
April 2015: International Journal of Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26062171/the-effectiveness-of-non-operative-rehabilitation-programs-for-athletes-diagnosed-with-osteitis-pubis
#17
Scott Cheatham, Morey J Kolber, Kathryn Kumagai Shimamura
: Clinical Scenario: The differential diagnosis of groin pain can be very challenging due to the many causative pathologies. Osteitis pubis is one pathology that is becoming more recognized in athletes who participate in sports such as soccer, ice hockey, rugby, and football.1 Conservative non-operative treatment is often prescribed first prior to surgical intervention. Of particular interest, are the outcomes of non-operative rehabilitation programs and their effectiveness to return athletes to pre-injury levels of participation...
June 10, 2015: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25954198/herbal-hepatotoxicity-in-traditional-and-modern-medicine-actual-key-issues-and-new-encouraging-steps
#18
REVIEW
Rolf Teschke, Axel Eickhoff
Plants are natural producers of chemical substances, providing potential treatment of human ailments since ancient times. Some herbal chemicals in medicinal plants of traditional and modern medicine carry the risk of herb induced liver injury (HILI) with a severe or potentially lethal clinical course, and the requirement of a liver transplant. Discontinuation of herbal use is mandatory in time when HILI is first suspected as diagnosis. Although, herbal hepatotoxicity is of utmost clinical and regulatory importance, lack of a stringent causality assessment remains a major issue for patients with suspected HILI, while this problem is best overcome by the use of the hepatotoxicity specific CIOMS (Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences) scale and the evaluation of unintentional reexposure test results...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25919157/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-the-introduction-of-the-human-papillomavirus-vaccine-in-honduras
#19
Ida Berenice Molina Aguilar, Lourdes Otilia Mendoza, Odalys García, Iris Díaz, Jacqueline Figueroa, Rosa María Duarte, Gabriel Perdomo, Ana Gabriela Felix Garcia, Cara Bess Janusz
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in Honduras. With the availability of a vaccine to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV), the causative agent for cervical cancer, the Honduran Secretary of Health undertook a cost-effectiveness analysis of introducing the HPV vaccine to support their national decision-making process. METHODS: A national multidisciplinary team conducted this analysis with the CERVIVAC model, developed by the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine in collaboration with the Pan American Health Organization's ProVac Initiative...
May 7, 2015: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25916053/the-impact-of-anesthetic-techniques-on-survival-for-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-evidence-based-on-six-studies
#20
REVIEW
Xizhi Sun, Changzhao Yang, Kezhong Li, Suchun Ding
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Epidural-supplemented general anesthesia is perceived as a more beneficial method over general anesthesia since it reduces incidence of side effects, provides better postoperative pain relief and lowers the possibility to use immunosuppressive anesthetics. However, previous prospective and retrospective studies reported conflicting results in the effects of epidural anesthesia on post-operative outcomes of colorectal cancer surgery. Therefore, this study aims to pool available evidence to assess the association between epidural anesthesia and the post- operative outcomes in this group of patients...
March 2015: Hepato-gastroenterology
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