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Shirin Djalalinia, Mohammad Bagher Talei, Farzaneh Barhemmat, Fatemeh Mohammadali Khalaj, Hamideh Heydari, Hossein Zokaei, Shahin Akhondzadeh, Asghar Ebadifar
BACKGROUND: In 1990, one of the most important strategies of supporting and managing reproductive research focused on development of research structures. This targeted vision, at the first step, mainly followed through creating research units. The present paper aims to explore the policies and strategies of medical research centers (MRCs)development, and its achievements and challenges over the last 25 years. METHODS: Based on expected outcomes of better directions of research activities aligned with the priorities and policies of research, the Deputy of Research and Technology of Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME), initiated the set up and development of research units...
November 1, 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Jei Hee Lee, Bohyun Kim, Hye Jin Kim, Bong-Wan Kim, Hee-Jung Wang, Jai Keun Kim
PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of high-resolution navigated three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted hepatobiliary MR cholangiography (Nav T1 MRC) using Gd-EOB-DTPA for biliary visualization in living liver donors and to assess added value of 3D T1-weighted hepatobiliary MRCs in improving the confidence and diagnostic accuracy of biliary anatomy in complementary to T2-weighted MRCs. METHODS: Twenty-nine right liver donors underwent 3D T2 MRC, 2D T2 MRC, breath-hold T1-weighted hepatobiliary MRC (BH T1 MRC), and Nav T1 MRC...
February 15, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Bruno Bavaresco Gambassi, Ylana Gomes de Santana Barros Leal, Edson R Pinheiro Dos Anjos, Bruna A Antonelli, Daniela C Gomes Gonçalves E Silva, Iracema H Pires de Mélo Montenegro, Rita di Cássia de Oliveira Angelo, Isis S Correia Moura, Paulo A Schwingel
BACKGROUND: Carbohydrates (CHO) are among the most investigated nutritional ergogenic aids, and may be consumed in different forms, e.g., mouth rinse with carbohydrate solution (MRCS). In this sense, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of MRCS on the performance of physically active individuals undergoing a physical exercise session carried out until the volitional exhaustion. METHODS: This is a counter-balanced randomized study, with a double-blind design...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
D S G Scrimgeour, J Cleland, A J Lee, P A Brennan
BACKGROUND: The Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons examination (MRCS, Parts A and B) is one of the largest postgraduate surgical exams in the world, but little is known about the factors that affect candidate performance. We describe the relationship between both parts of MRCS and several independent predictors of MRCS success. METHODS: Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the linear relationship between MRCS Part A and B and logistic regression analysis to identify potential independent predictors of MRCS success...
October 25, 2017: Surgeon: Journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
Waliullah Masroor, Emilie Farcy, Romain Gros, Catherine Lorin-Nebel
European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax undertake seasonal migrations to estuaries and lagoons that are characterized by fluctuations in environmental conditions. Their ability to cope with these unstable habitats is undeniable, but it is still not clear how and to what extent salinity acclimation mechanisms are affected at temperatures higher than in the sea. In this study, juvenile sea bass were pre-acclimated to seawater (SW) at 18°C (temperate) or 24°C (warm) for 2weeks and then transferred to fresh water (FW) or SW at the respective temperature...
October 19, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Isabelle Leguen
The general morphology and surface ultrastructure of the gills of adult and larvae medaka (Oryzias latipes) were studied in freshwater and seawater using scanning electron microscopy. The gills of all examined fish were structurally similar to those of other teleosts and consisted of four pairs of arches supporting (i) filaments bearing lamellae and (ii) rakers containing taste buds. Three cell types, specifically pavement cells, mitochondria-rich cells (MRCs), and mucous cells, constituted the surface layer of the gill epithelium...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Morphology
Keiji Honda, Sung Huhn Kim, Michael C Kelly, Joseph C Burns, Laura Constance, Xiangming Li, Fei Zhou, Michael Hoa, Matthew W Kelley, Philine Wangemann, Robert J Morell, Andrew J Griffith
Mutations of SLC26A4 are a common cause of hearing loss associated with enlargement of the endolymphatic sac (EES). Slc26a4 expression in the developing mouse endolymphatic sac is required for acquisition of normal inner ear structure and function. Here, we show that the mouse endolymphatic sac absorbs fluid in an SLC26A4-dependent fashion. Fluid absorption was sensitive to ouabain and gadolinium but insensitive to benzamil, bafilomycin and S3226. Single-cell RNA-seq analysis of pre- and postnatal endolymphatic sacs demonstrates two types of differentiated cells...
October 10, 2017: ELife
Imran Ahmad, Mohd Altaf Mir, Arshad Hafeez Khan
BACKGROUND: In this study, we investigated sensory and motor outcomes for different bridging techniques for short nerve gaps. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study was conducted in the Postdoctoral Department of Burns, Plastic, and Reconstructive Surgery of our institution from August 2014 to May 2017. All patients with posttraumatic short nerve gaps of 3 cm or less of median, ulnar, and/or both in forearm and wrists were included in the study. Patients with known causes of neuropathies were excluded...
November 2017: Annals of Plastic Surgery
Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Ray Tanaka, Pek-Lan Khong, Thomas von Arx, Michael M Bornstein
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency, locations, and dimensions of mucous retention cysts of the maxillary sinus and analyze potential associated dental pathology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 156 cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans were included in the analysis, resulting in an evaluation of 310 maxillary sinuses. The presence of mucous retention cysts (MRC) manifesting as dome-shaped radiopacities in the sinus was diagnosed...
September 17, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
Farzad Fatehi, Emmanuelle Salort-Campana, Arnaud Le Troter, Emilie Lareau-Trudel, Mark Bydder, Alexandre Fouré, Maxime Guye, David Bendahan, Shahram Attarian
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is one of the most common hereditary muscular disorders. Currently FSHD has no known effective treatment and detailed data on the natural history are lacking. Determination of the efficacy of a given therapeutic approach might be difficult in FSHD given the slow and highly variable disease progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate in vivo the muscle alterations in various neuromuscular disorders...
2017: PloS One
Giacomo Zaccone, Eugenia Rita Lauriano, Michał Kuciel, Gioele Capillo, Simona Pergolizzi, Alessio Alesci, Atsushi Ishimatsu, Yuen Kwong Ip, Jose M Icardo
Mudskippers are amphibious fishes living in mudflats and mangroves. These fishes hold air in their large buccopharyngeal-opercular cavities where respiratory gas exchange takes place via the gills and higher vascularized epithelium lining the cavities and also the skin epidermis. Although aerial ventilation response to changes in ambient gas concentration has been studied in mudskippers, the localization and distribution of respiratory chemoreceptors, their neurochemical coding and function as well as physiological evidence for the gill or skin as site for O2 and CO2 sensing are currently not known...
December 2017: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
Linan Liu, Shirley X Zhang, Wenbin Liao, Henry P Farhoodi, Chi W Wong, Claire C Chen, Aude I Ségaliny, Jenu V Chacko, Lily P Nguyen, Mengrou Lu, George Polovin, Egest J Pone, Timothy L Downing, Devon A Lawson, Michelle A Digman, Weian Zhao
Despite decades of effort, little progress has been made to improve the treatment of cancer metastases. To leverage the central role of the mechanoenvironment in cancer metastasis, we present a mechanoresponsive cell system (MRCS) to selectively identify and treat cancer metastases by targeting the specific biophysical cues in the tumor niche in vivo. Our MRCS uses mechanosensitive promoter-driven mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based vectors, which selectively home to and target cancer metastases in response to specific mechanical cues to deliver therapeutics to effectively kill cancer cells, as demonstrated in a metastatic breast cancer mouse model...
July 26, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
Christopher Brown, Tarig Abdelrahman, Neil Patel, Awen Iorwerth, John Pollitt, Mark Holt, Wyn G Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Surgical rotations involving rural General Hospitals (rGH) are frequently associated with recruitment challenges, partly because of adverse perceptions regarding distances from social support networks and training opportunities. The aim of this study was to determine the outcomes of core surgical training rotations involving rGHs when compared with urban hospitals in a single UK Deanery. DESIGN: Online Intercollegiate Surgical Curriculum Programme portfolios from 163 core surgical trainees (CST) were examined related to postlocation, operative experience, workplace-based assessments, and academic achievement...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
Bolin Hu, Pengcheng Wu, Yibiao Zhou, Yan Peng, Xiaoping Tang, Weijiang Ding, Ming Zhang, Xueliang Qi
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterized by multiple affected systems. More than half of SLE patients will suffer from neuropsychiatric lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) during the course of their disease. Although nearly half of the NPSLE patients have normal MRI manifestations, the abnormalities found in the remainder can be located anywhere in the brain, and especially in the subcortical white matter of the frontal and temporal lobe...
June 29, 2017: BMC Neurology
Kristijan Posavec, Marco Giacopetti, Marco Materazzi, Steffen Birk
A new method was developed and implemented into an Excel Visual Basic for Applications (VBAs) algorithm utilizing trigonometry laws in an innovative way to overlap recession segments of time series and create master recession curves (MRCs). Based on a trigonometry approach, the algorithm horizontally translates succeeding recession segments of time series, placing their vertex, that is, the highest recorded value of each recession segment, directly onto the appropriate connection line defined by measurement points of a preceding recession segment...
November 2017: Ground Water
Marco Quarta, Melinda Cromie, Robert Chacon, Justin Blonigan, Victor Garcia, Igor Akimenko, Mark Hamer, Patrick Paine, Merel Stok, Joseph B Shrager, Thomas A Rando
Volumetric muscle loss (VML) is associated with loss of skeletal muscle function, and current treatments show limited efficacy. Here we show that bioconstructs suffused with genetically-labelled muscle stem cells (MuSCs) and other muscle resident cells (MRCs) are effective to treat VML injuries in mice. Imaging of bioconstructs implanted in damaged muscles indicates MuSCs survival and growth, and ex vivo analyses show force restoration of treated muscles. Histological analysis highlights myofibre formation, neovascularisation, but insufficient innervation...
June 20, 2017: Nature Communications
Sonja Kinner, Tilman B Schubert, Adnan Said, Joshua D Mezrich, Scott B Reeder
OBJECTIVES: Biliary complications after liver transplantation (LT) are common. This study aimed to ascertain the value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced T1-weighted (T1w) magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) to evaluate anastomotic strictures (AS), non-anastomotic strictures (NAS) and biliary casts (BC). METHODS: Sixty liver-transplanted patients with suspicion of biliary complications and T2w-MRCP and T1w-MRC followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC) were analysed...
October 2017: European Radiology
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