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Causation in medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454509/group-c-strep-mediastinitis-a-case-report
#1
Joseph G Kotora, Eric J Schmieler, Christian S McEvoy, Stephen L Noble
This case is significant to the practice of emergency medicine because it represents the development of an uncommon and potentially fatal mediastinal infection from a commonly encountered and appropriately treated community respiratory pathogen. Most published reports on mediastinitis are those that are status-post cardiothoracic surgery. In our report, we discuss a case of a healthy, young individual who developed this morbid entity from extension of a simple respiratory infection where Group C Streptococcus has been isolated as the causative organism, which to our knowledge has not been previously reported...
February 3, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433676/bioactive-phytochemicals-that-regulate-the-cellular-processes-involved-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#2
REVIEW
Amna Parveen, Mirim Jin, Sun Yeou Kim
BACKGROUND: Owing to the multiple causative factors, the current advances in medication for diabetic nephropathy (DN) do not appear to have improved therapies for patients. Furthermore, use of multiple synthetic medications has shown various adverse effects and ultimately leads to deterioration of the condition. Medicinal plants and their bioactive constituents are considered to be safer and more effective than synthetic medicines against various chronic diseases. Therefore, the use of natural products in the management of DN has been suggested...
January 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422728/multicenter-observational-study-to-evaluate-epidemiology-and-resistance-patterns-of-common-intensive-care-unit-infections
#3
Ramesh Venkataraman, Jigeeshu V Divatia, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, Rajesh Chawla, Pravin Amin, Palepu Gopal, Dhruva Chaudhry, Kapil Zirpe, Babu Abraham
Background: There is limited data regarding the microbiology of Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-acquired infections, such as ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI), and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI) from India. Objectives: To explore the microbiology and resistance patterns of ICU-acquired infections and evaluate their outcomes. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter observational study, conducted by Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (MOSER study) between August 2011 and October 2012...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419698/next-generation-sequencing-diagnostics-of-bacteremia-in-sepsis-next-genesis-trial-study-protocol-of-a-prospective-observational-noninterventional-multicenter-clinical-trial
#4
MULTICENTER STUDY
Thorsten Brenner, Sebastian O Decker, Silke Grumaz, Philip Stevens, Thomas Bruckner, Thomas Schmoch, Mathias W Pletz, Hendrik Bracht, Stefan Hofer, Gernot Marx, Markus A Weigand, Kai Sohn
BACKGROUND: Sepsis remains a major challenge, even in modern intensive care medicine. The identification of the causative pathogen is crucial for an early optimization of the antimicrobial treatment regime. In this context, culture-based diagnostic procedures (e.g., blood cultures) represent the standard of care, although they are associated with relevant limitations. Accordingly, culture-independent molecular diagnostic procedures might be of help for the identification of the causative pathogen in infected patients...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419329/understanding-gastroschisis-and-its-clinical-management-where-are-we
#5
Candace Haddock, Erik D Skarsgard
Gastroschisis is the commonest developmental defect of the anterior abdominal wall in both developed and developing countries. The past 30 years have seen transformational improvements in outcome due to advances in neonatal intensive care and enhanced integration between the disciplines of maternal fetal medicine, neonatology and pediatric surgery. A review of gastroschisis, which emphasizes its epidemiology, multidisciplinary care strategies and contemporary outcomes is timely. Areas covered: This review discusses the current state of knowledge related to prevalence and causation, and postulated embryopathologic mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroschisis...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407960/an-overview-on-crystal-structures-of-inha-protein-apo-form-in-complex-with-its-natural-ligands-and-inhibitors
#6
REVIEW
Aurélien Chollet, Laurent Maveyraud, Christian Lherbet, Vania Bernardes-Génisson
The enoyl-ACP reductase InhA from the mycobacterial fatty acid biosynthesis pathway has become a target of interest for the development of new anti-tubercular drugs. This protein has been identified as essential for the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, and as the main target of two pro-drugs: isoniazid, the frontline anti-tubercular drug, and ethionamide, a second-line medicine. Since most cases of resistance to isoniazid and ethionamide result from mutations in the mycobacterial activating enzyme (KatG for isoniazid and EthA for ethionamide), research of direct InhA inhibitors, avoiding the activation step, has emerged as a promising strategy for combating tuberculosis...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393586/population-structure-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-paenibacillus-larvae-isolates-from-american-foulbrood-cases-in-apis-mellifera-in-japan
#7
Yuichi Ueno, Emi Yoshida, Wakako Misumi, Eri Watando, Kenta Suzuki, Yuko Hirai, Masatoshi Okura, Makoto Osaki, Ken Katsuda, Daisuke Takamatsu
Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most destructive disease of the honey bee brood. In this study, we investigated the population structure and antimicrobial susceptibility of Japanese P. larvae using 100 isolates isolated between 1993 and 2017 in 17 prefectures. Using repetitive-element PCR and multilocus sequence typing, isolates from diverse origins were classified into six genotypes, including the novel genotype ERIC II-ST24. Among these genotypes, ERIC I-ST15 is the most common in Japan, while ERIC II-ST10 isolates were found to be increasing during the 2010s...
February 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29393502/using-drugs-to-target-necroptosis-dual-roles-in-disease-therapy
#8
REVIEW
Zhen Wang, Li-Min Guo, Hong-Kang Zhou, Hong-Ke Qu, Shu-Chao Wang, Feng-Xia Liu, Dan Chen, Ju-Fang Huang, Kun Xiong
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
February 1, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389854/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-molecular-determinants-of-infection-survival-strategies-and-vulnerable-targets
#9
REVIEW
Davide M Ferraris, Riccardo Miggiano, Franca Rossi, Menico Rizzi
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative agent of tuberculosis, an ancient disease which, still today, represents a major threat for the world population. Despite the advances in medicine and the development of effective antitubercular drugs, the cure of tuberculosis involves prolonged therapies which complicate the compliance and monitoring of drug administration and treatment. Moreover, the only available antitubercular vaccine fails to provide an effective shield against adult lung tuberculosis, which is the most prevalent form...
February 1, 2018: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374886/-some-reflections-on-evidenced-based-medicine-precision-medicine-and-big-data-based-research
#10
J L Tang, L M Li
Evidence-based medicine remains the best paradigm for medical practice. However, evidence alone is not decisions; decisions must also consider resources available and the values of people. Evidence shows that most of those treated with blood pressure-lowering, cholesterol-lowering, glucose-lowering and anti-cancer drugs do not benefit from preventing severe complications such as cardiovascular events and deaths. This implies that diagnosis and treatment in modern medicine in many circumstances is imprecise...
January 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374567/cannabis-use-lung-cancer-and-related-issues
#11
REVIEW
Emily Stone, James Jett, Graham Warren, K Michael Cummings
The cannabis plant and its derivatives have been exploited for centuries for recreational and medicinal purposes with millions of regular users around the world. The recreational use of cannabis is reflective of its neuropsychiatric effects such as anxiolysis and euphoria. However, cannabis appears to have an emerging therapeutic role, especially in chronic disease and as an adjunct to cancer treatment. Increasing evidence supports cannabis in the management of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting and for pain management, but studies are limited particularly by difficulties associated with standardized dosing estimates and inability to accurately assess biologic activities of compounds in cannabis and derivative products...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370840/identification-of-compound-heterozygous-variants-in-the-noncoding-rnu4atac-gene-in-a-chinese-family-with-two-successive-foetuses-with-severe-microcephaly
#12
Ye Wang, Xueli Wu, Liu Du, Ju Zheng, Songqing Deng, Xin Bi, Qiuyan Chen, Hongning Xie, Claude Férec, David N Cooper, Yanmin Luo, Qun Fang, Jian-Min Chen
BACKGROUND: Whole-exome sequencing (WES) over the last few years has been increasingly employed for clinical diagnosis. However, one caveat with its use is that it inevitably fails to detect disease-causative variants that occur within noncoding RNA genes. Our experience in identifying pathogenic variants in the noncoding RNU4ATAC gene, in a Chinese family where two successive foetuses had been affected by severe microcephaly, is a case in point. These foetuses exhibited remarkably similar phenotypes in terms of their microcephaly and brain abnormalities; however, the paucity of other characteristic phenotypic features had made a precise diagnosis impossible...
January 25, 2018: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370377/big-data-from-electronic-health-records-for-early-and-late-translational-cardiovascular-research-challenges-and-potential
#13
Harry Hemingway, Folkert W Asselbergs, John Danesh, Richard Dobson, Nikolaos Maniadakis, Aldo Maggioni, Ghislaine Jm van Thiel, Maureen Cronin, Gunnar Brobert, Panos Vardas, Stefan D Anker, Diederick E Grobbee, Spiros Denaxas
Aims: Cohorts of millions of people's health records, whole genome sequencing, imaging, sensor, societal and publicly available data present a rapidly expanding digital trace of health. We aimed to critically review, for the first time, the challenges and potential of big data across early and late stages of translational cardiovascular disease research. Methods and results: We sought exemplars based on literature reviews and expertise across the BigData@Heart Consortium...
August 29, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353202/validation-of-a-traditional-preparation-against-multi-drug-resistant-salmonella-typhi-and-its-protective-efficacy-in-s-typhimurium-infected-mice
#14
Debprasad Chattopadhyay, Durbadal Ojha, Hemanta Mukherjee, Paromita Bag, Shatrughna Prasad Vaidya, Shanta Dutta
Shorea robusta Gaertn has been used for skin and intestinal ailments in Indian Traditional medicine; while two tribal communities used its tender leaves in 'Meyadi-bukhar' or long-term fever. This prompted us to validate the aqueous and methanol extracts of Shorea robusta tender leaves against wild- and multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), the causative agent of typhoid fever. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and growth inhibition were determined using disc diffusion, agar-and-broth dilution, dose- and time-response assays, along with the safety and protective efficacy in Balb/C mice, infected with S...
January 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342065/diagnosis-of-periprosthetic-joint-infection-the-potential-of-next-generation-sequencing
#15
Majd Tarabichi, Noam Shohat, Karan Goswami, Abtin Alvand, Randi Silibovsky, Katherine Belden, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Next-generation sequencing is a well-established technique for sequencing of DNA and has recently gained attention in many fields of medicine. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of next-generation sequencing in identifying the causative organism(s) in patients with periprosthetic joint infection. METHODS: In this prospective study, samples were collected from 65 revision arthroplasties (39 knees and 26 hips) and 17 primary arthroplasties (9 hips and 8 knees)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315249/bacteriophage-%C3%AE-sa012-has-a-broad-host-range-against-staphylococcus-aureus-and-effective-lytic-capacity-in-a-mouse-mastitis-model
#16
Hidetomo Iwano, Yusuke Inoue, Takuji Takasago, Hironori Kobayashi, Takaaki Furusawa, Kotomi Taniguchi, Jumpei Fujiki, Hiroshi Yokota, Masaru Usui, Yasunori Tanji, Katsuro Hagiwara, Hidetoshi Higuchi, Yutaka Tamura
Bovine mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial infection in dairy cattle. It is the most costly disease in the dairy industry because of the high use of antibiotics. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the major causative agents of bovine mastitis and antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, new strategies to control bacterial infection are required in the dairy industry. One potential strategy is bacteriophage (phage) therapy. In the present study, we examined the host range of previously isolated S...
January 9, 2018: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302624/chemical-composition-and-antifungal-effect-of-hydroalcoholic-extract-of-allium-tripedale-tvautv-against-candida-species
#17
M Shirani, A Samimi, H Kalantari, M Madani, A Kord Zanganeh
Background and Purpose: Treatment of life-threatening fungal infections caused by Candida species has become a major problem. Candida spp. are the most important causative agents of candidiasis. Allium tripedale is a medicinal plant that has been traditionally used to treat infections. In the present study, we aimed to determine the chemical compounds and antimicrobial activity of hydroalcoholic extract of A. tripedale against different species of Candida. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis was performed to identify the possible bioactive components of this extract by using gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy (GC-MS)...
March 2017: Advances in Medical Mycology (Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261184/analysis-of-publicly-available-ldlr-apob-and-pcsk9-variants-associated-with-familial-hypercholesterolemia-application-of-acmg-guidelines-and-implications-for-familial-hypercholesterolemia-diagnosis
#18
Joana Rita Chora, Ana Margarida Medeiros, Ana Catarina Alves, Mafalda Bourbon
PurposeFamilial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal disorder of lipid metabolism presenting with increased cardiovascular risk. Although more than 1,700 variants have been associated with FH, the great majority have not been functionally proved to affect the low-density lipoprotein receptor cycle. We aimed to classify all described variants associated with FH and to establish the proportion of variants that lack evidence to support their pathogenicity.MethodsWe followed American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) guidelines for the classification, and collected information from a variety of databases and individual reports...
October 26, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258401/preventable-adrs-leading-to-hospitalization-results-of-a-long-term-prospective-safety-study-with-6-427-adr-cases-focusing-on-elderly-patients
#19
S Schmiedl, M Rottenkolber, J Szymanski, B Drewelow, W Siegmund, M Hippius, K Farker, I R Guenther, J Hasford, P A Thuermann
BACKGROUND: Studies evaluating the impact of age and potentially inappropriate medication (PIM) on avoidable adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are scarce. METHODS: In this prospective, multi-center, long-term (8.5 years) observational study, we analysed ADRs leading to hospitalization in departments of internal medicine. ADRs causality and preventability were assessed using standardised algorithms. PIM was defined based on the PRISCUS-list. Multivariate analyses and estimation of ADR incidence rates were conducted...
February 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234394/predictors-of-traditional-medical-practices-in-illness-behavior-in-northwestern-ethiopia-an-integrated-model-of-behavioral-prediction-based-logistic-regression-analysis
#20
Abenezer Yared
This study aimed at investigating traditional medical beliefs and practices in illness behavior as well as predictors of the practices in Gondar city, northwestern Ethiopia, by using the integrated model of behavioral prediction. A cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted to collect data through interviewer administered structured questionnaires from 496 individuals selected by probability proportional to size sampling technique. Unadjusted bivariate and adjusted multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed, and the results indicated that sociocultural predictors of normative response and attitude as well as psychosocial individual difference variables of traditional understanding of illness causation and perceived efficacy had statistically significant associations with traditional medical practices...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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