keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Causation in medicine

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549597/prolactin-receptor-targeting-in-breast-and-prostate-cancers-new-insights-into-an-old-challenge
#1
REVIEW
Vincent Goffin
In the era of precision medicine, the identification of new targets is a constant challenge to improve cancer therapy. Preclinical investigations, epidemiological studies and analyses of tissue specimens from patients strongly support the contribution of prolactin receptor (PRLR) signaling to breast and prostate tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Although a clear causative link with mutations of the genes encoding prolactin or its receptor is lacking, increased PRLR signaling in these cancers can be assessed by the overexpression of cognate proteins and is often confirmed by over-activation of downstream signaling effectors...
May 23, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539839/ppard-is-an-inhibitor-of-cartilage-growth-in-external-ears
#2
Zhen Zhang, Yanyu Duan, Zhongping Wu, Hui Zhang, Jun Ren, Lusheng Huang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARD) is an important determinant of multiple biological processes. Our previous studies identified a missense mutation in the PPARD gene that significantly reduces its transcription activity, and consequently causes enlarged external ears in pigs. However, the mechanisms underlying the causality has remained largely unknown. Here, we show that PPARD retards the development of auricular cartilage by accelerating the apoptosis of cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), the terminal differentiation of cartilage cells and the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix in the auricle...
2017: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536827/genetic-counselling-for-maternally-inherited-mitochondrial-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Joanna Poulton, Josef Finsterer, Patrick Yu-Wai-Man
The aim of this review was to provide an evidence-based approach to frequently asked questions relating to the risk of transmitting a maternally inherited mitochondrial disorder (MID). We do not address disorders linked with disturbed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) maintenance, causing mtDNA depletion or multiple mtDNA deletions, as these are autosomally inherited. The review addresses questions regarding prognosis, recurrence risks and the strategies available to prevent disease transmission. The clinical and genetic complexity of maternally inherited MIDs represent a major challenge for patients, their relatives and health professionals...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526628/heparin-based-hydrogels-induce-human-renal-tubulogenesis-in-vitro
#4
Heather M Weber, Mikhail V Tsurkan, Valentina Magno, Uwe Freudenberg, Carsten Werner
Dialysis or kidney transplantation is the only therapeutic option for end stage renal disease. Accordingly, there is a large unmet clinical need for new causative therapeutic treatments. Obtaining robust models that mimic the complex nature of the human kidney is a critical step in the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we establish a synthetic in vitro human renal tubulogenesis model based on a tunable glycosaminoglycan-hydrogel platform. In this system, renal tubulogenesis can be modulated by the adjustment of hydrogel mechanics and degradability, growth factor signaling, and the presence of insoluble adhesion cues, potentially providing new insights for regenerative therapy...
May 16, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518168/using-high-resolution-variant-frequencies-to-empower-clinical-genome-interpretation
#5
Nicola Whiffin, Eric Minikel, Roddy Walsh, Anne H O'Donnell-Luria, Konrad Karczewski, Alexander Y Ing, Paul J R Barton, Birgit Funke, Stuart A Cook, Daniel MacArthur, James S Ware
PurposeWhole-exome and whole-genome sequencing have transformed the discovery of genetic variants that cause human Mendelian disease, but discriminating pathogenic from benign variants remains a daunting challenge. Rarity is recognized as a necessary, although not sufficient, criterion for pathogenicity, but frequency cutoffs used in Mendelian analysis are often arbitrary and overly lenient. Recent very large reference datasets, such as the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), provide an unprecedented opportunity to obtain robust frequency estimates even for very rare variants...
May 18, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505618/use-of-epinephrine-in-patients-with-drug-induced-anaphylaxis-an-analysis-of-the-beijing-pharmacovigilance-database
#6
Tiansheng Wang, Xiang Ma, Yan Xing, Shusen Sun, Hua Zhang, Til Stürmer, Bin Wang, Xiaotong Li, Huilin Tang, Ligong Jiao, Suodi Zhai
BACKGROUND: Few studies assessing the use of epinephrine in drug-induced anaphylaxis (DIA) in the hospital setting are available. We utilized the Beijing Pharmacovigilance Database (BPD) to evaluate the appropriateness of epinephrine for DIA management. METHODS: DIA cases collected in the BPD from January 2004 to December 2014 were adjudicated and analyzed for demographics, causative drugs, clinical signs, outcomes, initial treatment, route, dosing, and cardiovascular adverse events (CAE) of epinephrine...
May 16, 2017: International Archives of Allergy and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504347/a-rapid-method-to-screen-poisoning-causative-agents-in-an-acute-care-hospital-in-japan
#7
K Usui, H Mori, T Tachi, T Matsumura, K Mori, A Takeda, Y Noguchi, T Yoshimura, H Teramachi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: A simple, rapid analysis is required to simultaneously analyse medicinal toxicants in emergency medical care. In this regard, the analysis of blood samples by LC-MS/MS equipped with a spin column, involving a rapid, simple pretreatment, has attracted attention. In this study, sample pretreatment using a Monospin C18 column was performed to screen 11 medicinal toxicants in blood samples by LC-MS/MS. METHODS: Serum samples supplemented with 11 medical toxicants-acetaminophen, salicylic acid, nitrazepam, diphenhydramine, bromvalerylurea, phenobarbital, amitriptyline, risperidone, fenitrothion, malathion and methomyl-were pretreated with the Monospin C18 column according to Pretreatment I and Pretreatment II, followed by LC-MS/MS analysis...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493060/synthetic-turf-fields-crumb-rubber-and-alleged-cancer-risk
#8
Archie Bleyer
Most synthetic turf fields have crumb rubber interspersed among the simulated grass fibers to reduce athletic injuries by allowing users to turn and slide more readily as they play sports or exercise on the fields. Recently, the crumbs have been implicated in causing cancer in adolescents and young adults who use the fields, particularly lymphoma and primarily in soccer goalkeepers. This concern has led to the initiation of large-scale studies by local and federal governments that are expected to take years to complete...
May 11, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485358/opium-consumption-a-potential-risk-factor-for-lung-cancer-and-pulmonary-tuberculosis
#9
A Safari, M Reazai, A Tangestaninejad, A R Mafi, Saj Mousavi
OBJECTIVE: Lung cancer is the most common malignancy, as well as the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Several studies have shown the causative effect of cigarettes smoking in lung cancer, however, the effect of opium consumption has not yet been well studied. This study has been designed to evaluate the risk of developing lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis in pure opium addicts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We designed an analytic case-control study with 490 participants...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481730/next-generation-sequencing-reveals-novel-mutations-in-x-linked-intellectual-disability
#10
Babylakshmi Muthusamy, Lakshmi Dhevi N Selvan, Thong T Nguyen, Jesna Manoj, Eric W Stawiski, Bijay S Jaiswal, Weiru Wang, Remya Raja, Vedam Laxmi Ramprasad, Ravi Gupta, Sakthivel Murugan, Jayarama S Kadandale, T S Keshava Prasad, Kavita Reddy, Andrew Peterson, Akhilesh Pandey, Somasekar Seshagiri, Satish Chandra Girimaji, Harsha Gowda
Robust diagnostics for many human genetic disorders are much needed in the pursuit of global personalized medicine. Next-generation sequencing now offers new promise for biomarker and diagnostic discovery, in developed as well as resource-limited countries. In this broader global health context, X-linked intellectual disability (XLID) is an inherited genetic disorder that is associated with a range of phenotypes impacting societies in both developed and developing countries. Although intellectual disability arises due to diverse causes, a substantial proportion is caused by genomic alterations...
May 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481398/evolutionary-trade-offs-in-kidney-injury-and-repair
#11
REVIEW
Yutian Lei, Hans-Joachim Anders
Evolutionary medicine has proven helpful to understand the origin of human disease, e.g. in identifying causal roles of recent environmental changes impacting on human physiology (environment-phenotype mismatch). In contrast, diseases affecting only a limited number of members of a species often originate from evolutionary trade-offs for usually physiologic adaptations assuring reproductive success in the context of extrinsic threats. For example, the G1 and G2 variants of the APOL1 gene supporting control of Trypanosoma infection come with the trade-off that they promote the progression of kidney disease...
May 8, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472444/factors-related-to-medical-students-and-doctors-attitudes-towards-older-patients-a-systematic-review
#12
Rajvinder Samra, Tom Cox, Adam Lee Gordon, Simon Paul Conroy, Mathijs F G Lucassen, Amanda Griffiths
Background: studies have sought to identify the possible determinants of medical students' and doctors' attitudes towards older patients by examining relationships with a variety of factors: demographic, educational/training, exposure to older people, personality/cognitive and job/career factors. This review collates and synthesises these findings. Methods: an electronic search of 10 databases was performed (ABI/Inform, ASSIA, British Nursing Index, CINAHL, Informa Health, Medline, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science) through to 7 February 2017...
May 2, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454485/cheminformatics-based-anticoagulant-study-of-traditionally-used-medicinal-plants
#13
Mahdi Alikhani Pour, Soroush Sardari, Ali Eslamifar, Abid Azhar, Mohammad Rezvani, Milad Nazari
Backgroung: Medicinal plants, as a complementary medicine, have been used to treat various diseases since ancient times. These plants have numerous beneficial applications and are the source of certain conventional drugs. In diseases such as stroke and ischemia, which are caused by several factors, abnormal coagulation is an important causative factor. Accordingly, novel and effective therapies such as herbal remedies should be practiced to prevent such lethal diseases. Methods: Using the available databases such as Google Scholar and PubMed, the previously reported anticoagulant compounds and plants possessing anticoagulant activity were identified and collected in two separate lists...
April 29, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453775/deconvoluting-kinase-inhibitor-induced-cardiotoxicity
#14
Sarah D Lamore, Ernst Ahlberg, Scott Boyer, Michelle L Lamb, Maria P Hortigon-Vinagre, Victor Rodriguez, Godfrey L Smith, Johanna Sagemark, Lars Carlsson, Stephanie M Bates, Allison L Choy, Jonna Stålring, Clay W Scott, Matthew F Peters
Many drugs designed to inhibit kinases have their clinical utility limited by cardiotoxicity-related label warnings or prescribing restrictions. While this liability is widely recognized, designing safer kinase inhibitors (KI) requires knowledge of the causative kinase(s). Efforts to unravel the kinases have encountered pharmacology with nearly prohibitive complexity. At therapeutically relevant concentrations, KIs show promiscuity distributed across the kinome. Here, to overcome this complexity, 65 KIs with known kinome-scale polypharmacology profiles were assessed for effects on cardiomyocyte beating...
April 26, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445563/outbreak-of-occupational-dermatitis-associated-with-pyemotes-ventricosus
#15
Martyna Tomczyk-Socha, Katarzyna Jedrzejewska-Jurga, Joanna Limburska, Jaroslaw Tomczyk
Importance: Although Pyemotes spp have been known to cause dermatitis, recent reports are rare. During the past 30 years, only 3 outbreaks of dermatitis caused by Pyemotes ventricosus have been reported. Objective: To analyze the causative agent of skin changes in employees of a company that produced herbal medicines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series includes 18 patients (8 men, 10 women; mean age, 44 years) who contracted unusual dermatitis after an occupational exposure in July and August of 2012 while working for a company that produced herbal medicines...
April 26, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432381/modulation-of-the-multidrug-efflux-pump-emrd-3-from-vibrio-cholerae-by-allium-sativum-extract-and-the-bioactive-agent-allyl-sulfide-plus-synergistic-enhancement-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-by-a-sativum-extract
#16
Merissa M Bruns, Prathusha Kakarla, Jared T Floyd, Mun Mun Mukherjee, Robert C Ponce, John A Garcia, Indrika Ranaweera, Leslie M Sanford, Alberto J Hernandez, T Mark Willmon, Grace L Tolson, Manuel F Varela
The causative agent of cholera, Vibrio cholerae, is a public health concern. Multidrug-resistant V. cholerae variants may reduce chemotherapeutic efficacies of severe cholera. We previously reported that the multidrug efflux pump EmrD-3 from V. cholerae confers resistance to multiple structurally distinct antimicrobials. Medicinal plant compounds are potential candidates for EmrD-3 efflux pump modulation. The antibacterial activities of garlic Allium sativum, although poorly understood, predicts that a main bioactive component, allyl sulfide, modulates EmrD-3 efflux...
April 21, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427561/molecular-targets-of-ascochlorin-and-its-derivatives-for-cancer-therapy
#17
Jason Chua Min-Wen, Benjamin Chua Yan-Jiang, Srishti Mishra, Xiaoyun Dai, Junji Magae, Ng Shyh-Chang, Alan Prem Kumar, Gautam Sethi
Cancer is an extremely complex disease comprising of a multitude of characteristic hallmarks that continue to evolve with time. At the genomic level, random mutations leading to deregulation of diverse oncogenic signal transduction cascades and polymorphisms coupled with environmental as well as life style-related factors are major causative agent contributing to chemoresistance and the failure of conventional therapies as well as molecular targeted agents. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify novel alternative therapies based on alternative medicines to combat this dreaded disease...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426414/amoebicidal-activity-of-%C3%AE-bisabolol-the-main-sesquiterpene-in-chamomile-matricaria-recutita-l-essential-oil-against-the-trophozoite-stage-of-acanthamoeba-castellani-neff
#18
Soumaya Hajaji, Ines Sifaoui, Atteneri López-Arencibia, María Reyes-Batlle, Basilio Valladares, José E Pinero, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales, Hafidh Akkari
Acanthamoeba genus includes opportunistic pathogens which are distributed worldwide and are causative agents of a fatal encephalitis and severe keratitis in humans and other animals. Until present there are not fully effective therapeutic agents against this pathogen and thus the need to search for novel anti-amoebic compounds is urgent. Recently, essential oils of aromatic and medicinal plants have shown activity against Acanthamoeba strains. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the activity of main component of chamomile essential oil (a sesquiterpene) namely α-bisabolol against the Acanthamoeba castellani Neff strain...
June 1, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424835/-future-of-emergency-medicine-in-germany-2-0
#19
REVIEW
A Gries, M Bernhard, M Helm, J Brokmann, J-T Gräsner
In 2003 an article on the future of prehospital emergency medicine in Germany was published in the journal Der Anaesthesist. Emergency medicine in Germany, which at that time was almost exclusively defined as prehospital emergency rescue, has evolved and now in-hospital domains have increasingly moved into the focus. At that time, the primary goal was to connect prehospital management with a smooth transition to hospital admission and further care in the hospital and to further optimize the rescue chain from the actual emergency through to causative treatment...
April 19, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416821/pathogenic-variants-that-alter-protein-code-often-disrupt-splicing
#20
Rachel Soemedi, Kamil J Cygan, Christy L Rhine, Jing Wang, Charlston Bulacan, John Yang, Pinar Bayrak-Toydemir, Jamie McDonald, William G Fairbrother
The lack of tools to identify causative variants from sequencing data greatly limits the promise of precision medicine. Previous studies suggest that one-third of disease-associated alleles alter splicing. We discovered that the alleles causing splicing defects cluster in disease-associated genes (for example, haploinsufficient genes). We analyzed 4,964 published disease-causing exonic mutations using a massively parallel splicing assay (MaPSy), which showed an 81% concordance rate with splicing in patient tissue...
June 2017: Nature Genetics
keyword
keyword
84724
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"